Publication statistics

Pub. period:1981-2012
Pub. count:67
Number of co-authors:110



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Sandra Black:
Kevin Tonon:
Kent Fenwick:

 

 

Productive colleagues

Ronald M. Baecker's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Mary Beth Rosson:142
Saul Greenberg:140
Jonathan Grudin:105
 
 
 

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Ronald M. Baecker

Has also published under the name of:
"R. Baecker", "Ron Baecker", and "Ronald Baecker"

Personal Homepage:
http://ron.taglab.ca/

Dr. Ron Baecker (born October 7, 1942) is a tenured Professor of Computer Science (cross-appointed to the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and to the Faculty of Management) at the University of Toronto, and has held these positions since 1989. He is the founder of the Knowledge Media Design Institute (KMDI) and the Technologies for Aging Gracefully Lab (TAGlab), both at the University of Toronto.

 

Publications by Ronald M. Baecker (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Benjamin, Alison, Birnholtz, Jeremy, Baecker, Ronald M., Gromala, Diane and Furlan, Andrea (2012): Impression management work: how seniors with chronic pain address disruptions in their interactions. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 799-808. Available online

Chronic pain is an illness that affects nearly a third of senior citizens. Uncontrolled chronic pain can manifest constantly and/or intermittently, and can disrupt seniors' ability to plan or to maintain synchronous and scheduled contact with others. Such disruptions can expose seniors to stigma from others who do not understand this illness, social isolation, and a range of challenges to their social autonomy. We present results from an interview study of 27 seniors with chronic pain exploring how they mitigate and manage these disruptions in their lives. Drawing on Goffman's theory of impression management, we found that participants invested significant effort into controlling both the context of interactions and others' expectations, in order to mitigate the potential negative social consequences of disruptions. In performing this work, seniors were selective about what information they revealed to others about their chronic pain and availability. Given such efforts, seniors with chronic pain have unique needs for technologies to support their social interactions.

© All rights reserved Benjamin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Epp, Carrie Demmans, Djordjevic, Justin, Wu, Shimu, Moffatt, Karyn and Baecker, Ronald M. (2012): Towards providing just-in-time vocabulary support for assistive and augmentative communication. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2012. pp. 33-36. Available online

Many people cannot communicate effectively with those around them. The causes vary but several tools and strategies can support their communication. These tools, which collectively fall under the banner of Assistive and Augmentative Communication (AAC), are rarely adaptive. Of those that are, few provide context-based or just-in-time vocabulary support to users even though the proliferation of smartphones makes this possible. To meet this need, we developed four algorithms to retrieve relevant vocabulary from Internet-based corpora. We used discourse completion tasks to evaluate each algorithm's ability to identify appropriate vocabulary across a set of specific contexts. The results indicate that our approach identifies appropriate context-specific words that complement general AAC vocabularies: when combined with a typical base vocabulary, the algorithms outperformed the support provided by the base vocabulary alone. They did this by adding small targeted vocabularies.

© All rights reserved Epp et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Crete-Nishihata, Masashi, Baecker, Ronald M., Massimi, Michael, Ptak, Deborah, Campigotto, Rachelle, Kaufman, Liam D., Brickman, Adam M., Turner, Gary R., Steinerman, Joshua R. and Black, Sandra E. (2012): Reconstructing the Past: Personal Memory Technologies Are Not Just Personal and Not Just for Memory. In Eminds International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 27 (1) pp. 92-123. Available online

Research has shown that personal memory technologies are a promising way to address the needs of older adults with memory impairments. In this article, we review three recently completed studies that evaluated technologies for personal memories intended for persons with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). In the first study, we worked with 12 participants with AD or MCI and their families to construct DVD-based Multimedia Biographies that depicted prominent events, people, and places from the participant's past. We then evaluated over a period of 6 months psychosocial effects that viewing the biographies had on the participants and their family members. These effects included stimulating reminiscence of past events, triggering predominantly positive emotions of happiness and occasional moments of sadness, and engaging conversations with family members. In our second study, we designed a home-based ambient display that allowed a man with AD to similarly review his past life, in combination with recent photos automatically captured by a lifelogging device called SenseCam. Psychometric tests and semistructured interviews revealed how the intervention appeared to improve the participant's sense of self and lower apathy. In our final study of 5 cognitively impaired participants we compared representations of recent experiences captured with SenseCam in 3 ways: with the raw image stream, with a slide show consisting of a selected number of SenseCam images narrated by a family member, and with a control reviewing no images. Results included evidence that reviewing SenseCam images improved episodic recall for personal events depicted in the images for 4 of the 5 participants. Based on lessons learned from this research, we suggest that personal memory technologies should not just be framed as systems for augmenting an individual user's capacity for accurate recall of personal events, but instead should support groups of people such as members of a family in telling their life stories. This conception yields benefits beyond the support of memory, such as fostering a sense of self and strengthening interpersonal relationships with family members. We conclude the article by presenting design considerations to help guide and inform the development and evaluation of future "personal memory" technologies.

