Publication statistics

Pub. period:1980-2011
Pub. count:66
Number of co-authors:79



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

William van Melle:8
Allan MacLean:6
Patrick Chiu:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Thomas P. Moran's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Scott E. Hudson:113
Hiroshi Ishii:111
 
 
 

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Thomas P. Moran

Picture of Thomas P. Moran.
Has also published under the name of:
"T. Moran" and "Thomas Moran"

Thomas P. Moran is a Distinguished Engineer at the IBM Almaden Research Center near San Jose, California. He has been active in the field of human computer interaction for a long time. In 1983 the book he wrote along with Stuart Card and Allen Newell The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction was published. It became a very influential book in the field, partly for introducing the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules (GOMS) model. He founded and has been Editor-in-Chief of Human-Computer Interaction, one of the leading journals of the field. He is one of the first CHI Academy members and won ACM SIGCHI's 2004 Life Time Achievement Award. In 2003 he was inducted as a Fellow of the Association for Computing Machinery. In 2008 he was elected as a Fellow of AAAS.

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Publications by Thomas P. Moran (bibliography)

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2011
 
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Chi, ChangYan, Liao, Qinying, Pan, Yingxin, Zhao, Shiwan, Matthews, Tara, Moran, Thomas P., Zhou, Michelle X., Millen, David, Lin, Ching-Yung and Guy, Ido (2011): Smarter social collaboration at IBM research. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 159-166.

In this paper we feature a set of research projects done at several IBM Research laboratories across the world. The work featured here focuses on the topic of smart social collaboration, which studies, designs, and develops social collaboration principles and technologies that can help customize and enhance existing social collaboration tools to suit specific user needs, including cultural, business, and personal needs.

© All rights reserved Chi et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kandogan, Eser, Kim, Juho, Moran, Thomas P. and Pedemonte, Pablo (2011): How a freeform spatial interface supports simple problem solving tasks. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 925-934.

We developed DataBoard, a freeform spatial interface, to support users in simple problem solving tasks. To develop a deeper understanding of the role of space and the tradeoffs between freeform and structured interaction styles in problem solving tasks, we conducted a controlled user study comparing the DataBoard with a spreadsheet and analyzed video data in detail. Beyond improvements in task performance and memory recall, our observations reveal that freeform interfaces can support users in a variety of ways: representing problems flexibly, developing strategies, executing strategies incrementally, tracking problem state easily, reducing mental computation, and verifying solutions perceptually. The spreadsheet also had advantages, and we discuss the tradeoffs.

© All rights reserved Kandogan et al. and/or their publisher

2010
 
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Balakrishnan, Aruna D., Matthews, Tara and Moran, Thomas P. (2010): Fitting an activity-centric system into an ecology of workplace tools. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 787-790.

Knowledge workers expend considerable effort managing fragmentation, characterized by constant switching among digital artifacts, when executing work activities. Activity-centric computing (ACC) systems attempt to address this problem by organizing activity-related artifacts together. But are ACC systems effective at reducing fragmentation? In this paper, we present a two-part study of workers using Lotus Activities, an ACC system deployed for over two years in a large company. First, we surveyed workers to understand the ecology of workplace tools they use for various tasks. Second, we interviewed 22 Lotus Activities users to investigate how this ACC tool fits amongst their ecology of existing collaboration tools and affects work fragmentation. Our results indicate that Lotus Activities works in concert with certain other tools to successfully ease fragmentation for a specific type of activity. We identify design characteristics that contribute to this result.

© All rights reserved Balakrishnan et al. and/or their publisher

2006
 
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Moran, Thomas P. (2006): Activity: Analysis, Design, and Management. In: Bagnara, Sebastiano and Smith, Gillian Crampton (eds.). "Theories and Practice in Interaction Design (Human Factors and Ergonomics Series)". Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
2005
 
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Harrison, Beverly L., Cozzi, Alex and Moran, Thomas P. (2005): Roles and relationships for unified activity management. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 236-245.

This paper reports on three ethnographic studies of how people coordinate their activities in various work settings. The findings reported here are a derived set of relationships reflecting the nature of involvement of people in their activities. These findings were then tested by six analysts, who were conducting field studies of patterns of complex business activities. They used the derived relationships in the analysis of their data and in the representation of activity patterns. These usage cases revealed confusion between involvement relationships and job roles. Finally, several implications of these studies for designing an activity management prototype are presented.

