Publication statistics

Pub. period:1993-2011
Pub. count:25
Number of co-authors:32



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Guozhong Dai:5
Jibin Yin:4
Zhiwei Guan:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Xiangshi Ren's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

James A. Landay:91
Shumin Zhai:67
Ken Hinckley:54
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
90% booked. Starts in 5 days
go to course
Design Thinking: The Beginner's Guide
89% booked. Starts in 6 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
 
 

Xiangshi Ren

Personal Homepage:
info.kochi-tech.ac.jp/ren/

Add description
Rename / change spelling
Add publication
 

Publications by Xiangshi Ren (bibliography)

 what's this?
2011
 
Edit | Del

Xin, Yizhong, Bi, Xiaojun and Ren, Xiangshi (2011): Acquiring and pointing: an empirical study of pen-tilt-based interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 849-858.

Research literature has shown that pen tilt is a promising input modality in pen-based interaction. However, the human capability to control pen tilt has not been fully evaluated. This paper systematically investigates the human ability to perform discrete target selection tasks by varying the stylus' tilt angle through two controlled experiments: pen tilt target acquiring (Experiment 1) and tilt pointing (Experiment 2). Results revealed a decreasing power relationship between angular width and selection time in Experiment 1. The results of Experiment 2 confirmed that pen tilt pointing can be modeled by Fitts' law. Based on our quantitative analysis, we discuss the human ability to control pen tilt and the implications of pen tilt use. We also propose a taxonomy of pen tilt based interaction techniques and showcase a series of possible pen tilt technique designs.

© All rights reserved Xin et al. and/or their publisher

 
Edit | Del

Sun, Minghui, Cao, Xiang, Song, Hyunyoung, Izadi, Shahram, Benko, Hrvoje, Guimbretiere, Francois, Ren, Xiangshi and Hinckley, Ken (2011): Enhancing naturalness of pen-and-tablet drawing through context sensing. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2011. pp. 83-86.

Among artists and designers, the pen-and-tablet combination is widely used for creating digital drawings, as digital pens outperform other input devices in replicating the experience of physical drawing tools. In this paper, we explore how contextual information such as the relationship between the hand, the pen, and the tablet can be leveraged in the digital drawing experience to further enhance its naturalness. By embedding sensors in the pen and the tablet to sense and interpret these contexts, we demonstrate how several physical drawing practices can be reflected and assisted in digital interaction scenarios.

© All rights reserved Sun et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
Edit | Del

Zhang, Xinyong, Ren, Xiangshi and Zha, Hongbin (2010): Modeling dwell-based eye pointing target acquisition. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2083-2092.

We propose a quantitative model for dwell-based eye pointing tasks. Using the concepts of information theory to analogize eye pointing, we define an index of difficulty (ID{sub:eye}) for the corresponding tasks in a similar manner to the definition that Fitts made for hand pointing. According to our validations in different situations, ID{sub:eye}, which takes account of the distinct characteristics of rapid saccades and involuntary eye jitters, can accurately and meaningfully describe eye pointing tasks. To the best of our knowledge, this work is the first successful attempt to model eye gaze interactions.

© All rights reserved Zhang et al. and/or their publisher

 
Edit | Del

Zhou, Xiaolei and Ren, Xiangshi (2010): An investigation of subjective operational biases in steering tasks evaluation. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 29 (2) pp. 125-135.

The steering law is an excellent performance model for trajectory-based tasks, such as drawing and writing in GUIs. Current studies on steering tasks focus on the effect of system factors (i.e. path width and amplitude) on the movement time and steering law's related applications. We conducted a series of experiments to further explore the effect of different operational biases (bias speed or accuracy) on steering completion time and standard deviation for two steering trajectory shapes, i.e. a straight steering task and a circular steering task, and then establish a new model accommodating system and subjective factor in steering tasks. Empirical results showed that the new model is more predictive and robust than the traditional steering law.

© All rights reserved Zhou and Ren and/or Taylor and Francis

 
Edit | Del

Yin, Jibin, Ren, Xiangshi and Zhai, Shumin (2010): Pen pressure control in trajectory-based interaction. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 29 (2) pp. 137-148.