© All rights reserved Crete-Nishihata et al. and/or Universidad de Oviedo

2011
 
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Massimi, Michael and Baecker, Ronald M. (2011): Dealing with death in design: developing systems for the bereaved. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1001-1010. Available online

Increasingly, systems are being developed and used in ways that involve end of life issues such as death, dying, and bereavement. Yet design considerations and guidelines for technologists working in this sensitive area are not well-established. We therefore report on exploratory fieldwork consisting of focus groups, observations, and consultation with bereavement experts aimed at understanding how technology might be designed to support bereaved parents. From this fieldwork, we derive a set of considerations useful for researchers and designers developing systems that deal specifically with bereavement, and with the end of life more broadly. These considerations focus on interpersonal communication, new ways of being in the world, and materiality. We conclude with a distillation of these considerations into practical design guidelines for working in this area.

© All rights reserved Massimi and Baecker and/or their publisher

 
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David, Jessica M., Benjamin, Alison, Baecker, Ronald M., Gromala, Diane and Birnholtz, Jeremy (2011): Living with pain, staying in touch: exploring the communication needs of older adults with chronic pain. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1219-1224. Available online

For older adults with chronic pain, maintaining social ties can be difficult. Both chronic pain and social isolation compound each other and are associated with poor health outcomes. Our research explores how technology can be used to facilitate communication and support for older adults with chronic pain. We report on preliminary results of field research with 20 participants and deployment of a digital communicating picture frame prototype. We found that chronic pain introduces unique barriers to synchronous contact and that our prototype seemed to fit the needs of these individuals by supporting meaningful asynchronous communication with the possibility for adjustable reciprocity.

© All rights reserved David et al. and/or their publisher

2010
 
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Massimi, Michael and Baecker, Ronald M. (2010): A death in the family: opportunities for designing technologies for the bereaved. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1821-1830. Available online

Following the death of a loved one, bereaved family members use technology in several ways to respond to their loss. However, very little is known about how technology intersects with the lives of the bereaved. We present a survey and interview study which examines how the bereaved inherit personal digital devices, use technology to remember the deceased, and reflect on their own digital estates. The study provides one of the first characterizations of technology use by the bereaved, and presents a set of empirically-grounded design opportunities and challenges.

© All rights reserved Massimi and Baecker and/or their publisher

 
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Wu, Mike, Baecker, Ronald M. and Richards, Brian (2010): Field evaluation of a collaborative memory aid for persons with amnesia and their family members. In: Twelfth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2010. pp. 51-58. Available online

The loss of memory can have a profound and disabling effect on individuals. People who acquire memory impairments are often unable to live independent lives because they cannot remember what they need to do. In many cases, they rely on family members who live with them to accomplish everyday activities, such as coordinating a doctor's appointment. To design technology for persons with amnesia and their families, we involved end users in the participatory design of a collaborative memory aid called Family-Link. We evaluated Family-Link by comparing it to a commercially available calendar application. We found that participants shared significantly more events when using Family-Link. Qualitative evidence also suggests that Family-Link increased participants' awareness of family members' schedules, enabled caregivers to track the person with amnesia leading to a greater a sense of security and reduced stress, and reduced the amount of caregiver coordination effort. The paper concludes with design implications.

© All rights reserved Wu et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Venkatacharya, Patanjali S., Baecker, Ronald M., Adams, Jody, Oringer, Ken and Mochel, Karl (2009): What can user experience learn from food design?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3287-3292. Available online

This panel will bring together a group of user experience experts, with a group often overlooked in the art and science of user experience -- food designers. The panelists will include: two James Beard Award-winning Chefs, a user experience practitioner, and a world-renowned HCI academic. Together, the panel will compare and contrast concepts from food design and user experience including the challenges of meeting demanding end-user needs, and best practices from food design that one could potentially apply to the design of everyday things.

