Number of co-authors:33
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:John D. Gould:12Sharon L. Greene:6William Bennett:5
Stephen J. Boies's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:James D. Foley:49Dennis Wixon:43John D. Gould:27
Computer analyst to programmer: "You start coding. I'll go find out what they want."
-- Popular computer one-liner
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Stephen J. Boies
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Publications by Stephen J. Boies (bibliography)
Wiecha, Charles, Boies, Stephen J., Gaitatzes, Margaret, Levy, Stephen, MacNaught, Julie, Matchen, Paul, McFaddin, Scott, Mundel, David and Thompson, Richard (2001): Achieving universal access through web services architectures. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) HCI International 2001 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 5-10, 2001, New Orleans, USA. pp. 210-214.
Danis, Catalina and Boies, Stephen J. (2000): Using a Technique from Graphic Designers to Develop Innovative System Designs. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 20-26.
Rapid technological change requires that system designers explore potential design spaces widely before committing to a local design space in which to evolve a problem solution. We discuss an approach for doing this, which we base on an analogy with an approach used by graphic designers. We have observed that our colleagues in the graphic design community begin exploring a problem space by generating multiple, divergent design ideas. They then proceed to elaborate them -- extending, combining and discarding -- as the problem space dictates. We illustrate our adaptation of this approach with a case study of our initial design work on a system for supporting self-service sales of information technology (IT).
© All rights reserved Danis and Boies and/or ACM Press
Jones, Lauretta, Danis, Catalina and Boies, Stephen J. (1999): Avoiding the Mistake of Cloning: A Case for User-Centered Design Methods to Reengineer Documents. In: HICSS 1999 1999. .
Boies, Stephen J., Ukelson, Jacob P., Gould, John D., Anderson, David, Babecki, Watt and Clifford, Jerry (1993): Using ITS to Create an Insurance Industry Application: A Joint Case Study. In Human-Computer Interaction, 8 (4) pp. 311-336.
In a joint case study, IBM and Continental Insurance evaluated the use of a new software development environment (called ITS) to implement a portion of an important Continental Insurance underwriting application. IBM and Continental's data-processing management jointly concluded that ITS (a) is fairly easy to learn and use; (b) substantially reduces application development time; (c) is capable of doing a range of Continental applications; and (d) produces applications that are easier to maintain over the years as usage patterns, insurance laws, and evolving technology require that these applications be changed.
© All rights reserved Boies et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Gould, John D., Ukelson, Jacob P. and Boies, Stephen J. (1993): Improving Application Development Productivity by Using ITS. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 39 (1) pp. 113-146.
Perhaps the key problem in application development today is the need to increase the productivity of development organizations. This paper identifies the main factors affecting application development productivity, and then describes a new application development environment (called ITS, which stands for Interactive Transaction System) that is aimed at, among other things, addressing these factors. A unique feature of ITS is the support of multiple, rule-based user interface styles, which has the implication of allowing multiple applications to run in the same style and the same application to run in multiple styles. The results of four case studies of developers using ITS to implement serious applications are summarized, with emphasis upon the effects of ITS on development productivity. These results demonstrate that ITS (a) greatly enhances application development productivity, and (b) provides a mechanism for creating applications that can lead to improved end-user productivity and that of their work organizations. These studies can also serve as a model for how to do human factors work within very advanced technological projects -- ones where the preoccupation of necessity first centers on establishing technical feasibility.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Academic Press
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J. and Lewis, Clayton (1991): Making Usable, Useful, Productivity-Enhancing Computer Applications. In Communications of the ACM, 34 (1) pp. 74-85.
Wiecha, Charles and Boies, Stephen J. (1990): Generating User Interfaces: Principles and Use of ITS Style Rules. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 21-30.
Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L., Boies, Stephen J., Meluson, Antonia and Rasamny, Marwan (1990): Using a Touchscreen for Simple Tasks. In Interacting with Computers, 2 (1) pp. 59-74.