This study presents a series of three experiments that evaluate human capabilities and limitations in using pen-tip pressure as an additional channel of control information in carrying out trajectory tasks such as drawing, writing and gesturing on computer screen. The first experiment measured the natural range of force used in regular drawing and writing tasks. The second experiment tested human performance of maintaining pen-tip pressure at different levels with and without a visual display of the pen pressure. The third experiment, using the steering law paradigm, studied path steering performance as a function of the steering law index of difficulty, steering path type (linear and circular) and pressure precision tolerance interval. The main conclusions of our investigation are as follows. The natural range of pressure used in drawing and writing is concentrated in the 0.82 N (SI force unit Newton (N) is used in this article) to 3.16 N region. The resting force of the pen tip on the screen is between 0.78 N and 1.58 N. Pressure near or below the resting force is markedly more difficult to control. Visual feedback improves pressure-modulated trajectory tasks. Up to six layers of pressure can be controlled in steering tasks, but the error rate changed from 4.9% for one layer of pressure to 35% for six layers. The steering law holds for pressure steering tasks, which enables systematic prediction of successful steering time for a given path's length, width and pressure precision criterion. The steering time can also be modelled as a logarithmic function of pressure control precision ratio s. Taken together, the current work provides a systematic body of empirical knowledge as basis for future research and design of digital pen applications.

© All rights reserved Yin et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2009
 
Edit | Del

Wang, Feng and Ren, Xiangshi (2009): Empirical evaluation for finger input properties in multi-touch interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1063-1072.

Current multi-touch interaction techniques typically only use the x-y coordinates of the human finger's contact with the screen. However, when fingers contact a touch-sensitive surface, they usually approach at an angle and cover a relatively large 2D area instead of a precise single point. In this paper, a Frustrated Total Internal Reflection (FTIR) based multi-touch device is used to collect the finger imprint data. We designed a series of experiments to explore human finger input properties and identified several useful properties such as contact area, contact shape and contact orientation which can be exploited to improve the performance of multi-touch selecting and pointing tasks. Based on the experimental results, we discuss some implications for the design of human finger input interfaces and propose several design prototypes which incorporate these implications. A set of raw data and several concrete recommendations which are useful for the research community are also presented.

© All rights reserved Wang and Ren and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Wang, Feng, Cao, Xiang, Ren, Xiangshi and Irani, Pourang (2009): Detecting and leveraging finger orientation for interaction with direct-touch surfaces. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2009. pp. 23-32.

Current interactions on direct-touch interactive surfaces are often modeled based on properties of the input channel that are common in traditional graphical user interfaces (GUI) such as x-y coordinate information. Leveraging additional information available on the surfaces could potentially result in richer and novel interactions. In this paper we specifically explore the role of finger orientation. This property is typically ignored in touch-based interactions partly because of the ambiguity in determining it solely from the contact shape. We present a simple algorithm that unambiguously detects the directed finger orientation vector in real-time from contact information only, by considering the dynamics of the finger landing process. Results of an experimental evaluation show that our algorithm is stable and accurate. We then demonstrate how finger orientation can be leveraged to enable novel interactions and to infer higher-level information such as hand occlusion or user position. We present a set of orientation-aware interaction techniques and widgets for direct-touch surfaces.

© All rights reserved Wang et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
Edit | Del

Zhang, Xinyong, Ren, Xiangshi and Zha, Hongbin (2008): Improving eye cursor's stability for eye pointing tasks. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 525-534.

In order to improve the stability of eye cursor, we introduce three methods, force field (FF), speed reduction (SR), and warping to target center (TC) to modulate eye cursor trajectories by counteracting eye jitter, which is the main cause of destabilizing the eye cursor. We evaluate these methods using two controlled experiments. One is an attention task experiment, which indicates that both FF and SR significantly alleviate the instability of eye cursor, but TC is not as we anticipated. The other is a 2D pointing task experiment, which shows that FF and SR as well as the improved implementation of SR (iSR) indeed improve human performance in dominant dwell-based eye pointing tasks of eye-based interactions. The method iSR is especially effective to accelerate

© All rights reserved Zhang et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
Edit | Del

Yin, Jibin and Ren, Xiangshi (2007): ZWPS: A Hybrid Selection Technique for Small Target Acquisition in Pen-Based Interfaces. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 503-506.

 
Edit | Del

Yin, Jibin and Ren, Xiangshi (2007): Investigation to Line-Based Techniques for Multi-target Selection. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 507-510.

 
Edit | Del

Ren, Xiangshi, Yin, Jibin, Zhao, Shengdong and Li, Yang (2007): The Adaptive Hybrid Cursor: A Pressure-Based Target Selection Technique for Pen-Based User Interfaces. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 310-323.

2005
 
Edit | Del

Ren, Xiangshi (2005): . In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (1) pp. 157-158.

2004
 
Edit | Del

Zhai, Shumin, Kong, Jing and Ren, Xiangshi (2004): Speed-accuracy tradeoff in Fitts' law tasks -- on the equivalency of actual and nominal pointing precision. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 61 (6) pp. 823-856.