© All rights reserved Venkatacharya et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fenwick, Kent, Massimi, Michael, Baecker, Ronald M., Black, Sandra, Tonon, Kevin, Munteanu, Cosmin, Rochon, Elizabeth and Ryan, David (2009): Cell phone software aiding name recall. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4279-4284. Available online

Senior citizens often find it difficult to remember names. This paper describes a novel cell phone application that uses information about one's social network and the places one frequents to suggest the names of individuals one might plausibly encounter in a particular place. We anticipate that this "names prosthesis" will help senior citizens to improve socialization, functional memory and levels of autonomy. We motivate the need for this application space before describing our design process, first implementations, and early testing and iterative improvement of both the concept and the implementation.

© All rights reserved Fenwick et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Birnholtz, Jeremy, Mak, Clarissa, Greenberg, Saul and Baecker, Ronald M. (2008): Attention by proxy? issues in audience awareness for webcasts to distributed groups. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 103-106. Available online

Instructor/student interaction in e-learning environments can positively impact both student learning and instructor satisfaction. In online webcast lectures, however, interaction can be difficult because instructors lack basic awareness information about their remote students. Our goal is to better understand the kinds of awareness information that instructors should have if they are to interact frequently and effectively with their students in e-learning environments. We conducted an exploratory study -- via interviews and observations -- of instructor attention in face-to-face classrooms at a large university. Our results imply that a webcast system should provide instructors with overview and detailed data about their students, but that this detailed information should not be displayed publicly.

© All rights reserved Birnholtz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Munteanu, Cosmin, Baecker, Ronald M. and Penn, Gerald (2008): Collaborative editing for improved usefulness and usability of transcript-enhanced webcasts. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 373-382. Available online

One challenge in facilitating skimming or browsing through archives of on-line recordings of webcast lectures is the lack of text transcripts of the recorded lecture. Ideally, transcripts would be obtainable through Automatic Speech Recognition (ASR). However, current ASR systems can only deliver, in realistic lecture conditions, a Word Error Rate of around 45% -- above the

© All rights reserved Munteanu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wu, Mike, Birnholtz, Jeremy, Richards, Brian, Baecker, Ronald M. and Massimi, Mike (2008): Collaborating to remember: a distributed cognition account of families coping with memory impairments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 825-834. Available online

Individuals with cognitive deficits and their families are prime examples of collaborative "systems" that seek to perform everyday tasks together. Yet there has been little investigation into how these families communicate and coordinate in basic tasks like remembering appointments. In this paper we take a distributed cognition approach to studying ten families struggling with amnesia through nonparticipant observation and interviews. Our data show that the families work closely together as cognitive systems that must compensate for memory volatility in one of the members. We explore our participants' strategies for overcoming these difficulties and present lessons for the design of assistive technologies, highlighting the need for redundancy, easy and frequent synchronization, and awareness of updates. We conclude with implications for distributed cognition theory.

© All rights reserved Wu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Harrison, Steve, Buxton, Bill, Poltrock, Steven and Churchill, Elizabeth F. (2008): Media spaces: past visions, current realities, future promise. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2245-2248. Available online

Established researchers and practitioners active in the development and deployment of media spaces review what seemed to be promised twenty years ago, what has actually been achieved, and what we might anticipate over the next twenty years.

© All rights reserved Baecker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (2008): Designing technology to aid cognition. In: Tenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2008. pp. 1-2. Available online

We present a framework for technological aids for cognition intended primarily for individuals with cognitive impairments and seniors experiencing cognitive decline. We illustrate the framework with concrete research projects and near-term challenges.

© All rights reserved Baecker and/or ACM Press

 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (2008): Themes in the early history of HCI -- some unanswered questions. In Interactions, 15 (2) pp. 22-27. Available online

2007
 
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Massimi, Michael, Baecker, Ronald M. and Wu, Michael (2007): Using participatory activities with seniors to critique, build, and evaluate mobile phones. In: Ninth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2007. pp. 155-162. Available online

Mobile phones can provide a number of benefits to older people. However, most mobile phone designs and form factors are targeted at younger people and middle-aged adults. To inform the design of mobile phones for seniors, we ran several participatory activities where seniors critiqued current mobile phones, chose important applications, and built their own imagined mobile phone system. We prototyped this system on a real mobile phone and evaluated the seniors' performance through user tests and a real-world deployment. We found that our participants wanted more than simple phone functions, and instead wanted a variety of application areas. While they were able to learn to use the software with little difficulty, hardware design made completing some tasks frustrating or difficult. Based on our experience with our participants, we offer considerations for the community about how to design mobile devices for seniors and how to engage them in participatory activities.