© All rights reserved Harrison et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Muller, Michael J., Kuchinskaya, Olga, Minassian, Suzanne O., Tang, John C., Danis, Catalina, Zhao, Chen, Harrison, Beverly L. and Moran, Thomas P. (2005): Shared landmarks in complex coordination environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1681-1684.

We explore the concept of social landmarks in complex, shared information and coordination environments. Previous research in navigation and shared spaces has tended to emphasize individual navigation, formally inscribed spaces, social filtering, and boundary objects. Based on ethnographic research into complex collaborative work in organizations, we extend the concept of navigational "landmarks" to include not only individually-used documents, but also shared landmarks in the form of persons, roles, and events. This emerging concept of social landmarks may be applied in identifying and representing these coordinating points, to support the work of teams and organizations in complex projects.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Moran, Thomas P., Cozzi, Alex and Farrell, Stephen P. (2005): Unified activity management: supporting people in e-business. In Communications of the ACM, 48 (12) pp. 67-70.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
2003
 
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Moran, Thomas P. (2003): Activity: Analysis, design, and management. In: Symposium on the Foundations of Interaction Design 2003, Ivrea, Italy. .

2002
 
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Moran, Thomas P. (2002): Everyday adaptive design. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 13-14.

2001
 
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Moran, Thomas P. and Dourish, Paul (2001): Introduction to This Special Issue on Context-Aware Computing. In Human-Computer Interaction, 16 (2) pp. 87-95.

 
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Avrahami, Daniel, Hudson, Scott E., Moran, Thomas P. and Williams, Brian D. (2001): Guided gesture support in the paper PDA. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 197-198.

Ordinary paper offers properties of readability, fluidity, flexibility, cost, and portability that current electronic devices are often hard pressed to match. In fact, a lofty goal for many interactive systems is to be "as easy to use as pencil and paper". However, the static nature of paper does not support a number of capabilities, such as search and hyperlinking that an electronic device can provide. The Paper PDA project explores ways in which hybrid paper electronic interfaces can bring some of the capabilities of the electronic medium to interactions occurring on real paper. Key to this effort is the invention of on-paper interaction techniques which retain the flexibility and fluidity of normal pen and paper, but which are structured enough to allow robust interpretation and processing in the digital world. This paper considers the design of a class of simple printed templates that allow users to make common marks in a fluid fashion, and allow additional gestures to be invented by the users to meet their needs, but at the same time encourages marks that are quite easy to recognize.

© All rights reserved Avrahami et al. and/or ACM Press

2000
 
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Moran, Thomas P. (2000): Using Distance Education to Teach Introductory Multimedia Design and Production. In: IEEE IPCC 2000 / ACM 18th International Conference on Systems Documentation 2000. pp. 93-98.

 
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Fishkin, Kenneth P., Gujar, Anuj, Harrison, Beverly L., Moran, Thomas P. and Want, Roy (2000): Embodied user interfaces for really direct manipulation. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (9) pp. 74-80.

1999
 
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Moran, Thomas P., Saund, Eric, Melle, William van, Gujar, Anuj, Fishkin, Kenneth P. and Harrison, Beverly L. (1999): Design and Technology for Collaborage: Collaborative Collages of Information on Physical Walls. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 197-206.

A Collaborage is a collaborative collage of physically represented information on a surface that is connected with electronic information, such as a physical In/Out board connected to a people-locator database. The physical surface (board) contains items that are tracked by camera and computer vision technology. Events on the board trigger electronic services. This paper motivates this concept, presents three different applications, describes the system architecture and component technologies, and discusses several design issues.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fishkin, Kenneth P., Moran, Thomas P. and Harrison, Beverly L. (1999): Embodied User Interfaces: Towards Invisible User Interfaces. In: Chatty, Stephane and Dewan, Prasun (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, IFIP TC2/TC13 WG2.7/WG13.4 Seventh Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction September 14-18, 1999, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. pp. 1-18.

1998
 
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Moran, Thomas P., Melle, William van and Chiu, Patrick (1998): Tailorable Domain Objects as Meeting Tools for an Electronic Whiteboard. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 295-304.

Our goal is to provide tools to support working meetings on an electronic whiteboard, called Tivoli. This paper describes how we have integrated structured "domain objects" into the whiteboard environment. Domain objects represent the subject matter of meetings and can be exchanged between Tivoli and group databases. Domain objects can be tailored to produce meeting tools that are finely tuned to meeting practices. We describe the facility for tailoring and managing domain objects and the user interface techniques for blending these into the whiteboard environment. We show examples of both specific and generic meeting tools crafted from domain objects, and we describe a long-term case study in which these tools support an ongoing work process.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Streitz, Norbert A., Hartkopf, Volker, Ishii, Hiroshi, Kaplan, Simon M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1998): Cooperative Buildings: Integrating Information, Organization, & Architecture. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 411-413.

Future work, cooperation, and organizations will be characterized by greater dynamics, flexibility and mobility. Realizing this goal has profound implications for information and communication technology as well as architecture because virtual and physical spaces have to be designed in an integrated fashion to provide equally flexible cooperative work environments. We will outline a challenging generation of new problems and issues which are likely to shape future CSCW and building research.

© All rights reserved Streitz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Moran, Thomas P., Melle, William van and Chiu, Patrick (1998): Spatial Interpretation of Domain Objects Integrated into a Freeform Electronic Whiteboard. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 175-184.

Our goal is to provide tools to support working meetings on an electronic whiteboard, called Tivoli. This paper describes how we have integrated structured domain objects, which represent the subject matter of meetings, into the freeform whiteboard environment. Domain objects can be tailored to produce meeting tools that are finely tuned to meeting practices. We describe the language for defining domain objects and show examples of meeting tools that have been built with the language. We show that the system can interpret the spatial relationships of domain objects on the whiteboard to encode the meanings of the spatial arrangements, and we describe the computational mechanisms. We discuss some of the design principles for tailoring gestures for domain objects. Finally, we enumerate the techniques we have used to integrate the structured objects into the freeform whiteboard environment.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Olson, Gary M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1998): Introduction to This Special Issue on Experimental Comparisons of Usability Evaluation Methods. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (3) pp. 199-201.

 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1998): Designing Usable Lists. In: ACM 16th International Conference on Systems Documentation 1998. pp. 58-62.

Creating lists is an effective method to organize and present complex technical information. This paper presents a summary of methods that writers and designers can use to make their lists more usable. Attention is given to a list's visual impact, the context within which it is to be used, its interactive features, and its grammatical structure.

© All rights reserved Moran and/or ACM Press

 
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Edmonds, Ernest, Moran, Thomas P. and Do, Ellen (1998): Interactive Systems for Supporting the Emergence of Concepts and Ideas. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 30 (1) pp. 24-25.

Five summary propositions: 1. The phenomenon of emergence is ubiquitous. It should be supported in everyday tools. 2. Ideas emerge over time, often last over long periods of time, the idea is often not recognized as new until later in time. 3. Rough sketching is an important representation for affording emergence. 4. Systems should enable user to see things in different ways by providing multiple representations and suggesting alternatives. 5. Representations are used both as particular languages for individuals and to mediate collaboration among group of designers. More information is available at: http://bashful.lboro.ac.uk/chi-wshop/

© All rights reserved Edmonds et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Moran, Thomas P., Palen, Leysia, Harrison, Steve, Chiu, Patrick, Kimberg, Daniel Y., Minneman, Scott, Melle, William van and Zellweger, Polle T. (1997): "I'll Get That Off the Audio": A Case Study of Salvaging Multimedia Meeting Records. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 202-209.

We describe a case study of a complex, ongoing, collaborative work process, where the central activity is a series of meetings reviewing a wide range of subtle technical topics. The problem is the accurate reporting of the results of these meetings, which is the responsibility of a single person, who is not well-versed in all the topics. We provided tools to capture the meeting discussions and tools to "salvage" the captured multimedia recordings. Salvaging is a new kind of activity involving replaying, extracting, organizing, and writing. We observed a year of mature salvaging work in the case study. From this we describe the nature of salvage work (the constituent activities, the use of the workspace, the affordances of the audio medium, how practices develop and differentiate, how the content material affects practice). We also demonstrate how this work relates to the larger work processes (the task demands of the setting, the interplay of salvage with capture, the influence on the people being reported on and reported to). Salvaging tools are shown to be valuable for dealing with free-flowing discussions of complex subject matter and for producing high quality documentation.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Moran, Thomas P., Chiu, Patrick and Melle, William van (1997): Pen-Based Interaction Techniques for Organizing Material on an Electronic Whiteboard. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 45-54.

This paper presents a scheme for extending an informal, pen-based whiteboard system (the Tivoli application on the Xerox LiveBoard) to provide interaction techniques that enable groups of users in informal meetings to easily organize and rearrange material and to manage the space on the board. The techniques are based on the direct manipulation of boundaries and the implicit recognition of regions. The techniques include operations for shrinking and rearranging, structured borders that tessellate the board, freeform enclosures that can be split, fused, and linked, and collapsible annotations. Experience with using these techniques, the results of a user test, some design trade-offs and lessons, and future directions are discussed.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Moran, Thomas P., Chiu, Patrick, Harrison, Steve, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Minneman, Scott and Melle, William van (1996): Evolutionary Engagement in an Ongoing Collaborative Work Process: A Case Study. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 150-159.

We describe a case study in which experimental collaboration technologies was used for over two years in the real, ongoing work process of intellectual property management (IPM) at Xerox PARC. The technologies include LiveBoard-based meeting support tools, laptop notetaking tools, digital audio recording, and workstation tools to later access and replay the meeting activities. In cooperation with the IPM manager, both the work process and the tools were continuously evolved to improve the process. We supported and observed over 60 meetings, leading to a rich set of empirical observations of the meeting activities. We note some practical lessons for this research approach.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Moran, Thomas P. and Carroll, John M. (eds.) (1996): Design Rationale: Concepts, Techniques, and Use. Mahwah, New Jersey, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Moran, Thomas P. and Carroll, John M. (1996): Design Rationale: Concepts, Techniques, and Use (Computers, Cognition, and Work Series). CRC Press

1995
 
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Shipman III, Frank M., Marshall, Catherine C. and Moran, Thomas P. (1995): Finding and Using Implicit Structure in Human-Organized Spatial Layouts of Information. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 346-353.

Many interfaces allow users to manipulate graphical objects, icons representing underlying data or the data themselves, against a spatial backdrop or canvas. Users take advantage of the flexibility offered by spatial manipulation to create evolving lightweight structures. We have been investigating these implicit organizations so we can support user activities like information management or exploratory analysis. To accomplish this goal, we have analyzed the spatial structures people create in diverse settings and tasks, developed algorithms to detect the common structures we identified in our survey, and experimented with new facilities based on recognized structure. Similar recognition-based functionality can be used within many common applications, providing more support for users' activities with less attendant overhead.

© All rights reserved Shipman III et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Moran, Thomas P., Chiu, Patrick, Melle, William van and Kurtenbach, Gordon (1995): Implicit Structures for Pen-Based Systems within a Freeform Interaction Paradigm. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 487-494.

This paper presents a scheme for extending an informal, pen-based whiteboard system (Tivoli on the Xerox LiveBoard) to provide a structured editing capability without violating its free expression and ease of use. The scheme supports list, text, table, and outline structures over handwritten scribbles and typed text. The scheme is based on the system temporarily perceiving the "implicit structure" that humans see in the material, which is called a WYPIWYG (What You Perceive Is What You Get) capability. The design techniques, principles, trade-offs, and limitations of the scheme are discussed. A notion of "freeform interaction" is proposed to position the system with respect to current user interface techniques.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Minneman, Scott L., Harrison, Steve R., Janssen, Bill, Kurtenbach, Gordon, Moran, Thomas P., Smith, Ian E. and Melle, William van (1995): A Confederation of Tools for Capturing and Accessing Collaborative Activity. In: ACM Multimedia 1995 1995. pp. 523-534.

1994
 
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Saund, Eric and Moran, Thomas P. (1994): A Perceptually-Supported Sketch Editor. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 175-184.

The human visual system makes a great deal more of images than the elemental marks on a surface. In the course of viewing, creating, or editing a picture, we actively construct a host of visual structures and relationships as components of sensible interpretations. This paper shows how some of these computational processes can be incorporated into perceptually-supported image editing tools, enabling machines to better engage users at the level of their own percepts. We focus on the domain of freehand sketch editors, such as an electronic whiteboard application for a pen-based computer. By using computer vision techniques to perform covert recognition of visual structure as it emerges during the course of a drawing/editing session, a perceptually supported image editor gives users access to visual objects as they are perceived by the human visual system. We present a flexible image interpretation architecture based on token grouping in a multistate blackboard data structure. This organization supports multiple perceptual interpretations of line drawing data, domain-specific knowledge bases for interpretable visual structures, and gesture-based selection of visual objects. A system implementing these ideas, called PerSketch, begins to explore a new space of WYPIWYG (What Your Perceive Is What You Get) image editing tools.

© All rights reserved Saund and Moran and/or ACM Press

 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1994): Introduction to This Special Issue on Context in Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 9 (1) pp. 1-2.

 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1994): Commentary on Borderline Issues. In Human-Computer Interaction, 9 (1) pp. 37-135.

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon, Moran, Thomas P. and Buxton, Bill (1994): Contextual animation of gestural commands. In: Graphics Interface 94 May 18-20, 1994, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 83-90.

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon, Moran, Thomas P. and Buxton, Bill (1994): Contextual Animation of Gestural Commands. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 13 (5) pp. 305-314.

1993
 
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Anderson, R. J., Heath, Christian, Luff, Paul and Moran, Thomas P. (1993): The Social and the Cognitive in Human-Computer Interaction. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 38 (6) pp. 999-1016.

Of late, designers of interactive systems and other exponents of HCI have expressed an increased interest in the contribution which Social Science might make to design. Using recent discussions of "distributed cognition" as our stalking horse, we show that a strategy of simple annexation or incorporation is unlikely to realize the value which the Social Sciences might contribute. Such value will not be derived by a "filling out" of design requirements through the addition of social dimensions to cognitive ones. Rather, it will take the form of a re-appraisal of deep-seated distinctions such as that between the social and the cognitive. In the context of some on-going work at EuroPARC, we examine the possibilities which this re-appraisal might offer. We conclude with a review of the implications of this kind of re-appraisal for the design of interactive systems.

© All rights reserved Anderson et al. and/or Academic Press

1992
 
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Gaver, William W., Moran, Thomas P., MacLean, Allan, Lovstrand, Lennart, Dourish, Paul, Carter, Kathleen and Buxton, Bill (1992): Realizing a Video Environment: EuroPARC's RAVE System. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 27-35.

At EuroPARC, we have been exploring ways to allow physically separated colleagues to work together effectively and naturally. In this paper, we briefly discuss several examples of our work in the context of three themes that have emerged: the need to support the full range of shared work; the desire to ensure privacy without giving up unobtrusive awareness; and the possibility of creating systems which blur the boundaries between people, technologies and the everyday world.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Robertson, George G. (1992): Remembering Allen Newell. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (4) pp. 22-24.

1991
 
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MacLean, Allan, Bellotti, Victoria, Young, Richard M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1991): Reaching Through Analogy: A Design Rationale Perspective on Roles of Analogy. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 167-172.

A powerful way of reaching through technology is to use analogy to make the technology transparent by exploiting the user's familiarity with other situations. However, analogy has a number of roles in user interface design in addition to the one of helping the user understand the system. In this paper we consider some of these roles and their relationship to our Design Rationale (DR) framework (MacLean et al., 1989). Our goals are to develop the DR framework by exploring the implications of explicitly taking account of analogy, and to articulate an account of the roles of analogy in design by organising them around DR concepts.

© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Carroll, John M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1991): Introduction to this Special Issue on Design Rationale. In Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (3) pp. 197-200.

 
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MacLean, Allan, Young, Richard M., Bellotti, Victoria and Moran, Thomas P. (1991): Questions, Options, and Criteria: Elements of Design Space Analysis. In Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (3) pp. 201-250.

Design Space Analysis is an approach to representing design rationale. It uses a semiformal notation, called QOC (Questions, Options, and Criteria), to represent the design space around an artifact. The main constituents of QOC are Questions identifying key design issues, Options providing possible answers to the Questions, and Criteria for assessing and comparing the Options. Design Space Analysis also takes account of justifications for the design (and possible alternative designs) that reflect considerations such as consistency, models and analogies, and relevant data and theory. A Design Space Analysis does not produce a record of the design process but is instead a coproduct of design and has to be constructed alongside the artifact itself. Our work is motivated by the notion that a Design Space Analysis will repay the investment in its creation by supporting both the original process of design and subsequent work on redesign and reuse by (a) providing an explicit representation to aid reasoning about the design and about the consequences of changes to it and (b) serving as a vehicle for communication, for example, among members of the design team or among the original designers and later maintainers of a system. Our work to date emphasizes the nature of the QOC representation over processes for creating it, so these claims serve as goals rather than objectives we have achieved. This article describes the elements of Design Space Analysis and illustrates them by reference to analyses of existing designs and to studies of the concepts and arguments used by designers during design discussions.

© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]


 
 
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Bellotti, Victoria, MacLean, Allan and Moran, Thomas P. (1991): What Makes a Good Design Question?. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 80-81.

1990
 
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Moran, Thomas P. and Anderson, R. J. (1990): The Workaday World as a Paradigm for CSCW Design. In: Halasz, Frank (ed.) Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work October 07 - 10, 1990, Los Angeles, California, United States. pp. 381-393.

 
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MacLean, Allan, Carter, Kathleen, Lovstrand, Lennart and Moran, Thomas P. (1990): User-Tailorable Systems: Pressing the Issues with Buttons. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 175-182.

It is impossible to design systems which are appropriate for all users and all situations. We believe that a useful technique is to have end users tailor their systems to match their personal work practices. This requires not only systems which can be tailored, but a culture within which users feel in control of the system and in which tailoring is the norm. In a two-pronged research project we have worked closely with a group of users to develop a system to support tailoring and to help the users evolve a "tailoring culture". This has resulted in a flexible system based around the use of distributed on-screen Buttons to support a range of tailoring techniques.

© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or ACM Press

1989
 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1989): What is EuroPARC?. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 51-52.

 
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MacLean, Allan, Young, Richard M. and Moran, Thomas P. (1989): Design Rationale: The Argument Behind the Artifact. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 247-252.

We assert that the product of user interface design should be not only the interface itself but also a rationale for why the interface is the way it is. We describe a representation for design based around a semi-formal notation which allows us explicitly to represent alternative design options and reasons for choosing among them. We illustrate the approach with examples from an analysis of scrolling mechanisms. We discuss the roles we expect such a representation to play in improving the coherence of designs and in communicating reasons for choices to others, whether designers, maintainers, collaborators or end users.

© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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Trigg, Randall H., Moran, Thomas P. and Halasz, Frank (1987): Adaptability and Tailorability in NoteCards. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 723-728.

NoteCards is an information structuring system developed in the Intelligent Systems Lab at Xerox PARC. A major design goal has been that NoteCards be an adaptable system, that is, tunable or customizable by users for particular applications and styles of use. In this paper, we describe four ways that a system can be adaptable: (1) it can have a flexible underlying conceptual model, (2) its behavior can be parametrized, (3) it can be integratable with other facilities, and (4) it can be tailorable, i.e. users themselves can add new functionality. We discuss the adaptability of NoteCards according to each of the above criteria. Finally, an example of large scale tailoring in NoteCards is presented.

© All rights reserved Trigg et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Halasz, Frank, Moran, Thomas P. and Trigg, Randall H. (1987): NoteCards in a nutshell. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 45-52.

 
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Shrager, Jeff, Jordan, Daniel S., Moran, Thomas P., Kiczales, Gregor and Russell, Daniel M. (1987): Issues in the Pragmatics of Qualitative Modeling: Lessons Learned from a Xerographics Project. In Communications of the ACM, 30 (12) pp. 1036-1047.

1986
 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1986): The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1985
 
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Mack, Robert L., Moran, Thomas P., Olson, Judith R. and Wixon, Dennis (1985): Computer Human Factors in Computer Interface Design. In: Borman, Lorraine and Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 137-138.

Human factors psychologist contribute in many ways to improving human-computer interaction. One contribution involves evaluating existing or prototype systems, in order to assess usability and identify problems. Another involves contributing more directly to the design of systems in the first place: that is, not only evaluating systems but bringing to bear empirical methods and theoretical considerations that help specify what are plausible designs in the first place. The goal of this panel is to discuss four case studies emphasizing this role of cognitive human factors, and identify relevant methods and theoretical considerations.

© All rights reserved Mack et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1985): Introduction to this Special Issue on New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (4) pp. 309-310.

1984
 
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Rosenberg, Jarrett and Moran, Thomas P. (1984): Generic Commands. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 245-249.

A generic command is one which is recognized in all contexts of a computer system; examples from the Xerox 8010 Star system are move, copy, and delete. They may be viewed as extremely general actions which make minimal assumptions about their objects, the particular interpretation of the commands depending on the contexts in which they are issued and the nature of the objects to which they are applied. Of the several tradeoffs involved in using generic commands, the primary one concerns having to design the objects in the system so as to efficiently use them.

© All rights reserved Rosenberg and Moran and/or North-Holland

1983
 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1983): The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapters:

GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection Rules): [Not yet published]

Philosophy of Interaction: [/encyclopedia/philosophy_of_interaction.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1983): Getting Into a System: External-Internal Task Mapping Analysis. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 45-49.

A task analysis technique, called ETIT analysis, is introduced. It is based on the idea that tasks in the external world must be reformulated into the internal concepts of a computer system before the system can be used. The analysis is in the form of a mapping between sets of external tasks and internal tasks. An example analysis of several text editing systems is presented, and various properties of the systems are derived from the analysis. Further, it is shown how this analysis can be used to assess the potential transfer of knowledge from one system to another, i.e., how much knowing one system helps with learning another. Several issues are briefly discussed.

© All rights reserved Moran and/or ACM Press

 
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Douglas, Sarah A. and Moran, Thomas P. (1983): Learning Text Editor Semantics by Analogy. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 207-211.

This paper presents a cognitive model for one aspect of how novices learn text editors-the acquisition of procedural skill by problem solving in problem spaces and the use of analogy for building a representation of the semantics of text-editor commands (which we call operators). Protocol data of computer-native subjects learning the EMACS text editor suggests that they use their knowledge of typewriting to decide which commands to use in performing editing tasks. We propose a formal method of analysis that compares operators in two problem spaces and generates misconceptions. The comparison of these predicted misconceptions with verbal comments, error data, and task difficulty lends support to this analysis.

© All rights reserved Douglas and Moran and/or ACM Press

 
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Halasz, Frank and Moran, Thomas P. (1983): Mental Models and Problem Solving in Using a Calculator. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 212-216.

It has often been suggested that users understand and reason about complex system on the basis of a mental model of the system's internal mechanics. This paper describes an empirical study of how mental model knowledge is used in operating a stack calculator. One group of naive users were taught step-by-step procedures for solving typical problems on the calculator. A second group of naive users were taught the same procedures in conjunction with an explicit model of the calculator's stack mechanism. The users then solved problems on the calculator while thinking aloud. Analysis of the performance of these two groups indicates that the model had little effect in routine problem solving situations. But significantly improved performance for novel problems. Analyses of the think-aloud protocols indicate that the users employed five distinct modes of problem solving: skilled methods, problem reduction strategies, a conversion algorithm, model-based problem space search, and methods-based problem space search. Skilled methods, problem reduction strategies and the conversion algorithm were used for solving more routine problems and did not necessarily depend on mental model knowledge. Problem space search was used in the novel problems. For the model users, the states and operations of the stack mechanism served as the problem space to be searched for a problem solution. In contrast, the no-model users employed a less effective search strategy based on the recombination of pieces of known procedures. These results indicate that explicitly teaching naive users an appropriate mental model of a system can provide a psychologically effective and robust basis for operating the machine.

© All rights reserved Halasz and and/or ACM Press

 
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Ross, Brian H. and Moran, Thomas P. (1983): Remindings and Their Effects in Learning a Text Editor. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 222-225.

How can learning in text-editing be characterized? Much recent work has focused on the use of analogies from prior experience. In this paper, we investigate the retrievals of earlier experiences within the editor and how they might be used by analogy to accomplish the task and learn the editor. An experiment is presented that demonstrates the effects of these "remindings" on performance. In addition, some possible determinants of these remindings are investigated. This experiment points out the need to consider not only the general form of instruction, but also the specifics of the instructional sequence as well. Irrelevant aspects of the task may have strong effects on performance. We consider three teaching techniques, designed to take advantage of these effects in different ways.

© All rights reserved Ross and Moran and/or ACM Press

 
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Roberts, Teresa L. and Moran, Thomas P. (1983): The Evaluation of Text Editors: Methodology and Empirical Results. In Communications of the ACM, 26 (4) pp. 265-283.