Pointing tasks in human-computer interaction obey certain speed-accuracy tradeoff rules. In general, the more accurate the task to be accomplished, the longer it takes and vice versa. Fitts' law models the speed-accuracy tradeoff effect in pointing as imposed by the task parameters, through Fitts' index of difficulty (I{sub:d}) based on the ratio of the nominal movement distance and the size of the target. Operating with different speed or accuracy biases, performers may utilize more or less area than the target specifies, introducing another subjective layer of speed-accuracy tradeoff relative to the task specification. A conventional approach to overcome the impact of the subjective layer of speed-accuracy tradeoff is to use the a posteriori "effective" pointing precision W{sub:e} in lieu of the nominal target width W. Such an approach has lacked a theoretical or empirical foundation. This study investigates the nature and the relationship of the two layers of speed-accuracy tradeoff by systematically controlling both I{sub:d} and the index of target utilization I{sub:u} in a set of four experiments. Their results show that the impacts of the two layers of speed-accuracy tradeoff are not fundamentally equivalent. The use of W{sub:e} could indeed compensate for the difference in target utilization, but not completely. More logical Fitts' law parameter estimates can be obtained by the W{sub:e} adjustment, although its use also lowers the correlation between pointing time and the index of difficulty. The study also shows the complex interaction effect between I{sub:d} and I{sub:u}, suggesting that a simple and complete model accommodating both layers of speed-accuracy tradeoff may not exist.

© All rights reserved Zhai et al. and/or Academic Press

2003
 
Edit | Del

Ren, Xiangshi, Tamura, Kinya, Kong, Jing and Zhai, Shumin (2003): Candidate Display Styles in Japanese Input. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 868.

 
Edit | Del

Li, Yang, Landay, James A., Guan, Zhiwei, Ren, Xiangshi and Dai, Guozhong (2003): Sketching informal presentations. In: Oviatt, Sharon L., Darrell, Trevor, Maybury, Mark T. and Wahlster, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2003 November 5-7, 2003, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 234-241.

 
Edit | Del

Li, Yang, Landay, James A., Guan, Zhiwei, Ren, Xiangshi and Dai, Guozhong (2003): Sketching informal presentations. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2003. pp. 234-241.

Informal presentations are a lightweight means for fast and convenient communication of ideas. People communicate their ideas to others on paper and whiteboards, which afford fluid sketching of graphs, words and other expressive symbols. Unlike existing authoring tools that are designed for formal presentations, we created SketchPoint to help presenters design informal presentations via freeform sketching. In SketchPoint, presenters can quickly author presentations by sketching slide content, overall hierarchical structures and hyperlinks. To facilitate the transition from idea capture to communication, a note-taking workspace was built for accumulating ideas and sketching presentation outlines. Informal feedback showed that SketchPoint is a promising tool for idea communication.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or their publisher

2002
 
Edit | Del

Mizobuchi, Sachi, Mori, Koichi, Ren, Xiangshi and Yasumura, Michiaki (2002): An Empirical Study of the Minimum Required Size and the Minimum Number of Targets for Pen Input on the Small Display. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) Mobile Human-Computer Interaction - 4th International Symposium - Mobile HCI 2002 September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 184-194.

2000
 
Edit | Del

Ren, Xiangshi and Moriya, Shinju (2000): Improving Selection Performance on Pen-Based Systems: A Study of Pen-Based Interaction for Selection Tasks. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (3) pp. 384-416.

Two experiments were conducted to compare pen-based selection strategies and their characteristics. Two state transition models were also formulated which provide new vocabulary that will help in investigating interactions related to target selection issues. Six strategies, which can be described by the state transition models, were used in the experiments. We determined the best strategy of the six to be the "Slide Touch" strategy, where the target is selected at the moment the pen-tip touches the target for the first time after landing on the screen surface. The six strategies were also classified into strategy groups according to their characteristics. We determined the best strategy group to be the "In-Out' strategy group, where the target is selected by contact either inside or outside the target. Analyses show that differences between strategies are influenced by variations in target size; however, the differences between strategies are not affected by the distance to the target (i.e., pen-movement-distance) or the direction of pen movement (i.e., pen-movement-direction). We also found "the smallest maximum size" of five pixels, i.e., the boundary value for the target size below which there are significant differences, and above which there are no significant differences between the strategies in error rate. Relationships between interaction states, routes, and strategy efficiency were also investigated.

© All rights reserved Ren and Moriya and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Ren, Xiangshi, Zhang, Gao and Dai, Guozhong (2000): An Experimental Study of Input Modes for Multimodal Human-Computer Interaction. In: Tan, Tieniu, Shi, Yuanchun and Gao, Wen (eds.) Advances in Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2000 - Third International Conference October 14-16, 2000, Beijing, China. pp. 49-56.