© All rights reserved Massimi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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McGrenere, Joanna, Baecker, Ronald M. and Booth, Kellogg S. (2007): A field evaluation of an adaptable two-interface design for feature-rich software. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 14 (1) p. 3. Available online

Two approaches for supporting personalization in complex software are system-controlled adaptive menus and user-controlled adaptable menus. We evaluate a novel interface design for feature-rich productivity software based on adaptable menus. The design allows the user to easily customize a personalized interface, and also supports quick access to the default interface with all of the standard features. This design was prototyped as a front-end to a commercial word processor. A field experiment investigated users' personalizing behavior and tested the effects of different interface designs on users' satisfaction and their perceived ability to navigate, control, and learn the software. There were two conditions: a commercial word processor with adaptive menus and our prototype with adaptable menus for the same word processor. Our evaluation shows: (1) when provided with a flexible, easy-to-use and easy-to-understand customization mechanism, the majority of users do effectively personalize their interface; and (2) user-controlled interface adaptation with our adaptable menus results in better navigation and learnability, and allows for the adoption of different personalization strategies, as compared to a particular system-controlled adaptive menu system that implements a single strategy. We report qualitative data obtained from interviews and questionnaires with participants in the evaluation in addition to quantitative data.

© All rights reserved McGrenere et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Fono, David, Blume, Lillian, Collins, Christopher and Couto, Delia (2007): Webcasting Made Interactive: Persistent Chat for Text Dialogue During and About Learning Events. In: Smith, Michael J. and Salvendy, Gavriel (eds.) Symposium on Human Interface 2007 - Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 260-268. Available online

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Birnholtz, Jeremy P., Causey, Rhys, Laughton, Simone, Rankin, Kelly, Mak, Clarissa, Weir, Alison and Wolf, Peter (2007): Webcasting Made Interactive: Integrating Real-Time Videoconferencing in Distributed Learning Spaces. In: Smith, Michael J. and Salvendy, Gavriel (eds.) Symposium on Human Interface 2007 - Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 269-278. Available online

2006
 
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Munteanu, Cosmin, Baecker, Ronald M., Penn, Gerald, Toms, Elaine and James, David (2006): The effect of speech recognition accuracy rates on the usefulness and usability of webcast archives. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 493-502. Available online

The widespread availability of broadband connections has led to an increase in the use of Internet broadcasting (webcasting). Most webcasts are archived and accessed numerous times retrospectively. In the absence of transcripts of what was said, users have difficulty searching and scanning for specific topics. This research investigates user needs for transcription accuracy in webcast archives, and measures how the quality of transcripts affects user performance in a question-answering task, and how quality affects overall user experience. We tested 48 subjects in a within-subjects design under 4 conditions: perfect transcripts, transcripts with 25% Word Error Rate (WER), transcripts with 45% WER, and no transcript. Our data reveals that speech recognition accuracy linearly influences both user performance and experience, shows that transcripts with 45% WER are unsatisfactory, and suggests that transcripts having a WER of 25% or less would be useful and usable in webcast archives.

© All rights reserved Munteanu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tohidi, Maryam, Buxton, Bill, Baecker, Ronald M. and Sellen, Abigail (2006): Getting the right design and the design right. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1243-1252. Available online

We present a study comparing usability testing of a single interface versus three functionally equivalent but stylistically distinct designs. We found that when presented with a single design, users give significantly higher ratings and were more reluctant to criticize than when presented with the same design in a group of three. Our results imply that by presenting users with alternative design solutions, subjective ratings are less prone to inflation and give rise to more and stronger criticisms when appropriate. Contrary to our expectations, our results also suggest that usability testing by itself, even when multiple designs are presented, is not an effective vehicle for soliciting constructive suggestions about how to improve the design from end users. It is a means to identify problems, not provide solutions.

© All rights reserved Tohidi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tohidi, Maryam, Buxton, Bill, Baecker, Ronald M. and Sellen, Abigail (2006): User sketches: a quick, inexpensive, and effective way to elicit more reflective user feedback. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 105-114. Available online

Our aim is to introduce techniques that allow for active involvement of users throughout the design process, starting with the very early stages of ideation and exploration. The approach discussed in this study augments conventional usability testing with a user sketching component. We found that enabling users to sketch their ideas facilitated reflection, and provided a rich medium for discovery and communication of design ideas. We believe that this technique has the potential to complement usability testing in general, in order to generate "reflective" as opposed to purely "reactive" user feedback.

