Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2012
Pub. count:106
Number of co-authors:173



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Steve Benford:22
Andy Crabtree:20
Mark Rouncefield:13

 

 

Productive colleagues

Tom Rodden's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Nadia Magnenat-Tha..:146
Steve Benford:121
Alan Dix:117
 
 
 
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Tom Rodden

Picture of Tom Rodden.
Has also published under the name of:
"T. Rodden"

Personal Homepage:
nottingham.ac.uk/computerscience/People/tom.rodden


I am Professor of Computing in the School of Computer Science and IT at The University of Nottingham where I am a member of the Mixed Reality Laboratory. I am also director of the Equator project.

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Publications by Tom Rodden (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Benford, Steve, Tolmie, Peter, Ahmed, Ahmed Y., Crabtree, Andy and Rodden, Tom (2012): Supporting traditional music-making: designing for situated discretion. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 127-136.

An ethnographic study of Irish music sessions in pubs elaborates the collaborative work involved in making traditional music. Central to this distinctive achievement is the sequencing of tunes so that they hang together and combine to form discrete "sets", which rely on a shared knowledge of musical repertoires. Our study shows how musicians develop this musical knowledge through the use of digital resources and social networks. It also reveals how musicians construct and make use of various paper props to help bring their knowledge to bear in the actual in vivo course of a session so as to maintain the moral order of making music together in a demonstrably traditional way. The social demands of musical "etiquette" sensitise CSCW to the need to design technologies to support the "situated discretion" that is essential to traditional practices. We elaborate this notion through a discussion of requirements for technologies that bridge between online resources and the collaborative sequencing of tunes during performance.

© All rights reserved Benford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Quigley, Aaron, Dix, Alan, Nacenta, Miguel and Rodden, Tom (2012): Workshop on Infrastructure and Design Challenges of Coupled Display Visual Interfaces: in conjunction with Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012 (AVI'12). In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 815-817.

An increasing number of interactive displays of very different sizes, portability, projectability and form factors are starting to become part of the display ecosystems that we make use of in our daily lives. Displays are shaped by human activity into an ecological arrangement and thus an ecology. Each combination or ecology of displays offer substantial promise for the creation of applications that effectively take advantage of the wide range of input, affordances, and output capability of these multi-display, multi-device and multi-user environments. Although the last few years have seen an increasing amount of research in this area, knowledge about this subject remains under explored, fragmented, and cuts across a set of related but heterogeneous issues. This workshop brings together researchers and practitioners interested in the challenges posed by infrastructure and design.

© All rights reserved Quigley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Crabtree, Andy, Mortier, Richard, Rodden, Tom and Tolmie, Peter (2012): Unremarkable networking: the home network as a part of everyday life. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 554-563.

This paper extends the focus of current research into home networks. It represents a shift in perspective from the home network as something that is essentially understood as a technological object by the inhabitants of the home, to something that is understood by household members as a sociological object wrapped up in the organisation of their everyday lives. This shift in perspective is significant. It moves the focus of design from developing home network technologies that better support users' management of the home network and the devices that hang off it, to developing home network technologies that support household members' management of everyday life and the social activities that compose it. Through a range of ongoing ethnographic studies we elaborate this turn to the social, and a number of sensitising concerns informing the continued development of home network technologies.

© All rights reserved Crabtree et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chamberlain, Alan, Crabtree, Andy, Rodden, Tom, Jones, Matt and Rogers, Yvonne (2012): Research in the wild: understanding 'in the wild' approaches to design and development. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 795-796.

We are starting to see a paradigm shift within the field of HCI. We are witnessing researchers leaving the safety and security of their controlled, lab-based environments and moving their research out into 'the wild'. Their studies are carrying out in-situ development and extended engagement, sampling experiences and working with communities in their homes and on the streets. This research has initially focused upon understanding the impacts that technological intervention has upon our day-to-day life and is leading us to explore the ways in which in-situ design, development and evaluation can be used to understand and explore these technological interventions. Is it the case that lab-based studies, taking people out of their natural environment and designing in the lab without long term user engagement are no longer appropriate to properly understand the impacts of technology in the real world?

© All rights reserved Chamberlain et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rodden, Tom and Sheth, Anmol (2012): HomeSys: systems and infrastructure for the digital home. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 1085-1089.

We present a workshop proposal focusing on future digital home infrastructures and systems needed to support ubiquitous computing applications and services. The workshop aims to be the premiere venue that brings together researchers and practitioners across the disciplines of Systems and Networking, Ubiquitous Computing and HCI to elaborate ways in which the current infrastructure in the digital home can be reshaped to meet the needs of users.

© All rights reserved Rodden and Sheth and/or ACM Press

 
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Mortier, Richard, Rodden, Tom, Tolmie, Peter, Lodge, Tom, Spencer, Robert, Crabtree, Andy, Sventek, Joe and Koliousis, Alexandros (2012): Homework: putting interaction into the infrastructure. In: Proceedings of the 2012 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2012. pp. 197-206.

This paper presents a user driven redesign of the domestic network infrastructure that draws upon a series of ethnographic studies of home networks. We present an infrastructure based around a purpose built access point that has modified the handling of protocols and services to reflect the interactive needs of the home. The developed infrastructure offers a novel measurement framework that allows a broad range of infrastructure information to be easily captured and made available to interactive applications. This is complemented by a diverse set of novel interactive control mechanisms and interfaces for the underlying infrastructure. We also briefly reflect on the technical and user issues arising from deployments.

© All rights reserved Mortier et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Balaam, Madeline, Egglestone, Stefan Rennick, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Rodden, Tom, Hughes, Ann-Marie, Wilkinson, Anna, Nind, Thomas, Axelrod, Lesley, Harris, Eric, Ricketts, Ian, Mawson, Susan and Burridge, Jane (2011): Motivating mobility: designing for lived motivation in stroke rehabilitation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3073-3082.

How to motivate and support behaviour change through design is becoming of increasing interest to the CHI community. In this paper, we present our experiences of building systems that motivate people to engage in upper limb rehabilitation exercise after stroke. We report on participatory design work with four stroke survivors to develop a holistic understanding of their motivation and rehabilitation needs, and to construct and deploy engaging interactive systems that satisfy these. We reflect on the limits of motivational theories in trying to design for the lived experience of motivation and highlight lessons learnt around: helping people articulate what motivates them; balancing work, duty, fun; supporting motivation over time; and understanding the wider social context. From these we identify design guidelines that can inform a toolkit approach to support both scalability and personalisability.

© All rights reserved Balaam et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Benford, Steve, Giannachi, Gabriella, Koleva, Boriana and Rodden, Tom (2009): From interaction to trajectories: designing coherent journeys through user experiences. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 709-718.

The idea of interactional trajectories through interfaces has emerged as a sensitizing concept from recent studies of tangible interfaces and interaction in museums and galleries. We put this concept to work as a lens to reflect on published studies of complex user experiences that extend over space and time and involve multiple roles and interfaces. We develop a conceptual framework in which trajectories explain these user experiences as journeys through hybrid structures, punctuated by transitions, and in which interactivity and collaboration are orchestrated. Our framework is intended to sensitize future studies, help distill craft knowledge into design guidelines and patterns, identify technology requirements, and provide a boundary object to connect HCI with Performance Studies.

© All rights reserved Benford et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Crabtree, Andrew, Rodden, Tom, Tolmie, Peter and Button, Graham (2009): Ethnography considered harmful. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 879-888.

We review the current status of ethnography in systems design. We focus particularly on new approaches to and understandings of ethnography that have emerged as the computer has moved out of the workplace. These seek to implement a different order of ethnographic study to that which has largely been employed in design to date. In doing so they reconfigure the relationship ethnography has to systems design, replacing detailed empirical studies of situated action with studies that provide cultural interpretations of action and critiques of the design process itself. We hold these new approaches to and understandings of ethnography in design up to scrutiny, with the purpose of enabling designers to appreciate the differences between new and existing approaches to ethnography in systems design and the practical implications this might have for design.

© All rights reserved Crabtree et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Bedwell, Ben, Schndelbach, Holger, Benford, Steve, Rodden, Tom and Koleva, Boriana (2009): In support of city exploration. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1171-1180.

The novel experience Anywhere allowed participants to explore an urban area, tying together information not normally available, new points of views and interaction embedded into physical places. Guided by 'unseen', on-the-street performers in an ongoing conversation maintained over mobile phones, they gained access to locative media and staged performances. Our analysis demonstrates how Anywhere produced engaging and uniquely personalised paths through a complex landscape of content, negotiated by the performer-participant pair around various conflicting constraints. We reflect our analysis through the lens of the key characteristics exhibited by mechanisms that support city exploration, before focussing on possible extensions to the technological support of teams of professional and amateur guides.

© All rights reserved Bedwell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Koleva, Boriana, Egglestone, Stefan Rennick, Schndelbach, Holger, Glover, Kevin, Greenhalgh, Chris, Rodden, Tom and Dade-Robertson, Martyn (2009): Supporting the creation of hybrid museum experiences. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1973-1982.

This paper presents the evolution of a tool to support the rapid prototyping of hybrid museum experiences by domain professionals. The developed tool uses visual markers to associate digital resources with physical artefacts. We present the iterative development of the tool through a user centred design process and demonstrate its use by domain experts to realise two distinct hybrid exhibits. The process of design and refinement of the tool highlights the need to adopt an experience oriented approach allowing authors to think in terms of the physical and digital "things" that comprise a hybrid experience rather than in terms of the underlying technical components.

© All rights reserved Koleva et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Egglestone, Stefan Rennick, Boucher, Andy, Rodden, Tom, Law, Andy, Humble, Jan and Greenhalgh, Chris (2009): Supporting the design of network-spanning applications. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2987-3002.

In this case study, we describe our use of ECT, a tool intended to simplify the design and development of network-spanning applications. We have used ECT throughout the course of a two-year collaboration, which has involved individuals with expertise in a variety of fields, including interaction design and computer systems engineering. We describe our experiences with this tool, with a particular focus on its emerging role in helping us to structure our collaboration. We conclude by presenting lessons that we have learned, and by suggesting future directions for the development of tools to support the design of network-spanning applications.

© All rights reserved Egglestone et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sellen, Abigail, Rogers, Yvonne, Harper, Richard and Rodden, Tom (2009): Reflecting human values in the digital age. In Communications of the ACM, 52 (3) pp. 58-66.

 
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Grinter, Rebecca E., Edwards, W. Keith, Chetty, Marshini, Poole, Erika S., Sung, Ja-Young, Yang, Jeonghwa, Crabtree, Andy, Tolmie, Peter, Rodden, Tom, Greenhalgh, Chris and Benford, Steve (2009): The ins and outs of home networking: The case for useful and usable domestic networking. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 16 (2) p. 8.

Householders are increasingly adopting home networking as a solution to the demands created by the presence of multiple computers, devices, and the desire to access the Internet. However, current network solutions are derived from the world of work (and initially the military) and provide poor support for the needs of the home. We present the key findings to emerge from empirical studies of home networks in the UK and US. The studies reveal two key kinds of work that effective home networking relies upon: one, the technical work of setting up and maintaining the home network, and the other, the collaborative and socially organized work of the home which the network is embedded in and supports. The two are thoroughly intertwined and rely upon one another for their realization, yet neither is adequately supported by current networking technologies and applications. Explication of the "work to make the home network work" opens up the design space for the continued integration of the home network in domestic life and elaboration of future support. Key issues for development include the development of networking facilities that do not require advanced networking knowledge, that are flexible and support the local social order of the home and the evolution of its routines, and which ultimately make the home network visible and accountable to household members.

© All rights reserved Grinter et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Tolmie, Peter, Crabtree, Andy, Rodden, Tom and Benford, Steve (2008): "Are you watching this film or what?": interruption and the juggling of cohorts. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 257-266.

A proliferation of mobile devices in everyday life has increased the likelihood of technologically mediated interruptions. We examine ethnographic data from an SMS-based pervasive game in order to explicate the situated character of interruption. Ethnomethodological analysis of gameplay in the context of participants' everyday lives shows that interruption handling is shaped by its accountability to the various people or 'cohorts' whose concerns participants need to juggle simultaneously. Findings inform existing approaches to design where certain presuppositions regarding the nature of interruption prevail. Accordingly, we propose an approach to interruption handling that respects the ways in which people orient to and reason about interruptions locally in the conduct of situated action.

© All rights reserved Tolmie et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Crabtree, Andy and Rodden, Tom (2008): Hybrid ecologies: understanding cooperative interaction in emerging physical-digital environments. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 12 (7) pp. 481-493.

 
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Indulska, Jadwiga, Patterson, Donald J., Rodden, Tom and Ott, Max (eds.) Pervasive 2008 - Pervasive Computing, 6th International Conference May 19-22, 2008, Sydney, Australia.

 
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Harper, Richard, Rodden, Tom, Rogers, Yvonne and Sellen, Abigail (2008): Being Human: Human Computer Interaction in 2020. Microsoft Research Ltd

 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
2007
 
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Kirk, David, Rodden, Tom and Fraser, Danae Stanton (2007): Turn it THIS way: grounding collaborative action with remote gestures. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1039-1048.

Remote gesture systems have been shown to provide a significant enhancement to performance in collaborative physical tasks, an effect ascribed to the ability of remote gestures to help ground deictic references. The argument that this effect works by replacing complex referential descriptions with simple pointing behaviours has been drawn into question by recent research. In this paper we significantly unpack the effects of remote gesturing on collaborative language, arguing for a more complex role for remote gestures in interaction. We demonstrate how remote gestures influence the structure of collaborative discourse, and how their use can also influence the temporal nature of the grounding process. Through generating a deeper understanding of these effects of remote gesturing on collaborative language we derive implications for the development and deployment of these technologies.

© All rights reserved Kirk et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Walker, Brendan, Schndelbach, Holger, Egglestone, Stefan Rennick, Clark, Angus, Orbach, Tuvi, Wright, Michael, Ng, Kher Hui, French, Andrew, Rodden, Tom and Benford, Steve (2007): Augmenting amusement rides with telemetry. In: Inakage, Masa, Lee, Newton, Tscheligi, Manfred, Bernhaupt, Regina and Natkin, Stphane (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2007 June 13-15, 2007, Salzburg, Austria. pp. 115-122.

 
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Tolmie, Peter, Crabtree, Andy, Rodden, Tom, Greenhalgh, Chris and Benford, Steve (2007): Making the Home Network at Home: Digital Housekeeping. In: Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2007. pp. 331-350.

This paper exploits ethnographic findings to build on and elaborate Grinter et al's 2005 study of "the work to make the home network work". We focus particularly on the work involved in setting up and maintaining home networks, which we characterize as 'digital housekeeping'. Our studies reveal that it is through digital housekeeping that the home network is 'made at home' or made into an unremarkable and routine feature of domestic life. The orderly ways in which digital housekeeping 'gets done' elaborate a distinct 'social machinery' that highlights some important implications for the continued development of network technologies for the home. These include a requirement that designers take existing infrastructure into account and pay considerable attention to how future technologies may be incorporated into existing routines. The preoccupation of household members with making the home network transparent and accountable so that it is available to practical reasoning suggests designers should also consider the development of dedicated management interfaces to support digital housekeeping.

© All rights reserved Tolmie et al. and/or Springer

 
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Fraser, Katie, Rodden, Tom and O'Malley, Claire (2007): Trust, Privacy and Relationships in 'Pervasive Education': Families' Views on Homework and Technologies. In: LaMarca, Anthony, Langheinrich, Marc and Truong, Khai N. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2007 - Pervasive Computing 5th International Conference May 13-16, 2007, Toronto, Canada. pp. 180-197.

2006
 
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Schnadelbach, Holger, Penn, Alan, Steadman, Phil, Benford, Steve, Koleva, Boriana and Rodden, Tom (2006): Moving office: inhabiting a dynamic building. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 313-322.

Mixed Reality Architecture (MRA) supports distributed teams in their everyday work activities by linking multiple physical spaces across a shared three-dimensional virtual world. User configurable audio-visual connections give the inhabitants of MRA full control over whom they want to be in contact with and when they make themselves available, as well as over the overall configuration. We report on the design of MRA, its deployment in an office environment and results from a long-term observational study. The study shows that MRA supports the management of awareness, social interaction and privacy well, that the architectural design features are crucial for this process and that the dynamic architectural topology of MRA and social interaction within it are linked in a fundamental way.

© All rights reserved Schnadelbach et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fraser, Katie, Rodden, Tom and O'Malley, Claire (2006): Home-school technologies: considering the family. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC06: Interaction Design and Children 2006. pp. 153-156.

Research has focused on building technologies to support children in their transitions between home and school [9] without a developed sense of how individual families react to such technologies. We interviewed three different families about their reactions to ubiquitous computing technologies designed to support home-school transitions. We found that families were willing to use such technologies to share information among themselves, but that mechanisms for filtering this information would be a challenge for designers. Further, families were reluctant to share information with outsiders, such as teachers. We will discuss the implications of these findings for both future technologies, and further research into their design.

© All rights reserved Fraser et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grinter, Rebecca E., Rodden, Tom, Aoki, Paul, Cutrell, Ed, Jeffries, Robin and Olson, Gary (eds.) Proceedings of the 2006 SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in computing systems April 22-27, 2006, Montral, Canada.

2005
 
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Crabtree, Andy, Rodden, Tom and Benford, Steve (2005): Moving with the Times: IT Research and the Boundaries of CSCW. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 14 (3) pp. 217-251.

The field of CSCW research emerged with the development of distributed computing systems and attempts to understand the socially organized ('collaborative' or 'cooperative') nature of work in order to embed such systems in the workplace. As a field of interdisciplinary inquiry CSCW was motivated by technological developments and the need to understand the particular contexts within which those developments were intended to resonate. In other words, it is no mere accident that CSCW took work as its topic and resource - the historical nature of IT research from which the field emerged meant that for all practical purposes it could not be otherwise. Yet times change. IT research moves on. Today mobile, ambient, pervasive, ubiquitous, mixed reality and wearable computing, et cetera, are of fundamental concern to the contemporary computing research community. Furthermore, these developments are accompanied by a movement away from the workplace to focus on diverse settings in everyday life: homes, games, museums, photography, tourism, performances, indeed diverse bodies of people and pursuits that generally fall under the conceptual rubric of the 'ludic'. Accompanying this shift away from work is a call for new approaches and concepts that will enable researchers to better understand the ludic and inform design appropriately. In this paper we seek to address the boundaries of CSCW and the ability of CSCW to respond to contemporary research agendas. We present an ethnomethodological study of a location-based mixed reality game to demonstrate the continued relevance of CSCW approaches and concepts to contemporary agendas in IT research.

© All rights reserved Crabtree et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Izadi, Shahram, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Rodden, Tom, Brignull, Harry, Rogers, Yvonne and Lindley, Sian (2005): The iterative design and study of a large display for shared and sociable spaces. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences DUX05 2005. p. 59.

We explore the design opportunities presented by situating large interactive displays outside of the workplace, within shared and sociable spaces such as common areas at universities and conferences, cafes, and hotel foyers. We seek to provide a better understanding of this design space by charting the iterative design of an interactive large display system called Dynamo. Dynamo has been designed to enable the sharing and exchange of a wide variety of digital media. We report on how the interaction metaphors were designed and refined upon in-lab and in-situ studies. We also study how an existing community uses this technology within their own established setting. Qualitative and quantitative analysis shows that the system was used extensively in a variety of ways, including sharing of photos, video clips, and websites, and for facilitating social interaction and collaboration. We conclude with recommendations for designing large display systems for shared and social spaces.

© All rights reserved Izadi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Ormerod, Thomas C., Mariani, John A., Morley, N. J., Rodden, Tom, Crabtree, Andy, Mathrick, J., Hitch, G. and Lewis, K. (2005): Mixing Research Methods in HCI: Ethnography Meets Experimentation in Image Browser Design. In: Bastide, Remi, Palanque, Philippe A. and Roth, Jrg (eds.) Engineering Human Computer Interaction and Interactive Systems, Joint Working Conferences EHCI-DSVIS 2004 July 11-13, 2005, Hamburg, Germany. pp. 112-128.

2004
 
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Crabtree, Andy, Benford, Steve, Rodden, Tom, Greenhalgh, Chris, Flintham, Martin, Anastasi, Rob, Drozd, Adam, Adams, Matt, Row-Farr, Ju, Tandavanitj, Nick and Steed, Anthony (2004): Orchestrating a mixed reality game 'on the ground'. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 391-398.

Successfully staging a mixed reality game in which online players are chased through a virtual city by runners located in the real world requires extensive orchestration work. An ethnographic study shows how this concerted achievement extends beyond the control room to the runners on the street. This, in turn, suggests the need to 'decentralize' orchestration and develop support for collaboration 'on the ground'. The study leads to design proposals for orchestration interfaces for mobile experiences that augment situational awareness and surreptitious monitoring among mobile participants and support troubleshooting in situations where participants are disconnected or are unable to access positioning systems such as GPS.

© All rights reserved Crabtree et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Brignull, Harry, Izadi, Shahram, Fitzpatrick, Geraldine, Rogers, Yvonne and Rodden, Tom (2004): The introduction of a shared interactive surface into a communal space. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 49-58.

We describe a user study of a large multi-user interactive surface deployed for an initial period within a real world setting. The surface was designed to enable the sharing and exchange of a wide variety of digital media. The setting for the study was the common room of a high school where students come together to mix, socialize, and collaborate throughout the day. We report on how the students use the new technology within their own established communal space. Findings show that the system was used extensively by the students in a variety of ways, including sharing of photos, video clips, and websites, and for facilitating social interaction. We discuss how the interactive shared surface was appropriated by the students and introduced into their everyday lives in ways that both mirrored and extended their existing practices within the communal space.

© All rights reserved Brignull et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Crabtree, Andy, Rodden, Tom and Mariani, John (2004): Collaborating around collections: informing the continued development of photoware. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 396-405.

This paper explores the embodied interactional ways in which people naturally collaborate around and share collections of photographs. We employ ethnographic studies of paper-based photograph use to consider requirements for distributed collaboration around digital photographs. Distributed sharing is currently limited to the 'passing on' of photographs to others, by email, webpages, or mobile phones. To move beyond this, a fundamental challenge for photoware consists of developing support for the practical achievement of sharing 'at a distance'. Specifically, this entails augmenting the natural production of accounts or 'photo-talk' to support the distributed achievement of sharing.

© All rights reserved Crabtree et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rodden, Tom, Crabtree, Andy, Hemmings, Terry, Koleva, Boriana, Humble, Jan, Akesson, Karl-Petter and Hansson, Par (2004): Between the dazzle of a new building and its eventual corpse: assembling the ubiquitous home. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 71-80.

This paper presents the development of a lightweight component model that allows user to manage the introduction and arrangement of new interactive services and devices in the home. The model is responsive to ethnographic studies of the interplay between the Space-plan or interior layout and Stuff or artefacts placed within the fabric of the home. Interaction techniques developed through user-participation enable household members -- rather than designers -- to configure and reconfigure interactive devices and services to meet local needs. As a result, we have developed a tablet-based editor that discovers available ubiquitous components and presents these to users as 'jigsaw pieces' that can be dynamically assembled and recombined.

© All rights reserved Rodden et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Crabtree, Andy and Rodden, Tom (2004): Domestic Routines and Design for the Home. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13 (2) pp. 191-220.

2003
 
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Rodden, Tom and Benford, Steve (2003): The evolution of buildings and implications for the design of ubiquitous domestic environments. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 9-16.

 
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Rodden, Tom, Rogers, Yvonne, Halloran, John and Taylor, Ian (2003): Designing novel interactional workspaces to support face to face consultations. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 57-64.

 
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Izadi, Shahram, Brignull, Harry, Rodden, Tom, Rogers, Yvonne and Underwood, Mia (2003): Dynamo: a public interactive surface supporting the cooperative sharing and exchange of media. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 159-168.

In this paper we propose a novel way of supporting occasional meetings that take place in unfamiliar public places, which promotes lightweight, visible and fluid collaboration. Our central idea is that the sharing and exchange of information occurs across public surfaces that users can easily access and interact with. To this end, we designed and implemented Dynamo, a communal multi-user interactive surface. The surface supports the cooperative sharing and exchange of a wide range of media that can be brought to the surface by users that are remote from their familiar organizational settings.

© All rights reserved Izadi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Crabtree, Andy, Hemmings, T., Rodden, Tom and Mariani, J. (2003): Informing the development of calendar systems for domestic use. In: Proceedings of the Eighth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2003. pp. 119-138.

 
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Clarke, K., Cheverst, Keith, Dewsbury, G., Fitton, D., Hughes, J., Rouncefield, Mark, Sommerville, Ian, Hemmings, T. and Rodden, Tom (2003): Cultural Probes: Eliciting Requirements for Dependable Ubiquitous Computing in the Home. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 329-333.

 
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Halloran, John, Rogers, Yvonne, Rodden, Tom and Taylor, Ian (2003): Creating New User Experiences to Enhance Collaboration. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 479.

 
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Cheverst, Keith, Clarke, K., Dewsbury, G., Hemmings, T., Kember, S., Rodden, Tom and Rouncefield, Mark (2003): Designing assistive technologies for medication regimes in care settings. In Universal Access in the Information Society, 2 (3) pp. 235-242.

This paper presents some early design work of the Care in the Digital Community research project begun under the EPSRC IRC Network project Equator. Gaining a comprehensive understanding of user requirements in care settings poses interesting methodological challenges. This paper details some methodological options for working in the domestic domain and documents the translation of research into design recommendations. We report on the importance of medication issues in a hostel for former psychiatric patients and present an early prototype of a medication manager designed to be sensitive to the particular requirements of the setting.

© All rights reserved Cheverst et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Humble, Jan, Crabtree, Andy, Hemmings, Terry, kesson, Karl-Petter, Koleva, Boriana, Rodden, Tom and Hansson, Pr (2003): "Playing with the Bits" User-Configuration of Ubiquitous Domestic Environments. In: Dey, Anind K., Schmidt, Albrecht and McCarthy, Joseph F. (eds.) UbiComp 2003 Ubiquitous Computing - 5th International Conference October 12-15, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. pp. 256-263.

 
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Crabtree, Andy, Rodden, Tom, Hemmings, Terry and Benford, Steve (2003): Finding a Place for UbiComp in the Home. In: Dey, Anind K., Schmidt, Albrecht and McCarthy, Joseph F. (eds.) UbiComp 2003 Ubiquitous Computing - 5th International Conference October 12-15, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. pp. 208-226.

 
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Crabtree, Andy, Hemmings, Terry, Rodden, Tom, Cheverst, Keith, Clarke, Karen and Dewsbury, Guy (2003): Designing with Care: Adapting Cultural Probes to Inform Design in Sensitive Settings. In: Viller, Stephen and Wyeth, Peta (eds.) Proceedings of OzCHI 2003, New Directions in Interaction Information environments, Media and Technology November 26-28, 2003, Brisbane, Australia. pp. 4-13.

We report on the methodological process of developing computer support for former psychiatric patients living in residential care settings, for older members of the community, and disabled people living at home. Methods for identifying user needs in such sensitive settings are underdeveloped and the situation presents a very complex set of design challenges. In particular, the highly personal character of such settings presents conventional observational techniques, such as ethnography, with obdurate problems that make direct observation intrusive, disruptive and inappropriate on occasion. Direct observation requires supplementation in sensitive settings. Accordingly, we report on our experiences of adapting Cultural Probes to explore care settings, to develop a design dialogue with participants, and to gather information about their unique needs.

© All rights reserved Crabtree et al. and/or University of Queensland

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design 4 All: [/encyclopedia/design_4_all.html]


 
2002
 
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Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

 
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Schnadelbach, Holger, Koleva, Boriana, Flintham, Martin, Fraser, Mike, Izadi, Shahram, Chandler, Paul, Foster, Malcolm, Benford, Steve and Rodden, Tom (2002): The augurscope: a mixed reality interface for outdoors. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 9-16.

 
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Schmidt, Kjeld, Heath, Christian and Rodden, Tom (2002): Preface. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 11 (3) pp. 3-4.

 
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Crabtree, Andy, Hemmings, Terry and Rodden, Tom (2002): Pattern-based support for interactive design in domestic settings. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 265-276.

Designing for future domestic environments offers a challenge for everyone involved in the design of new technologies. The move from the office, and working environments in general, has highlighted the need for new techniques for understanding the home and conveying findings to technology developers. This paper presents a pattern-based approach informing the design of technology for future domestic settings. The approach is based on the original work of Alexander and seeks to support the on-going process of design, rather than the structuring of a corpus of previous work. The paper presents an adapted pattern language framework for structuring and presenting ethnographic fieldwork and considers the broad implications of patterns for the development of new technologies for domestic settings.

© All rights reserved Crabtree et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Izadi, Shahram, Fraser, Mike, Benford, Steve, Flintham, Martin, Greenhalgh, Chris, Rodden, Tom and Schndelbach, Holger (2002): Citywide: Supporting Interactive Digital Experiences Across Physical Space. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6 (4) pp. 290-298.

 
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Bayon, Victor, Rodden, Tom, Greenhalgh, Chris and Benford, Steve (2002): Going Back to School: Putting a Pervasive Environment into the Real World. In: Mattern, Friedemann and Naghshineh, Mahmoud (eds.) Pervasive 2002 - Pervasive Computing, First International Conference August 26-28, 2002, Zrich, Switzerland. pp. 69-83.

 
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Crabtree, Andy, Rodden, Tom and Mariani, John A. (2002): Designing Virtual Environments to Support Cooperation in the Real World. In Virtual Reality, 6 (2) pp. 63-74.

2001
 
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Phillips, P. and Rodden, Tom (2001): Multi-Authoring Virtual Worlds Via the World Wide Web. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (3) pp. 401-426.

The rapid growth of the Internet has seen a range of Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs) emerge that support virtual worlds, where users can interact with both objects and each other. However, little consideration has been given to the development of these environments and the provision of tools to allow users to manage them. This paper presents a web-based model for jointly authoring multi-user virtual worlds using the ideas of object ownership and division of the virtual environment at the object level. A brief description of an implementation and its more interesting features is also provided.

© All rights reserved Phillips and Rodden and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Martin, D., Rodden, Tom, Rouncefield, Mark, Sommerville, Ian and Viller, S. (2001): Finding patterns in the fieldwork. In: Ecscw 2001 - Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 16-20 September, 2001, Bonn, Germany. pp. 39-58.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]


 
 
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Walkerdine, J. and Rodden, Tom (2001): Sharing Searches: Developing Open Support for Collaborative Searching. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 140-147.

 
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Benford, Steve, Bowers, John, Chandler, Paul, Ciolfi, Luigina, Flintham, Martin, Fraser, Mike, Greenhalgh, Chris, Hall, Tony, Hellstrm, Sten-Olof, Izadi, Shahram, Rodden, Tom, Schndelbach, Holger and Taylor, Ian (2001): Unearthing Virtual History: Using Diverse Interfaces to Reveal Hidden Virtual Worlds. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 225-231.

 
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Benford, Steve, Greenhalgh, Chris, Rodden, Tom and Pycock, James (2001): Collaborative virtual environments. In Communications of the ACM, 44 (7) pp. 79-85.

2000
 
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Pemberton, Duncan, Rodden, Tom and Procter, Rob (2000): GroupMark: A WWW Recommender System Combining Collaborative and Information Filtering. In: Emiliani, Pier Luigi and Stephanidis, Constantine (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th ERCIM Workshop on User Interfaces for All October 25-26, 2000, Florence, Italy. p. 13.

The objective of the SELECT project is to help Internet users find the most reliable, valuable, important and interesting information quickly and easily, hence reducing information overload. In these ways, SELECT will make a positive contribution to the problem of helping users tailor their information environments to meet their individual needs. The approach adopted in SELECT is to develop a general architecture for information filtering and recommendation systems, and to use this to implement and evaluate different strategies and techniques. In this paper we describe GroupMark, a prototype of a SELECT-based social recommendation tool for the WWW that is based upon shared bookmarks. We focus in particular on how GroupMark seeks to combine content-based and collaborative filtering techniques, and on the user interface issues raised by recommendation tools: i.e., the mechanisms for controlling behaviour and the visualisation of results.

© All rights reserved Pemberton et al. and/or The European Research Consortium for Informatics and Mathematics - ERCIM

 
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Dix, Alan J., Rodden, Tom, Davies, Nigel, Trevor, Jonathan, Friday, Adrian and Palfreyman, Kevin (2000): Exploiting Space and Location as a Design Framework for Interactive Mobile Systems. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (3) pp. 285-321.

This article considers the importance of context in mobile systems. It considers a range of context-related issues and focus on location as a key issue for mobile systems. A design framework is described consisting of taxonomies of location, mobility, population, and device awareness. The design framework informs the construction of a semantic model of space for mobile systems. The semantic model is reflected in a computational model built on a distributed platform that allows contextual information to be shared across a number of mobile devices. The framework support the design of interactive mobile systems while the platform supports their rapid development.

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Benford, Steve, Dourish, Paul and Rodden, Tom (2000): Introduction to the Special Issue on Human-Computer Interaction and Collaborative Virtual Environments. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (4) pp. 439-441.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Ramduny, Devina, Rodden, Tom and Davies, Nigel (2000): Places to Stay on the Move: Software Architectures for Mobile User Interfaces. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 4 (2) .

 
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Hughes, John A., O'Brien, Jon, Rodden, Tom, Rouncefield, Mark and Viller, Stephen (2000): Patterns of Home Life: Informing Design For Domestic Environments. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 4 (1) .

 
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Hughes, John, O'Brien, Jon, Rodden, Tom and Rouncefield, Mark (2000): Ethnography, Communication and Support for Design. In: Luff, Paul, Hindmarsh, Jon and Heath, Christian (eds.). "Workplace Studies: Recovering Work Practice and Informing System Design". Cambridge University Presspp. 187-214

ince the late 1980s, and much to the surprise of many of its practitioners, ethnography has risen to a position of some prominence within CSCW research (Bentley et al., 1992; Hughes et al., 1994). This rise has not, of course, gone unchallenged; even from relatively sympathetic critics serious questions have been raised, and quite rightly, about the value of the approach in actually informing system design (see e.g. Plowman et al., 1995). Although this criticism is well taken, it does point to a problem recognised from the outset, namely, how are the results of ethnographic field studies to be conveyed to designers? In fact, there are a host of problems involving, for example, the scope of the design, the size of the design team, the stage of the design and more (see Hughes et al., 1994). Such communication problems have been at the heart of system design for some years even before ethnography and workplace studies came on the scene, and in this connection the story related by Cooper et al. (1995) though pertaining to designers and users can be adapted to portray something of the state of affairs between fieldworkers and designers: Systems design used to be done by a bunch of techies, deep deep deep within some head office building somewhere. Here they would build their system. Test it, test it, test it, until they were sure it would work, and then they would throw it over this great high brick wall, and hope that the user would catch it, on the other side.

© All rights reserved Hughes et al. and/or Cambridge University Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]


 
1999
 
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Palfreyman, Kevin, Rodden, Tom and Trevor, Jonathan (1999): PSI: A Platform for Shared Interaction. In: Bdker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark. p. 351.

 
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Viller, Stephen, Bowers, John and Rodden, Tom (1999): Human Factors in Requirements Engineering: A Survey of Human Sciences Literature Relevant to the Improvement of Dependable Systems Development Processes. In Interacting with Computers, 11 (6) pp. 665-698.

Requirements engineering (RE) is an inherently social process, involving the contribution of individuals working in an organizational context. Further, failures in the RE process will potentially lead to systematic failures in the products that are produced as a result. Consequently, the RE process for dependable systems development should itself be considered as a dependable process, and therefore subject to greater scrutiny for vulnerabilities to error. Research on human error has typically focused on the work of individual actors from a cognitive perspective. This paper presents a survey which broadens the view on what contributes to human error by also examining work from the social and organizational literature. This review was conducted to inform efforts to improve the systems development process for dependable systems, and in particular their requirements engineering process.

© All rights reserved Viller et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 Cited in the following chapter:

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]


 
 
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O'Brien, Jon, Rodden, Tom, Rouncefield, Mark and Hughes, John A. (1999): At Home with the Technology: An Ethnographic Study of a Set-Top-Box Trial. In ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR), 6 (3) pp. 282-308.

The rapid growth and development of the Internet and the resulting growth in interest in access to network facilities highlight an increasing prominence of computer technology in the home. In this article we report on a study of the social organization of a number of domestic environments in the northwest of England and consider the ways in which an understanding of the nature of the home is of interest to the developers of future interactive technology. Thus, in the first half of the article we consider the everyday nature of home life, and in the second half we report on an ethnographically based evaluation of a prototype set top box for the provision of digital services to the home. In addition to reflecting on the nature of activities in the home we conclude by considering the design implications that can be drawn from an examination of these activities.

© All rights reserved O'Brien et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dourish, Paul, Lamping, John and Rodden, Tom (1999): Building Bridges: Customisation and Mutual Intelligibility in Shared Category Management. In: Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 1999 November 14-17, 1999, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. pp. 11-20.

Research into collaborative document use often concentrates on how people share document content. However, studies of real-world document practices reveal that the structures by which document corpora are organised may also, themselves, be important sites of collaborative activity. Unfortunately, this poses a problem. When category structures are used to understand a set of documents, the manipulation of those structures can interfere with shared understanding and intelligibility of the document space. We show how this problem arises in real-world settings, using a case arising from some recent field work. We outline a solution to the customisation/intelligibility problem, and show how it has been implemented in a system for personal and workgroup document management.

© All rights reserved Dourish et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hughes, John A., O'Brien, Jon, Randall, David, Rodden, Tom, Rouncefield, Mark and Tolmie, Peter (1999): Getting to Know the 'Customer in the Machine'. In: Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 1999 November 14-17, 1999, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. pp. 30-39.

This paper reflects on the emerging results of a long-standing ethnographic study of everyday work in a large retail Bank. While customers as economic actors have often been overlooked in studies of computer supported work they are generally and necessarily the focus of commercial organisational life. The paper explicates the developing relationship between technology use and these organisational concerns through the notion of 'the customer in the machine.' Features of the contingent and skillful nature of everyday work are documented and used to comment on aspects of working with the 'customer in the machine' or 'virtual customers' within a rapidly changing commercial organisation.

© All rights reserved Hughes et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Busher, Monika, Hughes, John A., Trevor, Jonathan, Rodden, Tom and O'Brien, Jon (1999): Supporting Cooperation Across Shared Virtual Environments. In: Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 1999 November 14-17, 1999, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. pp. 61-70.

As cooperative virtual environments have become more prominent as a means of allowing users to work together so has the need for users to understand the nature of these environments. This paper presents the development of a set of techniques to allow users to understand the properties of virtual environments as they move between different environments. The development of these techniques is informed by an ethnographic study of a multimedia art museum containing a wide range of different virtual environments.

© All rights reserved Busher et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Normand, Vronique, Babski, Christian, Benford, Steve, Bullock, Adrian, Carion, Stephane, Chrysanthou, Yiorgos, Farcet, Nicolas, Harvey, John, Kuijpers, Nico, Magnenat-Thalmann, Nadia, Musse, Soraia Raupp, Rodden, Tom, Slater, Mel and Smith, Gareth (1999): The COVEN project: exploring applicative, technical and usage dimensions of collaborative virtual environments. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 8 (2) pp. 218-236.

 
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Rodden, Tom (1999): Human factors in requirements engineering: - A survey of human sciences literature relevant to the improvement of dependable systems development processes. In Interacting with Computers, 11 (6) pp. 665-698.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]


 
1998
 
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Trevor, Jonathan, Rodden, Tom and Smith, Gareth (1998): Out of This World: An Extensible Session Architecture for Heterogeneous Electronic Landscapes. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 119-128.

The growth in interest in virtual environments in CSCW has focused on co-operation within these environments. Little consideration has been given to users management of these environments and their movement between them. In this paper we present a session management architecture that supports the management of virtual environments. The developed architecture is built upon the HTTP protocol and is sufficiently general to allow it to support a range of CSCW application. We present the architecture and its use to support both virtual environments and more generic cooperative applications.

© All rights reserved Trevor et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Ramduny, Devina, Dix, Alan J. and Rodden, Tom (1998): Exploring the Design Space for Notification Servers. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 227-235.

Issues of notification and awareness have become increasingly important in CSCW. Notification servers provide a notable mechanism to maintain shared state information of any synchronous or asynchronous groupware system. A taxonomy of the design space for notification servers is presented, based on theoretical results from status-event analysis. This generates a framework and vocabulary to compare and discuss different notification mechanisms to improve design. The paper shows that notification servers are often ideally placed to support impedance matching to give an appropriate pace of feedthrough to the user by allowing them to see changes to shared objects in a timely manner.

© All rights reserved Ramduny et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rodden, Tom, Chervest, Keith, Davies, Nigel and Dix, Alan (1998). Exploiting Context in HCI Design for Mobile Systems. ACM

In this paper author considered human computer interaction with mobile devices in terms of the development of advanced mobile applications. The maturing of technology to allow the emergence of multi-user distributed applications that exploit mobile applications means that we can no longer focus the issues of interaction on the nature of the device. Rather we must explicitly consider impact of the context in informing the design of different interaction techniques. The context needs to be considered in terms of the devices relationship with the technical infrastructure, the application domain, the socio-technical system in which it is situated, the location of its use and the physical nature of the device. The interaction style supported by this class of mobile application is as dependant on this context as the properties of the device itself. As a result, it is essential that work on the nature of these devices and the development of techniques that are aware of the limits of these devices is complemented by a broader consideration of the nature of interaction. However, these modified and novel forms of interaction cannot be realised without corresponding software architectures. So far it have been identified two major structural principles which underlie this architectural design: the importance of representing status phenomena and the need for contextual information to cut across the software design space.

© All rights reserved Rodden et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
1997
 
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Blythin, Steve, Hughes, John A., Kristoffersen, Steinar, Rodden, Tom and Rouncefield, Mark (1997): Recognising 'Success' and 'Failure': Evaluating Groupware in a Commercial Context. In: Payne, Stephen C. and Prinz, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 1997 November 11-19, 1997, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. pp. 39-46.

This paper reports on the installation and use of two commercial 'groupware' systems, a videolink and electronic document exchange, in a major clearing bank in the UK. It suggests some of the complexities involved in evaluating groupware in a business such that recognising and understanding even such gross terms as 'success' and 'failure' is far from easy. Consequently it argues that a more nuanced appreciation of success and failure needs to be developed and, therefore, some form of ethnographic, 'illuminative' evaluation may prove commercially worthwhile.

© All rights reserved Blythin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Benford, Steve, Snowdon, David N., Colebourne, Andy, O'Brien, Jon and Rodden, Tom (1997): Informing the Design of Collaborative Virtual Environments. In: Payne, Stephen C. and Prinz, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 1997 November 11-19, 1997, Phoenix, Arizona, USA. pp. 71-80.

This paper addresses the design of Collaborative Virtual Environments (CVEs). More specifically, it considers key design issues concerning the use of either real world 'facsimile' representations or more abstracted means of delivering CVEs. We suggest that the use of ethnographic studies of the context-of-use of the CVE under development is a useful means of informing these design issues in contrast to more in-principle means of drawing conclusions. This approach is illustrated by informing the development of a virtual environment from and ethnographic study of work.

© All rights reserved Benford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hughes, John A., O'Brien, Jon, Rodden, Tom, Rouncefield, Mark and Blythin, Steve (1997): Designing with Ethnography: A Presentation Framework for Design. In: Proceedings of DIS97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1997. pp. 147-158.

Despite the growing number of ethnographic studies of work their use in design remains a matter of some debate. Acknowledging the problems designers face in utilising ethnographies, and ethnographers face in meeting commercial demands, this paper outlines a 'framework' for the presentation of field studies organised around three main dimensions; 'distributed coordination', 'plans and procedures' and 'awareness of work'; thereby facilitating effective communication and collaboration between designers and ethnographers.

© All rights reserved Hughes et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hughes, John A., O'Brien, Jon, Rodden, Tom and Rouncefield, Mark (1997): Designing with ethnography: a presentation framework for design. In: McClelland, Ian, Olson, Gary, Veer, Gerrit van der, Henderson, Austin and Coles, Susan (eds.) Proceedings of the 2nd conference on Designing interactive systems processes, practices, methods, and techniques August 18-20, 1997, Amsterdam, Netherlands. pp. 147-158.

Despite the growing number of ethnographic studies of work their use in design remains a matter of some debate. Acknowledging the problems designers face in utilising ethnographies, and ethnographers face in meeting commercial demands, this paper outlines a 'framework' for the presentation of field studies organised around three main dimensions; 'distributed coordination', 'plans and procedures' and 'awareness of work'; thereby facilitating effective communication and collaboration between designers and ethnographers.

© All rights reserved Hughes et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]


 
1996
 
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Rodden, Tom (1996): Populating the Application: A Model of Awareness for Cooperative Applications. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 87-96.

This paper presents a model of awareness for shared cooperative applications. The model developed in this paper takes as its starting point a previous spatial model of interaction. A more general model is suggested that allows the action of users to be represented and made available to other users of the application. The developed model exploits the partitioning of space inherent within the spatial model to allow its application to non-spatial applications. The general applicability of the model is demonstrated by considering a range of different interpretations across a number of cooperative applications.

© All rights reserved Rodden and/or ACM Press

 
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Palfreyman, Kevin and Rodden, Tom (1996): A Protocol for User Awareness on the World Wide Web. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 130-139.

This paper presents the development of an open awareness protocol for the world wide web. The protocol is intended to convey the presence of users to other web users. To encourage uptake of the systems the protocol adheres to the principles that made the world wide web a success, simplicity and openness. An initial version of the protocol is presented along with servers realising the protocol. The paper concludes by showing how the awareness information can support both 2D and 3D presentations of the World Wide Web.

© All rights reserved Palfreyman and Rodden and/or ACM Press

 
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Kristoffersen, Steinar and Rodden, Tom (1996): Working by Walking Around -- Requirements of Flexible Interaction Management in Video-Supported Collaborative Work. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 315-329.

This paper considers the effects of video-based communication systems on individual, local mobility in the everyday, practical 'space' of work. The notion of video as a vehicle that transcends physical space in an unproblematic fashion is carefully considered. Previous academic research has emphasized how video can extend and enhance the working environment. We found, doing a focused ethnography in the Customer Service Centre of a large high street bank, that video, in a trade-off between 'real' and 'virtual' mobility, restricted the use of personal, workaday, physical space. Issues thus raised for the design of video-based communication systems are: physical mobility in workaday space during interactive sessions; modal and temporal switching between and within different media; articulating and supporting collaborative work with private activities; and, accommodating alternating tasks.

© All rights reserved Kristoffersen and Rodden and/or Springer Verlag

1995
 
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Kirby, Andrew and Rodden, Tom (1995): Contact: Support for Distributed Cooperative Writing. In: Marmolin, Hans, Sundblad, Yngve and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 95 - Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11-15 September, 1995, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 101-116.

This paper presents a novel system to support the activities of distributed cooperative writing. The system builds upon the results from previous studies of cooperative work, and on a set of short focused studies of cooperative authoring to outline a framework and system to meet the requirements of cooperating authors. The system provides facilities to represent the decomposition of the writing task and assignment of responsibilities. In addition, a series of monitoring facilities is provided which allows authors to coordinate their activities in the construction of documents.

© All rights reserved Kirby and Rodden and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Kristoffersen, Steinar and Rodden, Tom (1995): Multimedia Support of Collaboration in a Teleservice Team. In: Marmolin, Hans, Sundblad, Yngve and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 95 - Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11-15 September, 1995, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 293-308.