1982
 
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Black, John B. and Moran, Thomas P. (1982): Learning and Remembering Command Names. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 8-11.

 
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Roberts, Teresa L. and Moran, Thomas P. (1982): Evaluation of Text Editors. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 136-141.

This paper presents a methodology for evaluating computer text editors from the viewpoint of their users -- from novices learning the editor to dedicated experts who have mastered the editor. The dimensions which this methodology addresses are: - Time to perform edit tasks by experts. - Errors made by experts. - Learning of basic edit tasks by novices. - Functionality over all possible edit tasks. The methodology is objective and thorough, yet easy to use. The criterion of objectivity implies that the evaluation scheme not be biased in favor of any particular editor's conceptual model -- its way of representing text and operations on the text. In addition, data is gathered by observing people who are equally familiar with each system. Thoroughness implies that several different aspects of editor usage be considered. Ease-of-use means that the methodology is usable by editor designers, managers of word processing centers, or other non-psychologists who need this kind of information, but have limited time and equipment resources. In this paper, we explain the methodology first, then give some interesting empirical results from applying it to several editors.

© All rights reserved Roberts and Moran and/or ACM Press

 
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Moran, Thomas P. and Card, Stuart K. (1982): Applying Cognitive Psychology to Computer Systems: A Graduate Seminar in Psychology. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 295-298.

 
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Halasz, Frank and Moran, Thomas P. (1982): Analogy Considered Harmful. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 383-386.

 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1982): From task to interaction: What the user must know. In: Graphics Interface 82 May 17-21, 1982, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. p. 13.

1981
 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1981): Editorial: Special Issue on "The Semantics and Syntax of Human-Computer Interaction". In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 15 (1) pp. 1-2.

 
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Moran, Thomas P. (1981): The Command Language Grammar: A Representation for the User Interface of Interactive Computer Systems. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 15 (1) pp. 3-50.

This article introduces and discusses a specific grammatical structure -- the Command Language Grammar (CLG) -- as a representational framework for describing the user interface aspects of interactive computer systems. CLG partitions a system into a Conceptual Component (tasks and abstract concepts), a Communication Component (command language), and a Physical Component (display, keyboard, etc.). The components are further stratified into distinct Levels -- a Task Level, a Semantic Level, a Syntactic Level, and an Interaction Level -- each Level being a complete description of the system at its level of abstraction. Each Level's description contains procedures for accomplishing the tasks addressed by the system in terms of the actions available at that Level. That is, the system is described by progressive refinement. An extensive example, a small message-processing system, is described at all Levels in the CLG notation. CLG is discussed from three points of view: the Linguistic View sees CLG as elaborating the structure of the system's user interface and of the communication between the user and the system. The principal goal of CLG in this view is to lay out the space of command language systems. The Psychological View sees CLG as describing the user's mental model of the system. The main concern in this view is with the psychological validity of the CLG description. The Design View sees CLG as a series of representations for specifying the design of a system. CLG proposes a top-down design process in which the conceptual model of the system is first specified and the a command language is created to communicate with it.

© All rights reserved Moran and/or Academic Press

1980
 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1980): The keystroke-level model for user performance with interactive systems. In Communications of the ACM, 23 pp. 396-410.

There are several aspects of user-computer performance that system designers should systematically consider. The authors propose a simple model, the keystroke-level model, for predicting one aspect of performance: the time it takes an expert user to perform a given task on a given computer system. The model is based on counting keystrokes and other low-level operations, including the user's mental preparations and the system's responses. Performance is coded in terms of these operations and operator times summed to give predictions. Heuristic rules are given for predicting where mental preparations occur. When tested against data on 10 different systems, the model's prediction error is 21 percent for individual tasks. An example is given to illustrate how the model can be used to produce parametric predictions and how sensitivity analysis can be used to redeem conclusions in the face of uncertain assumptions. Finally, the model is compared to several simpler versions. The potential role for the keystroke-level model in system design is discussed.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/thomas_p__moran.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1980-2011
Pub. count:66
Number of co-authors:79



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

William van Melle:8
Allan MacLean:6
Patrick Chiu:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Thomas P. Moran's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Scott E. Hudson:113
Hiroshi Ishii:111
 
 
 

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