1999
 
Edit | Del

Ren, Xiangshi and Moriya, Shinji (1999): Efficient Strategies for Selecting Small Targets on Pen-based Systems: An Evaluation Experiment for Selection Strategies and Strategy Classifications. In: Chatty, Stephane and Dewan, Prasun (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, IFIP TC2/TC13 WG2.7/WG13.4 Seventh Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction September 14-18, 1999, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. pp. 19-37.

 
Edit | Del

Zhang, Gao, Ren, Xiangshi and Dai, Guozhong (1999): A Comparison of Multi-modal Combination Modes for The Map System. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jrg (ed.) HCI International 1999 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 22-26, 1999, Munich, Germany. pp. 750-754.

 
Edit | Del

Chen, Safang, Machi, Yoshio, Ren, Xiangshi and Kim, HunSoo (1999): The Physiological Measurement of User Comfort Levels: An Evaluation Experiment for Comparing Three Types of CRTs. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jrg (ed.) HCI International 1999 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 22-26, 1999, Munich, Germany. pp. 193-196.

1998
 
Edit | Del

Ren, Xiangshi and Moriya, Shinji (1998): The Influence of Target Size, Distance and Direction on the Design of Selection Strategies. In: Johnson, Hilary, Nigay, Laurence and Roast, C. R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Thirteenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XIII August 1-4, 1998, Sheffield, UK. pp. 67-82.

The influence of various parameters on the design of selection strategies was investigated. Our question is, do changes in the size, distance or direction to a target affect the differences in performance between selection strategies? We performed an experiment on a pen-based system to evaluate the effect of size, distance and direction on six strategies for selecting a target. Three target sizes, three pen-movement-distances, and eight pen-movement-directions were applied to all six strategies. The results show that the differences between selection strategies are affected by target size (when target size decreases below a certain size, differences between selection strategies appear; conversely, differences between selection strategies disappear when target sizes are increased beyond a certain size). The results also show that the differences between selection strategies are not affected by pen-movement-distance and pen-movement-direction. Issues relating to the merits of individual strategies will be the focus of planned future investigations.

© All rights reserved Ren and Moriya and/or Springer Verlag

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
Edit | Del

Zhang, Gao, Guan, Zhiwei, Dai, Guozhong and Ren, Xiangshi (1998): A Comparison of Four Interaction Modes for CAD Systems. In: Third Asian Pacific Computer and Human Interaction July 15-17, 1998, Kangawa, Japan. pp. 82-88.

1993
 
Edit | Del

Ren, Xiangshi and Moriya, Shinji (1993): The Minimal Sizes and the Quasi-Optimal Sizes for the Input Square During Pen-Input of Characters. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 1028-1033.

In this paper, the authors focus on the precise and minute operation of the tip of the pen of pen-based computers. As the first step, we focus our attention on minute operations that users make when writing characters. In doing so, we attempt to experimentally determine the followings: (i) what is the smallest possible size of the characters or symbols when they are written on the input screen of writing-tablet? (ii) the quasi-optimal sizes of the input square for characters. In this paper, we determine the above two by targeting three kinds of characters: (a) numbers, (b) small English letters, (c) capital English letters. From our experiments, we were able to determine the minimal sizes (i.e., the width and height) of the small English letters, capital English letters and numbers. We also obtained the preliminary approximation of the quasi-optimal sizes (i.e., the width and height) of the square enclosing the above three kinds of characters.

© All rights reserved Ren and Moriya and/or Elsevier Science

 
Add publication
Show list on your website
 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
Join our community!
 
 
 

Changes to this page (author)

04 Apr 2012: Modified
05 Jul 2011: Modified
20 Apr 2011: Modified
15 Jan 2011: Modified
15 Jan 2011: Modified
03 Nov 2010: Modified
02 Nov 2010: Modified
25 Jul 2009: Modified
25 Jul 2009: Modified
25 Jul 2009: Modified
05 Jun 2009: Modified
04 Jun 2009: Modified
03 Jun 2009: Modified
30 May 2009: Modified
30 May 2009: Modified
30 May 2009: Modified
29 May 2009: Modified
09 May 2009: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
26 Jul 2007: Modified
24 Jul 2007: Modified
29 Jun 2007: Modified
27 Jun 2007: Modified
28 Apr 2003: Added

Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/xiangshi_ren.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1993-2011
Pub. count:25
Number of co-authors:32



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Guozhong Dai:5
Jibin Yin:4
Zhiwei Guan:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Xiangshi Ren's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

James A. Landay:91
Shumin Zhai:67
Ken Hinckley:54
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
90% booked. Starts in 5 days
go to course
Design Thinking: The Beginner's Guide
89% booked. Starts in 6 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading