Number of co-authors:7
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Becky Hill:3Andy Whitefield:3John Long:3
Walter Smith's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:John Long:41Andy Whitefield:14Kim Kirsner:6
Knowledge is commonly socially constructed, through collaborative efforts towards shared objectives or by dialogues and challenges brought about by different persons' perspectives.
-- G. Salomon (in "Distributed Cognitions: Psychological and Educational Considerations")
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Publications by Walter Smith (bibliography)
Burns, William and Smith, Walter (1998): OpenTag: XML in the Localization Industry. In: ACM 16th International Conference on Systems Documentation 1998. pp. 137-142.
Much of the electronic publication community is buzzing with discussion about Extensible Markup Language (XML). For those initiates of Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML), XML holds much promise. Others who have developed web-sites and web-based documentation in Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) may not fully understand just how XML will impact how they develop content for the World Wide Web. However, the promise of XML goes far beyond content development for web pages and could make many of the goals for SGML attainable. XML is a subset of SGML designed specifically to support generalized markup on the World Wide Web. It provides much of the flexibility of SGML (since it is valid SGML) without the burden that some of the more complex features of SGML could add. Like SGML, XML aims to identify the structure of its content rather than to provide formatting instructions to an application, as presentational markups do. A presentational markup defines how a group of words used as a heading looks, while XML (and SGML) describe the relationship of that group of words called a heading to other parts of a document, such as a body paragraph, list item, or citation. Where a presentational markup indicates to an application how a heading should look, XML tells an XML-intelligent application what can and cannot precede or follow a heading, if a valid instance, or at least can enforce correct nesting in the markup, if well-formed (Light, 1997). Unlike HTML, XML is not a static tag set; it is a metalanguage for describing the syntax and semantics of tag sets. As such, it can be used to create different tag sets for specific purposes, including markup for data interchange. This latter capability is what makes XML of value to creators of localization tools. Two specifications are currently in development in the localization industry: OpenTag and TMX. Each specification is XML-compliant, but each performs unique functions that are useful for data manipulation and interchange.
© All rights reserved Burns and Smith and/or ACM Press
Smith, Walter, Hill, Becky, Long, John and Whitefield, Andy (1997): A Design-Oriented Framework for Modelling the Planning and Control of Multiple Task Work in Secretarial Office Administration. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 16 (3) pp. 161-183.
Design-oriented frameworks are a type of Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) discipline knowledge. They are intended to support iterative 'specify-and-implement' design practice, by assisting designers to create models of specific design problems, within a class of design problem. This paper presents a design-oriented framework for a class of HCI design problem, expressed as a the planning and control of multiple task work in secretarial office administration. The planning and control of multiple task work refers generally to how interactive human-computer worksystems specify and select behaviours for performing multiple concurrent tasks. Secretarial office administration is a sub-class of design problem, in which the work supports communications of the organization commissioning the new worksystem. The framework is based on a conception proposed to support an engineering discipline of HCI. The framework conceptualizes the relationship between an interactive worksystem, its domain of work and the effectiveness, or performance, with which work is carried out. The framework was developed from cognitive science and HCI theory and an empirical case-study of an existing secretarial worksystem. The framework expresses the domain of secretarial work as the state transformation of hierarchies of abstract and physical objects, representing communications carried out by the organization. The description of the secretarial work-system expresses the relationship between abstract processes of planning, controlling, perceiving and executing, and abstract representations of plans and knowledge-of-tasks. Planning heuristics and control rules reflect general properties of the dynamic work domain, such as external interruptions and temporary opportunities. The framework also expresses the relationship between these planning and control structures and performance. In its current form, the framework is incomplete, but illustrates an approach to the development of design-oriented knowledge. Using this type of knowledge, a designer may reason about potential solutions to HCI design problems concerning planning and control behaviours for carrying out multiple task work for secretarial office administration.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Smith, Walter, Dunn, John, Kirsner, Kim and Randell, Mark (1995): Colour in Map Displays: Issues for Task-Specific Display Design. In Interacting with Computers, 7 (2) pp. 151-165.
Colour is generally regarded as a desirable property of computer displays chiefly because it supports users' preattentive visual processes, such as texture segregation, which rapidly organize and structure screen information. This paper examines the use of colour in computerized map displays of the sort used by geographic information systems. In particular, it focuses on the perception of patterns formed by subclasses of map symbols, defined by colour or shape. Three experiments are reported which confirm the utility of colour, but which also identify two potential problems: interference of task-irrelevant colour and superficial processing of spatial configurations of colour-defined symbols. These findings support a general argument that colour should not be preferred automatically, but rather its utility depends on the cognitive demands of the task for which the display is designed.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Smith, Walter, Dunn, John, Kirsner, Kim and Randell, Mark (1994): Colour in Map Displays: Issues for Task-Specific Display Design. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1994. pp. 61-66.
Colour is generally regarded as a desirable property of computer displays chiefly because it supports users' preattentive visual processes, e.g. texture segregation, which rapidly organize and structure screen information. This paper examines the use of colour in computerised map displays of the sort used by Geographic Information Systems. Three experiments are reported which confirm the utility of colour, but which also identify two potential problems: interference of task-irrelevant colour and superficial processing of colour symbol configurations. These findings support a general argument that colour should not be used automatically, but rather its use should be fitted to the task for which the display is designed.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia
Hill, Becky, Long, John, Smith, Walter and Whitefield, Andy (1993): Planning for Multiple Task Work -- An Analysis of a Medical Reception Worksystem. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 314-320.
This paper presents an investigation of interactive worksystem planning in the multiple task work domain of medical reception. In an observational study of a medical reception worksystem, three different types of plan were identified: the task plan, the procedure plan and the activity plan. These three types of plan were required for effective working in the domain of medical reception, because of the many similar concurrent tasks, the frequency of behaviour switching between tasks and the need for consistency within the worksystem. It is proposed, therefore, that to design effective interactive human-computer worksystems for the domain of medical reception (and possibly for other work domains of a similar nature), the designer must specify the three different types of plan and the relationships between them. The three types of plan in medical reception are discussed in the context of design issues such as the allocation of planning structures.
© All rights reserved Hill et al. and/or ACM Press
Smith, Walter, Hill, Becky, Long, John and Whitefield, Andy (1992): Modelling the Relationship Between Planning, Control, Perception and Execution Behaviours in Interactive Worksystems. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 57-72.
This paper presents a model of planning carried out by interactive worksystems which attempts: 1. To describe the relationship between planning, control, perception and execution behaviours; and 2. To make explicit how these may be distributed across the user and physically separate devices. Such a model, it is argued, is more suitable to support HCI design practice than theories of planning in cognitive science which focus on problem-solving methods and representations. To demonstrate the application of the model to work situations, it is illustrated by examples drawn from an observational study of secretarial office administration.
© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
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