© All rights reserved Tohidi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fono, David and Baecker, Ronald M. (2006): Structuring and supporting persistent chat conversations. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 455-458. Available online

Persistence of conversations has been found to be a useful feature in group chat tools. When conversations are stored and made accessible to all members of a group, they can facilitate organizational memory, group awareness, and other beneficial practices. However, the lack of structure in chat conversations makes it difficult for users to read and keep track of lengthy conversation histories. To contend with this problem, we have developed a persistent chat system that incorporates a number of features which facilitate participation in long, ongoing conversations.

© All rights reserved Fono and Baecker and/or ACM Press

 
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Munteanu, Cosmin, Penn, Gerald, Baecker, Ronald M. and Zhang, Yuecheng (2006): Automatic speech recognition for webcasts: how good is good enough and what to do when it isn't. In: Quek, Francis K. H., Yang, Jie, Massaro, Dominic W., Alwan, Abeer A. and Hazen, Timothy J. (eds.) Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2006 November 2-4, 2006, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 39-42. Available online

2005
 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (2005): Forty years of human-computer interaction and knowledge media design: twelve challenges to meet in fewer than the next forty years. In: Graphics Interface 2005 May 9-11, 2005, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 249-250. Available online

Inspired in part by a seminal article by JCR Licklider on "man-computer symbiosis" [3, see also 4, 5], a wonderful course entitled "Technological aids to human thought" taught by Anthony Oettinger that I took at Harvard early in 1966, and the vitality and excitement of MIT Project Mac, the AI Lab, and especially Lincoln Lab [2], I began research in interactive computing shortly after the September 1965 start of my Ph.D. work at M.I.T. Now, 40 years later, receiving this honour (with gratitude) allows me the indulgence to rant for at least 40 minutes, reflecting first on the miracles in processor speed, memory capacity, bandwidth, I/O technology, graphics algorithms, and human-computer interfaces that have transpired over this interval [see also 1], and then speaking at much greater length over things that remain undone. The latter topics will be organized into two categories, compelling research challenges (junior faculty without tenure and Ph.D. students searching for topics listen carefully :-)), and broader challenges for the fields of human-computer interaction and knowledge media design (senior faculty with tenure seeking to slay dragons listen even more carefully :-) :-)). I will briefly sketch and articulate the following six research challenges: * Collaboration technologies -- why are these tools still so hard to use? * Intelligent interfaces -- can AI finally aid humans instead of aiming to replace them, or, why can the computer beat Kasporov, but cannot connect me to the Net? * Design methodologies -- can we do less boasting about being user-centred and start doing better science? * Evaluation methodologies -- how can we gather design intelligence by mining rich potential sources of user experience data from the field? * Interfaces for seniors -- what we can do for seniors and what can they can do for us? * Electronic memory aids -- is this a compelling area promising a major payoff for human productivity and morale? I will then rant for as long as possible on the following six broader issues: * Courses on computers and society and communication skills for computer science students -- if we don't insist that this be taught, and take the lead, who will? * Interfaces in context -- why do I teach knowledge media design and not user interface design? * HCI in computer science departments -- should we continue to "pretend" that we do computer science? * Open source and open access -- if the intellectual property and technology transfer system is broken, shouldn't we try to fix it? * Appropriate automation -- can it and will it ever stop? * Interfaces everywhere -- is change possible, and how can we make things better?

© All rights reserved Baecker and/or his/her publisher

 
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Toms, Elaine G., Dufour, Christine, Lewis, Jonathan and Baecker, Ronald M. (2005): Assessing tools for use with webcasts. In: JCDL05: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2005. pp. 79-88. Available online

This research assessed the effectiveness of selected interface tools in helping people respond to classic information tasks with webcasts. Rather than focus on a classic search/browse task to locate an appropriate webcast to view, our work takes place at the level of an individual webcast to assess interactivity within the contents of a single webcast. The questions guiding our work are: 1) Which tool(s) are the most effective in achieving the best response? 2) How do users use those tools for task completion? In this study, 16 participants responded to a standard set of information tasks using ePresence, a webcasting system that handles both live and stored video, and provides multiple techniques for accessing content. Using questionnaires, screen capture and interviews, we evaluated the interaction, assessed the tools, and based on our results, make suggestions for improving access to the content of stored webcasts.