This work was done in the context of an interdisciplinary project (called ITS) aimed at producing new tools for computer application development. One motivation is to provide designers with a computer-based toolkit from which they can select human-computer interaction techniques appropriate to various contexts and conditions. These experiments extend our work to touchscreens, and provide a basis of comparison with keyboards and arrow keys. Three human-computer interaction methods, including basic entry and autocompletion, were studied in two simple laboratory scenarios: participants specified dates and airlines reservations. Autocompletion was preferred over, and was faster than, basic entry. The a priori countable, minimum number of touches required to use a particular interaction method is a good predictor of how much time people will need to use that interaction method on a particular task. Similar results were found previously with keyboards and arrow keys.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Elsevier Science
Wiecha, Charles, Bennett, William, Boies, Stephen J., Gould, John A. and Greene, Sharon L. (1990): ITS: A Tool for Rapidly Developing Interactive Applications. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 8 (3) pp. 204-236.
The ITS architecture separates applications into four layers. The action layer implements back-end application functions. The dialog layer defines the content of the user interface, independent of its style. Content specifies the objects included in each frame of the interface, the flow of control among frames, and what actions are associated with each object. The style rule layer defines the presentation and behavior of a family of interaction techniques. Finally, the style program layer implements primitive toolkit objects that are composed by the rule layer into complete interaction techniques. This paper describes the architecture in detail, compares it with previous User Interface Management Systems and toolkits, and describes how ITS is being used to implement the visitor information system for EXPO'92.
© All rights reserved Wiecha et al. and/or ACM Press
Wiecha, Charles, Bennett, William, Boies, Stephen J. and Gould, John D. (1989): Generating Highly Interactive User Interfaces. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 277-282.
Bennett, William, Boies, Stephen J., Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L. and Wiecha, Charles (1989): Transformations on a Dialog Tree: Rule-Based Mapping of Content to Style. In: Sibert, John L. (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology November 13 - 15, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. pp. 67-75.
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Greene, Sharon L. and Bennett, William (1989): ITS: A New Method for Computer Application Development and Prototyping. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. pp. 245-248.
Perhaps the one thing that user interface designers most want is tools that will help them (a) quickly visualize their work; (b) carry it out more efficiently and faster; and (c) do iterative design; and (d) allow them to do more work without the need of programmers. An on-going research project (called ITS) is responding to these challenges by developing software tools for user interface and application development, together with providing a run-time environment for application execution. There are four key concepts. First, ITS separates the style of an application from the content of an application. Human-computer interface styles are general, rule-based, under parameter control, and designed to handle a variety of applications. Second, ITS envisions four general work roles in application design and development: content experts, content programmers, style experts, and style programmers. Third, end users do four operations: make choices, fill in forms, manipulate lists, and read information blocks. Fourth, ITS aims at creating software tools for each work role.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Boies, Stephen J., Gould, John D., Greene, Sharon L. and Bennett, William (1989): Demonstration of ITS -- A Rapid Application Development System for User Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 33rd Annual Meeting 1989. p. 1142.
This note is in connection with a live demonstration of ITS. ITS is aimed at providing fast prototyping of user interfaces in new computer applications (within a few hours of when a designer begins work); greatly reducing the workload in designing, implementing, testing computer applications; insuring excellent, consistent, well-tested interface styles. ITS is a new, comprehensive approach to application development (see in this proceedings Gould, Boies, Bennett, and Green for references). ITS provides software tools for user interface and application development, and a run-time environment for application execution. There are four key concepts. First, ITS separates the style of an application from the content of an application.... Second, ITS envisions four general work roles in application design and development: application (content) experts, application (content) programmers, style experts, and style programmers.... Third, our informal analysis of computer applications indicates that end users do four operations: make choices, fill in forms, manipulate lists, and read information blocks. All information that flows across the user interface can be thought of in terms of these four operations.... Fourth, ITS aims at creating software tools for each role.... If successful, ITS will: (a) Reduce the main source of errors in application development today, namely poor customer-programmer communication, by allowing content experts to become implementers (not just interviewees). (b) Reduce the risks and major resistance in carrying out interface design today. Separating user interface style and user interface content allows each to be tested independently without unforeseen, dangerous side-effects. (c) Speed up application development through code re-use and productivity enhancing tools. (d) Relieve severe skill shortages of outstanding programmers and not enough usability people. The best work will be leveraged. (e) Provide a framework for formulating human factors work and insuring that it has impact. In contrast to user interface guidelines, which are instantiated in a book, ITS results are instantiated in a computer-based toolkit.