The purpose of this paper is to outline an architectural model for how multimedia can establish and support cooperative work. The proposed architecture emerged from empirical work in a large UK bank. Previous efforts have, as we see them, been largely experimental, and have focused on supporting informal work. Few examples concern the support of actual work tasks in companies outside a research context. The outlined model offers a conception of work as distributed across time, space, tasks, people, and artefacts. It aims to integrate informal and formal aspects of work by supporting the initiation and management of interaction as well as the cooperative work process itself.

© All rights reserved Kristoffersen and Rodden and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Hughes, John, King, Val, Rodden, Tom and Andersen, Hans (1995): The Role of Ethnography in Interactive Systems Design. In Interactions, 2 (2) pp. 56-65.

The authors describe their experiences in applying ethnographic methods to understand the social nature of work in developing complex, interactive systems.

© All rights reserved Hughes et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Smith, Gareth and Rodden, Tom (1995): SOL: A Shared Object Toolkit for Cooperative Interfaces. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 42 (2) pp. 207-234.

The paper presents a user interface toolkit to support the construction of cooperative multi-user interfaces. The toolkit is based on the configuration of shared interface objects to construct cooperative interfaces. A principal focus of the toolkit is the provision of accessible facilities to manage interface configuration and tailoring. Most existing facilities to manage multi-user interfaces tend to be application specific and provide only limited tailorability for purpose built cooperative applications. In addition, the current structure of most cooperative applications fails to separate the semantics of applications from the cooperation specific semantics. In this paper we present a multi-user interface toolkit that provides management facilities in a manner which separates appropriate features of cooperative use from application semantics. This is achieved by allowing multi-user interfaces to be derived from a common shared interface constructed from shared interface objects. We would suggest that the separation of semantics in this form represents an initial identification of the re-usable cooperative interface components.

© All rights reserved Smith and Rodden and/or Academic Press

 
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Hughes, John A., O'Brien, Jon, Rodden, Tom, Rouncefield, Mark and Sommerville, Ian (1995): Presenting ethnography in the requirements process. In: Second IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering 1995 March 27 - 29, 1995, York, England. pp. 27-39.

 Cited in the following chapters:

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]


 
 
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Benford, Steve, Bowers, John, Fahlen, Lennart E., Greenhalgh, Chris, Mariani, John A. and Rodden, Tom (1995): Networked Virtual Reality and Cooperative Work. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 4 (4) pp. 364-386.

 
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Rouncefield, Mark, Viller, Stephen, Hughes, John A. and Rodden, Tom (1995): Working with "Constant Interruption": CSCW and the Small Office. In The Information Society, 11 (3) .

1994
 
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Trevor, Jonathan, Rodden, Tom and Mariani, John (1994): The Use of Adapters to Support Cooperative Sharing. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 219-230.

This paper examines the importance of providing effective management of sharing in cooperative systems and argues for a specialised service to support the cooperative aspects of information sharing. The relationship between features of the cooperative shared object service and existing services is briefly examined. A number of management services of particular importance to CSCW systems are identified. The paper presents a technique of realising a shared object service by augmenting existing object facilities to provide management of their cooperative use. These facilities are realised through object adapters that provide additional cooperative facilities and greater control over the supporting infrastructure.

© All rights reserved Trevor et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Rouncefield, Mark, Hughes, J. A., Rodden, Tom and Viller, Stephen (1994): Working with "Constant Interruption": CSCW and the Small Office. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 275-286.

Ethnographic studies of CSCW have often seemed to involve the investigation of relatively large-scale and highly specific systems, consequently ignoring the small office within which many people spend much of their working lives and which is a major site for the introduction and implementation of IT. This paper is concerned with a "quick and dirty" ethnographic study of a small office that was considering the introduction of greater levels of IT. Generic features of office work are outlined: the process of work in a small office and its recurrent features, notably the massive volume of paperwork; the importance of local knowledge in the accomplishment of work; and the phenomenon of "constant interruption." This paper suggests that despite the obvious contrasts with work settings analysed in other ethnographic studies, similar features of cooperative work can be observed in the small office. It further suggests that the issues of cooperation and the sociality of work cannot be ignored even in small-scale system design.

© All rights reserved Rouncefield et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hughes, John, King, Val, Rodden, Tom and Andersen, Hans (1994): Moving Out from the Control Room: Ethnography in System Design. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 429-439.

Ethnography has gained considerable prominence as a technique for informing CSCW systems development of the nature of work. Experiences of ethnography reported to date have focused on the use of prolonged on-going ethnography to inform systems design. A considerable number of these studies have taken place within constrained and focused work domain. This paper reflects more generally on the experiences of using ethnography across a number of different projects and in a variety of domains of study. We identify a number of ways in which we have used ethnography to inform design and consider the benefits and problems of each.

© All rights reserved Hughes et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Bentley, Richard, Rodden, Tom, Sawyer, Peter and Sommerville, Ian (1994): Architectural Support for Cooperative Multiuser Interfaces. In IEEE Computer, 27 (5) pp. 37-46.

 
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Trevor, Jonathan, Rodden, Tom and Blair, Gordon (1994): Cola: A lightweight platform for CSCW. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 3 (2) pp. 197-224.

Despite the reliance of cooperative applications on the facilities provided by distributed systems, little consideration is given by these systems to the support of cooperative work. This paper examines the provision of appropriate mechanisms to represent cooperative work within a distributed platform. Based upon a examination of existing models of cooperative activity and the experiences of their use, a lightweight model of activities is suggested as the basis for the supporting platform. Rather than concentrate on the exchange of information, this lightweight model focus on the mechanisms for sharing of objects. This focus enables a clear separation between the mechanisms provided by the distributed platform and the policy which is the responsibility of the cooperative applications.

© All rights reserved Trevor et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Hughes, John, King, Val, Rodden, Tom and Andersen, Hans (1994): Moving out of the Control Room: Ethnography in System Design. In: Proceedings of the 1994 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work October 22 - 26, 1994, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, United States. pp. 429-439.

Ethnography has gained considerable prominence as a technique for informing CSCW systems development of the nature of work. Experiences of ethnography reported to date have focused on the use of prolonged on-going enthnography to inform systems design. A considerable number of these studies have taken place within constrained and focused work domain. This paper reflects more generally on the experiences of using ethnography across a number of different projects and in a variety of domains of study. We identify a number of ways in which we have used ethnography to inform design and consider the benefits and problems of each.

© All rights reserved Hughes et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]


 
1993
 
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Bowers, John and Rodden, Tom (1993): Exploding the Interface: Experiences of a CSCW Network. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 255-262.

The development of human computer interaction has been dominated by the interface both as a design concept and as an artifact of computer systems. However, recently researchers have been re-examining the role of the interface in the user's interaction with the computer. This paper further examines the notion of the interface in light of the experiences of the authors in establishing a network to support cooperative work. The authors argue that the concept of the single interface which provides a focus for interaction with a computer system is no longer tenable and that richer conceptions of the inter-relationships between users and computer systems are needed.

© All rights reserved Bowers and Rodden and/or ACM Press

 
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Trevor, Jonathan, Rodden, Tom and Blair, Gordon (1993): COLA: A Lightweight Platform for CSCW. In: Michelis, Giorgio De, Simone, Carla and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 93 - Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1993. pp. 15-30.

Despite the reliance of cooperative applications on the facilities provided by distributed systems, little consideration is given by these systems to the support of cooperative work. This paper examines the provision of appropriate mechanisms to represent cooperative work within a distributed platform. Based upon a examination of existing models of cooperative activity and the experiences of their use, a lightweight model of activities is suggested as the basis for the supporting platform. Rather than concentrate on the exchange of information, this lightweight model focus on the mechanisms of sharing of objects. This focus enables a clear separation between the mechanisms provided by the distributed platform and the policy which is the responsibility of the cooperative applications.

© All rights reserved Trevor et al. and/or Kluwer

 
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Twidale, Michael, Rodden, Tom and Sommerville, Ian (1993): The Designers' Notepad: Supporting and Understanding Cooperative Design. In: Michelis, Giorgio De, Simone, Carla and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 93 - Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1993. pp. 93-108.

