Publication statistics

Pub. period:2007-2012
Pub. count:16
Number of co-authors:41


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Jacob O. Wobbrock:9
Richard E. Ladner:4
Daniel Avrahami:2



Productive colleagues

Shaun K. Kane's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Jonathan Grudin:105
Jacob O. Wobbrock:71
Hiroshi Ishiguro:55

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Shaun K. Kane


Publications by Shaun K. Kane (bibliography)

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Kane, Shaun K., Linam-Church, Barbara, Althoff, Kyle and McCall, Denise (2012): What we talk about: designing a context-aware communication tool for people with aphasia. In: Fourteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2012. pp. 49-56. Available online

Many people with aphasia experience difficulty recalling words extemporaneously, but can recognize those words when given an image, text, or audio prompt. Augmented and alternative communication (AAC) systems can help address this problem by enabling people with aphasia to browse and select from a list of vocabulary words. However, these systems can be difficult to navigate, especially when they contain large amounts of content. In this paper, we describe the design of TalkAbout, a context-aware, adaptive AAC system that provides users with a word list that is adapted to their current location and conversation partner. We describe the design and development of TalkAbout, which we conducted in collaboration with 5 adults with aphasia. We then present guidelines for developing and evaluating context-aware technology for people with aphasia.

© All rights reserved Kane et al. and/or ACM Press

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Kane, Shaun K., Wobbrock, Jacob O. and Ladner, Richard E. (2011): Usable gestures for blind people: understanding preference and performance. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 413-422. Available online

Despite growing awareness of the accessibility issues surrounding touch screen use by blind people, designers still face challenges when creating accessible touch screen interfaces. One major stumbling block is a lack of understanding about how blind people actually use touch screens. We conducted two user studies that compared how blind people and sighted people use touch screen gestures. First, we conducted a gesture elicitation study in which 10 blind and 10 sighted people invented gestures to perform common computing tasks on a tablet PC. We found that blind people have different gesture preferences than sighted people, including preferences for edge-based gestures and gestures that involve tapping virtual keys on a keyboard. Second, we conducted a performance study in which the same participants performed a set of reference gestures. We found significant differences in the speed, size, and shape of gestures performed by blind people versus those performed by sighted people. Our results suggest new design guidelines for accessible touch screen interfaces.

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Kane, Shaun K., Morris, Meredith Ringel, Perkins, Annuska Z., Wigdor, Daniel, Ladner, Richard E. and Wobbrock, Jacob O. (2011): Access overlays: improving non-visual access to large touch screens for blind users. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 273-282. Available online

Many touch screens remain inaccessible to blind users, and those approaches to providing access that do exist offer minimal support for interacting with large touch screens or spatial data. In this paper, we introduce a set of three software-based access overlays intended to improve the accessibility of large touch screen interfaces, specifically interactive tabletops. Our access overlays are called edge projection, neighborhood browsing, and touch-and-speak. In a user study, 14 blind users compared access overlays to an implementation of Apple's VoiceOver screen reader. Our results show that two of our techniques were faster than VoiceOver, that participants correctly answered more questions about the screen's layout using our techniques, and that participants overwhelmingly preferred our techniques. We developed several applications demonstrating the use of access overlays, including an accessible map kiosk and an accessible board game.

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Rosenthal, Stephanie, Kane, Shaun K., Wobbrock, Jacob O. and Avrahami, Daniel (2010): Augmenting on-screen instructions with micro-projected guides: when it works, and when it fails. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2010. pp. 203-212. Available online

We present a study that evaluates the effectiveness of augmenting on-screen instructions with micro-projection for manual task guidance unlike prior work, which replaced screen instructions with alternative modalities (e.g., head-mounted displays). In our study, 30 participants completed 10 trials each of 11 manual tasks chosen to represent a set of common task-components (e.g., cutting, folding) found in many everyday activities such as crafts, cooking, and hobby electronics. Fifteen participants received only on-screen instructions, and 15 received both on-screen and micro-projected instructions. In contrast to prior work, which focused only on whole tasks, our study examines the benefit of augmenting common task instructions. The augmented instructions improved participants' performance overall; however, we show that in certain cases when projected guides and physical objects visually interfered, projected elements caused increased errors. Our results demonstrate that examining effectiveness at an instruction level is both useful and necessary, and provide insight into the design of systems that help users perform everyday tasks.

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Bernstein, Michael, Andr, Paul, Luther, Kurt, Solovey, Erin Treacy, Poole, Erika S., Paul, Sharoda A., Kane, Shaun K. and Grudin, Jonathan (2009): CHIstory. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3493-3494. Available online

How might the world view human-computer interaction a century from now? In this video, set one hundred years in the future, we playfully re-envision the early history of HCI. As the video opens, the Great Usability Cataclysm of 2068 has erased all previous knowledge of HCI. The world has been plunged into an age of darkness where terror, fear, and poor usability reign. Unearthing fragments of previously lost archival footage, a disembodied HCI historian (Jonathan Grudin) introduces a first attempt to reconstruct the history of our field. Pioneering systems like NLS and Sketchpad are reviewed alongside more recent work from CHI and related conferences. The results may surprise and perplex as much as they entertain, but most of all, we hope they inspire reflection on the past and future of our field.