© All rights reserved Boies et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Meluson, Mia, Rasamny, Marwan and Vosburgh, Ann Marie (1988): Empirical Evaluation of Entry and Selection Methods for Specifying Dates. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 279-283.
Experienced and inexperienced computer users used seven different interaction methods to specify dates of events. Key results were that the three entry methods were faster, more accurate, and preferred over the four selection methods -- by both experienced and inexperienced computer users. The rank order of performance with these methods was about the same for both groups. Number of keystrokes required by each method was a good predictor of performance time. For selection tasks, decomposing them into separate fields is advisable.
© All rights reserved Gould et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Greene, Sharon L., Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Meluson, Antonia and Rasamny, Marwan (1988): Entry-Based versus Selection-Based Interaction Methods. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 32nd Annual Meeting 1988. pp. 284-287.
Five different human-computer interaction techniques were studied to determine the relative advantages of entry-based and selection-based methods. Gould, Boies, Meluson, Rasamny, and Vosburgh (1988), found that entry techniques aided by either automatic or requested string completion, were superior to various selection-based techniques. This study examines unaided as well as aided entry techniques, and compares them to selection-based methods. Variations in spelling difficulty and database size were studied for their effect on user performance and preferences. The main results were that automatic string completion was the fastest method and selection techniques were better than unaided entry techniques, especially for hard-to-spell words. This was particularly true for computer-inexperienced participants. The database size had its main influence on performance with the selection techniques. In the selection and aided-entry methods there was a strong correlation between the observed keystroke times and the minimum number of keystrokes required by a task.
© All rights reserved Greene et al. and/or Human Factors Society
Mosteller, William, Boies, Stephen J., Grantham, Charles E., Irby, Thomas, Rubinstein, Richard and Wixon, Dennis (1987): The politics of human factors. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 331-332.
Gould, John D., Boies, Stephen J., Levy, Stephen, Richards, John T. and Schoonard, Jim (1987): The 1984 Olympic Message System: A Test of Behavioral Principles of System Design. In Communications of the ACM, 30 (9) pp. 758-769.
Foley, James D., Boies, Stephen J., Wood, William and Zimmer, William (1986): Managing the Design of User-Computer Interfaces. In: Mantei, Marilyn and Orbeton, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 86 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 13-17, 1986, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 340-342.
Gould, John D. and Boies, Stephen J. (1983): Human Factors Challenges in Creating a Principal Support Office System -- The Speech Filing System Approach. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 1 (4) pp. 273-298.
This paper identifies the key behavioral challenges in designing a principal-office system and our approaches to them. These challenges included designing a system which office principals would find useful and would directly use themselves. Ultimately, the system, called the Speech Filing System (SFS), became primarily a voice store and forward message system with which users compose, edit, send, and receive audio messages, using telephones as terminals. Our approaches included behavioral analyses of principals' needs and irritations, controlled laboratory experiments, several years of training, observing, and interviewing hundreds of actual SFS users, several years of demonstrating SFS to thousands of potential users and receiving feedback, empirical studies of alternative methods of training and documentation, continual major modifications of the user interface, simulations of alternative user interfaces, and actual SFS usage analyses. The results indicate that SFS is now relatively easy to learn, solves real business problems, and leads to user satisfaction.
© All rights reserved Gould and Boies and/or ACM Press
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