We describe the development of a system to support cooperative software design. An iterative development approach has been used, based upon the observation of system use in authentic design sessions. This allows us to correct interface errors, and also to learn more about the nature of collaborative design. The observations of use and the resulting refinements of the system are described. In particular we note the variability in design activity both amongst designers and according to circumstances. We also note the way in which concepts mutate over time (often involving frequent and rapid revision) leading to an evolution of structure.

© All rights reserved Twidale et al. and/or Kluwer

 
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Benford, Steve, Mariani, John, Navarro, Leandro, Prinz, Wolfgang and Rodden, Tom (1993): MOCCA: An Environment for CSCW Applications. In: Kaplan, Simon M. (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1993 November 1-4, 1993, Milpitas, California, USA. pp. 172-177.

Our belief is that in the future Computer Supported Cooperative Work will by necessity involve a heterogeneous collection of applications, paradigms and models and that no single system will meet all the requirements of all groups. We propose a CSCW Environment which facilitates inter-working between many different CSCW applications. We describe the key requirements of such an environment, followed by a set of models which offer different perspectives on the environment and which collectively define its functionality. We then discuss how these models might be used to specify the components of an open distributed architecture for implementing the model.

© All rights reserved Benford et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lougher, Robert and Rodden, Tom (1993): Supporting Long Term Collaboration in Software Maintenance. In: Kaplan, Simon M. (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1993 November 1-4, 1993, Milpitas, California, USA. pp. 228-238.

The maintenance of large software systems is a collaborative activity requiring the combined efforts of a team of maintenance engineers. Due to the extended time period over which maintenance occurs, direct communication between these team members is however, difficult or impossible. This paper presents a system which supports long-term collaboration in software maintenance by allowing maintenance rationale to be captured and shared by maintenance engineers. The system concentrates on the construction of maintenance rationale by providing a range of unconstrained documentation facilities. The general model adopted exploits hypertext technology to allow rationale to be integrated into the system by attaching comments to the appropriate source component.

© All rights reserved Lougher and Rodden and/or ACM Press

 
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Smith, Gareth and Rodden, Tom (1993): Access as a Means of Configuring Cooperative Interfaces. In: Kaplan, Simon M. (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1993 November 1-4, 1993, Milpitas, California, USA. pp. 289-298.

The emergence of CSCW has seen the development of a number of applications which simultaneously present a number of interfaces to a community of users. Limited consideration has been given to the provision of facilities that support the configuration and tailoring of these cooperative user interfaces. This paper presents a simple mechanism that enables dynamic support for tailoring user interfaces. Rather than focus on the interface as having been derived from a set of shared objects, we choose to view the problem as one of a shared interface constructed from a collection of interface objects and access to this shared interface. This paper presents an access model and an environment that facilitates the construction and runtime support of cooperative user interfaces.

© All rights reserved Smith and Rodden and/or ACM Press

 
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Sommerville, Ian, Rodden, Tom, Sawyer, Pete, Bentley, Richard and Twidale, Michael (1993): Integrating ethnography into the requirements engineering process. In: IEEE International Symposium on Requirements Engineering RE93 January 6, 1993, San Diego, USA. pp. 165-173.

Experiences from an interdisciplinary project involving software engineers and sociologists are reported. The project is concerned with discovering the requirements of a user interface to a flight database which is used to provide real-time information to air-traffic controllers. The sociologists are conducting an ethnographic analysis of the activity of air-traffic control, and this is being used for the development of a prototype system. An overview of the project is given, the contribution of sociologists to requirements engineering is discussed, and tool support which will allow ethnographic observations to be integrated into the requirements engineering process is suggested

© All rights reserved Sommerville et al. and/or IEEE Computer Society Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]


 
1992
 
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Bentley, Richard, Hughes, J. A., Randall, David, Rodden, Tom, Sawyer, P., Shapiro, Dan and Sommerville, Ian (1992): Ethnographically-Informed Systems Design for Air Traffic Control. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 123-129.

This paper relates experiences of a project where an ethnographic study of air traffic controllers is being used to inform the design of the controllers' interface to the flight data base. We outline the current UK air traffic control system, discuss the ethnographic work we have undertaken studying air traffic control as a cooperative activity, describe some of the difficulties in collaboration between software developers and sociologists and show how the ethnographic studies have influenced the systems design process. Our conclusions are that ethnographic studies are helpful in informing the systems design process and may produce insights which contradict conventional thinking in systems design.

© All rights reserved Bentley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bentley, Richard, Rodden, Tom, Sawyer, Peter and Sommerville, Ian (1992): An Architecture for Tailoring Cooperative Multi-User Displays. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 187-194.

A range of architectures have emerged which support real-time cooperative user interfaces. These architectures have tended to centralise the management of the interface and thus provide only limited support for user-centred development and interface tailoring. This paper considers the problems associated with the development of tailorable cooperative interfaces and proposes an architecture which allows such interfaces to be developed using an incremental, user-centred approach. The architecture presented in this paper has emerged within the context of a project investigating cooperative interface development for UK air traffic control. We conclude that the architecture is equally applicable to other Command and Control domains, where a shared information space forms the focus for the work taking place.

© All rights reserved Bentley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sommerville, Ian, Rodden, Tom, Sawyer, Pete and Bentley, Richard (1992): Sociologists Can be Surprisingly Useful in Interactive Systems Design. In: Monk, Andrew, Diaper, Dan and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VII August 15-18, 1992, University of York, UK. pp. 341-353.

This paper makes a case, to system developers, for inter-disciplinary working and the involvement of sociologists in the systems design process. Our argument is based on the fact that effective systems must take account of the social context in which these systems are situated. The paper is based on our experiences of working with sociologists in a study of air traffic control automation. We describe the model of working which we use and which we believe allows effective utilisation of the skills of both disciplines. We then set out pre-cursors for effective inter-disciplinary collaboration and how people from radically different backgrounds can work in harmony. Finally, we discuss some of the problems of collaboration which are likely to arise.

© All rights reserved Sommerville et al. and/or Cambridge University Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Ethnography: [/encyclopedia/ethnography.html]


 
 
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Rodden, Tom and Murray, Dianne (1992): Computer Support for Co-Operative Work. In Interacting with Computers, 4 (3) pp. 314-316.

 
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Rodden, Tom, Mariani, J. A. and Blair, G. (1992): Supporting cooperative applications. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 1 (1) pp. 41-67.

Cooperative applications which have started to emerge from CSCW research place new demands on the computer technology used to support them. These demands raise a number of fundamental questions about the way in which computing systems provide application support. This paper examines a number of issues surrounding the support of cooperative applications and how they impact both CSCW and computer science research. In particular, the relationship between cooperative applications and the supporting techniques of distributed systems and database technology are investigated. Cooperative applications question many of the design assumptions embodied within these techniques, and ask far reaching questions of the technology. Traditionally, support systems have been unaware of cooperative activities and have hidden the actions of others from each user. This paper examines the implications of this choice and the need to consider alternative approaches to the provision of systems support. The paper concludes by highlighting a number of issues which need to be addressed both by computer science and CSCW researchers.

© All rights reserved Rodden et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

1991
 
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Rodden, Tom and Blair, Gordon (1991): CSCW and Distributed Systems: The Problem of Control. In: Bannon, Liam, Robinson, Mike and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 91 - Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work September 24-27, 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands. .

 
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Rodden, Tom (1991): A Survey of CSCW Systems. In Interacting with Computers, 3 (3) pp. 319-353.

Over the last decade, computer supported cooperative work (CSCW) has emerged as an identifiable research area that focuses on the role of the computer in group work. CSCW is a generic term which combines the understanding of the nature of group working with the enabling technologies of computer networking, systems support and applications. The paper examines the classes of system which have emerged to support cooperative working. A framework for characterising and describing CSCW systems is presented and four major classes of cooperative system identified. Each of these classes of cooperative system are examined highlighting their general characteristics and applicability to CSCW.

© All rights reserved Rodden and/or Elsevier Science

 
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URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/tom_rodden.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2012
Pub. count:106
Number of co-authors:173



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Steve Benford:22
Andy Crabtree:20
Mark Rouncefield:13

 

 

Productive colleagues

Tom Rodden's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Nadia Magnenat-Tha..:146
Steve Benford:121
Alan Dix:117
 
 
 
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