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Kane, Shaun K. and Klasnja, Predrag V. (2009): Supporting volunteer activities with mobile social software. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4567-4572. Available online

Many community organizations rely extensively on volunteer work. However, people who wish to help often have difficulties finding the time to volunteer. We are developing mobile social software that is intended to motivate users to volunteer and to help users find volunteering opportunities. In order to understand how technology might support volunteering, we interviewed 9 recent volunteers about their volunteer work. We report on their motivations to volunteer, obstacles to volunteering, and strategies they use to manage the demands of volunteering. We discuss how these factors are shaping the design of a mobile social application to support volunteering.

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Kane, Shaun K., Jayant, Chandrika, Wobbrock, Jacob O. and Ladner, Richard E. (2009): Freedom to roam: a study of mobile device adoption and accessibility for people with visual and motor disabilities. In: Eleventh Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2009. pp. 115-122. Available online

Mobile devices provide people with disabilities new opportunities to act independently in the world. However, these empowering devices have their own accessibility challenges. We present a formative study that examines how people with visual and motor disabilities select, adapt, and use mobile devices in their daily lives. We interviewed 20 participants with visual and motor disabilities and asked about their current use of mobile devices, including how they select them, how they use them while away from home, and how they adapt to accessibility challenges when on the go. Following the interviews, 19 participants completed a diary study in which they recorded their experiences using mobile devices for one week. Our results show that people with visual and motor disabilities use a variety of strategies to adapt inaccessible mobile devices and successfully use them to perform everyday tasks and navigate independently. We provide guidelines for more accessible and empowering mobile device design.

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Kane, Shaun K., Avrahami, Daniel, Wobbrock, Jacob O., Harrison, Beverly, Rea, Adam D., Philipose, Matthai and LaMarca, Anthony (2009): Bonfire: a nomadic system for hybrid laptop-tabletop interaction. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2009. pp. 129-138. Available online

We present Bonfire, a self-contained mobile computing system that uses two laptop-mounted laser micro-projectors to project an interactive display space to either side of a laptop keyboard. Coupled with each micro-projector is a camera to enable hand gesture tracking, object recognition, and information transfer within the projected space. Thus, Bonfire is neither a pure laptop system nor a pure tabletop system, but an integration of the two into one new nomadic computing platform. This integration (1) enables observing the periphery and responding appropriately, e.g., to the casual placement of objects within its field of view, (2) enables integration between physical and digital objects via computer vision, (3) provides a horizontal surface in tandem with the usual vertical laptop display, allowing direct pointing and gestures, and (4) enlarges the input/output space to enrich existing applications. We describe Bonfire's architecture, and offer scenarios that highlight Bonfire's advantages. We also include lessons learned and insights for further development and use.

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Nathan, Lisa P., Friedman, Batya, Klasjna, Pedja V., Kane, Shaun K. and Miller, Jessica K. (2008): Envisioning Systemic Effects on Persons and Society Throughout Interactive System Design. In: Proceedsing of the ACM Conference on Designing Interactive Systems 2008, Cape Town, South Africa. p. 10. Available online

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Kane, Shaun K., Bigham, Jeffrey P. and Wobbrock, Jacob O. (2008): Slide rule: making mobile touch screens accessible to blind people using multi-touch interaction techniques. In: Tenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2008. pp. 73-80. Available online

Recent advances in touch screen technology have increased the prevalence of touch screens and have prompted a wave of new touch screen-based devices. However, touch screens are still largely inaccessible to blind users, who must adopt error-prone compensatory strategies to use them or find accessible alternatives. This inaccessibility is due to interaction techniques that require the user to visually locate objects on the screen. To address this problem, we introduce Slide Rule, a set of audio-based multi-touch interaction techniques that enable blind users to access touch screen applications. We describe the design of Slide Rule, our interaction techniques, and a user study in which 10 blind people used Slide Rule and a button-based Pocket PC screen reader. Results show that Slide Rule was significantly faster than the button-based system, and was preferred by 7 of 10 users. However, users made more errors when using Slide Rule than when using the more familiar button-based system.

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Nathan, Lisa P., Friedman, Batya, Klasnja, Predrag, Kane, Shaun K. and Miller, Jessica K. (2008): Envisioning systemic effects on persons and society throughout interactive system design. In: Proceedings of DIS08 Designing Interactive Systems 2008. pp. 1-10. Available online

The design, development, and deployment of interactive systems can substantively impact individuals, society, and the natural environment, now and potentially well into the future. Yet, a scarcity of methods exists to support long-term, emergent, systemic thinking in interactive design practice. Toward addressing this gap, we propose four envisioning criteria -- stakeholders, time, values, and pervasiveness -- distilled from prior work in urban planning, design noir, and Value Sensitive Design. We characterize how the criteria can support systemic thinking, illustrate the integration of the envisioning criteria into established design practice (scenario-based design), and provide strategic activities to serve as generative envisioning tools. We conclude with suggestions for use and future work. Key contributions include: 1) four envisioning criteria to support systemic thinking, 2) value scenarios (extending scenario-based design), and 3) strategic activities for engaging the envisioning criteria in interactive system design practice.

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Kane, Shaun K., Wobbrock, Jacob O., Harniss, Mark and Johnson, Kurt L. (2008): TrueKeys: identifying and correcting typing errors for people with motor impairments. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2008. pp. 349-352. Available online

People with motor impairments often have difficulty typing using desktop keyboards. We developed TrueKeys, a system that combines models of word frequency, keyboard layout, and typing error patterns to automatically identify and correct typing mistakes. In this paper, we describe the TrueKeys algorithm, compare its performance to existing correction algorithms, and report on a study of TrueKeys with 9 motor-impaired and 9 non-impaired participants. Running in non-interactive mode, TrueKeys performed more corrections than popular commercial and open source spell checkers. Used interactively, both motor-impaired and non-impaired users performed typing tasks significantly more accurately with TrueKeys than without. However, typing speed was reduced while TrueKeys was enabled.

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Kane, Shaun K., Wobbrock, Jacob O. and Smith, Ian E. (2008): Getting off the treadmill: evaluating walking user interfaces for mobile devices in public spaces. In: Hofte, G. Henri ter, Mulder, Ingrid and Ruyter, Boris E. R. de (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2008 September 2-5, 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. pp. 109-118. Available online

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Kahn, Peter H., Freier, Nathan G., Kanda, Takayuki, Ishiguro, Hiroshi, Ruckert, Jolina H., Severson, Rachel L. and Kane, Shaun K. (2008): Design patterns for sociality in human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2008. pp. 97-104. Available online

We propose that Christopher Alexander's idea of design patterns can benefit the emerging field of HRI. We first discuss four features of design patterns that appear particularly useful. For example, a pattern should be specified abstractly enough such that many different instantiations of the pattern can be uniquely realized in the solution to specific problems in context. Then, after describing our method for generating patterns, we offer and describe eight possible design patterns for sociality in human robot interaction: initial introduction, didactic communication, in motion together, personal interests and history, recovering from mistakes, reciprocal turn-taking in game context, physical intimacy, and claiming unfair treatment or wrongful harms. We also discuss the issue of validation of design patterns. If a design pattern program proves successful, it will provide HRI researchers with basic knowledge about human robot interaction, and save time through the reuse of patterns to achieve high levels of sociality.

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Kane, Shaun K., Shulman, Jessie A., Shockley, Timothy J. and Ladner, Richard E. (2007): A web accessibility report card for top international university web sites. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Cross-Disciplinary Conference on Web Accessibility (W4A) 2007. pp. 148-156. Available online

University web pages play a central role in the activities of current and prospective postsecondary students. University sites that are not accessible may exclude people with disabilities from participation in educational, social and professional activities. In order to assess the current state of university web site accessibility, we performed a multi-method analysis of the home pages of 100 top international universities. Each site was analyzed for compliance with accessibility standards, image accessibility, alternate-language and text-only content, and quality of web accessibility statements. Results showed that many top universities continue to have accessibility problems. University web site accessibility also varies greatly across different countries and geographic regions. Remaining obstacles to universal accessibility for universities include low accessibility in non-English-speaking countries and absent or low-quality accessibility policies.

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Froehlich, Jon, Wobbrock, Jacob O. and Kane, Shaun K. (2007): Barrier pointing: using physical ed. In: Ninth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2007. pp. 19-26. Available online

Mobile phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs) are incredibly popular pervasive technologies. Many of these devices contain touch screens, which can present problems for users with motor impairments due to small targets and their reliance on tapping for target acquisition. In order to select a target, users must tap on the screen, an action which requires the precise motion of flying into a target and lifting without slipping. In this paper, we propose a new technique for target acquisition called barrier pointing, which leverages the elevated physical edges surrounding the screen to improve pointing accuracy. After designing a series of barrier pointing techniques, we conducted an initial study with 9 able bodied users and 9 users with motor impairments in order to discover the parameters that make barrier pointing successful. From this data, we offer an in-depth analysis of the performance of two motor impaired users for whom barrier pointing was especially beneficial. We show the importance of providing physical stability by allowing the stylus to press against the screen and its physical edge. We offer other design insights and lessons learned that can inform future attempts at leveraging the physical properties of mobile devices to improve accessibility.

© All rights reserved Froehlich et al. and/or ACM Press

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