© All rights reserved Toms et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wu, Mike, Baecker, Ronald M. and Richards, Brian (2005): Participatory design of an orientation aid for amnesics. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 511-520. Available online

We present the participatory design and evaluation of an orientation aid for individuals who have anterograde amnesia. Our design team included six amnesics who have extreme difficulty storing new memories. We describe the methods we used to enable the participation of individuals with such severe cognitive impairments. Through this process, we have conceived, designed, and developed the OrientingTool, a software application for Personal Digital Assistants that can be used by amnesics to orient themselves when feeling lost or disoriented. Two complementary studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of this tool in ecologically valid contexts. Our findings suggest that the OrientingTool can improve an amnesic's independence and confidence in managing situations when disoriented, and that participatory design may be productively used with participants who have significant cognitive disabilities.

© All rights reserved Wu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Buxton, Bill, Baecker, Ronald M., Clark, Wesley, Richardson, Fontaine, Sutherland, Ivan, Sutherland, W. R. Bert and Henderson, Austin (2005): Interaction at Lincoln laboratory in the 1960's: looking forward -- looking back. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1162-1167. Available online

The activity centered around the TX-2 computer at Lincoln Laboratory in the 1960's laid the foundation for much of HCI. Through the use of archival film footage, and live presentations by some of the key protagonists, this panel is intended to contribute to a more general awareness of this work, its historical importance to HCI, and its relevance to research today.

© All rights reserved Buxton et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cohene, Tira, Baecker, Ronald M. and Marziali, Elsa (2005): Designing interactive life story multimedia for a family affected by alzheimer's disease: a case study. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1300-1303. Available online

In this paper we present a design project involving primary end users who have declining cognitive abilities such as memory, communication, and problem solving. We are designing interactive multimedia with personalized life stories for individuals with Alzheimer's disease. We conducted a case study to discover and address the design challenges for this project. A particular challenge is a limited ability to communicate with the primary end users. In this paper, we present design methods that take this challenge into consideration. Our goal is to contribute insight into designing for users with cognitive disabilities, and to present methodologies that are useful for designers who have a limited ability to interact or communicate with end users.

© All rights reserved Cohene et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dufour, Christine, Toms, Elaine G., Lewis, Jonathan and Baecker, Ronald M. (2005): User strategies for handling information tasks in webcasts. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1343-1346. Available online

Webcast systems support real-time webcasting, and may also support access to the stored webcasts. Yet, research rarely examines issues concerning the interface to webcast systems, another form of multimedia system. This paper focuses specifically on how stored webcasts are re-used. Sixteen participants performed three typical information tasks using ePresence, a webcasting system that handles both live and stored video, and contains several tools: a video window, a timeline of the webcast, slides used by the presenter, and a moderator-generated table of contents, that facilitate user access to the intellectual content of a stored video. Use takes place at the level of the webcast, and our analysis assessed user interactivity. The results showed that different types of tasks need different strategies and tools.

© All rights reserved Dufour et al. and/or ACM Press

2004
 
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Wu, Mike, Richards, Brian and Baecker, Ronald M. (2004): Participatory design with individuals who have amnesia. In: Clement, Andrew and Besselaar, Peter Van den (eds.) PDC 2004 - Proceedings of the Eighth Conference on Participatory Design July 27-31, 2004, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 214-223. Available online

2003
 
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Baecker, Ronald M. and Smith, Eric (2003): Modularity and Hierarchical Structure in the Digital Video Lifecycle. In: Graphics Interface 2003 June 11-13, 2003, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. pp. 217-224.

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Moore, G. and Zijdemans, A. (2003): Reinventing the Lecture: Webcasting Made Interactive. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 896-900.

2002
 
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McGrenere, Joanna, Baecker, Ronald M. and Booth, Kellogg S. (2002): An evaluation of a multiple interface design solution for bloated software. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 163-170.

 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (2002): Showing instead of telling. In: ACM 20th International Conference on Computer Documentation 2002. pp. 10-16. Available online

We propose the use of dynamic visual representations to augment traditional static text as documentation. In other words, we suggest using live demonstrations or moving pictures to show people how to do things, and not just using written or spoken words to tell them what to do. We present and illustrate examples of five methods and technologies for creating such dynamic documentation, and summarize what is known about their effectiveness.

© All rights reserved Baecker and/or ACM Press

2000
 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Booth, Kellogg S., Jovicic, Sasha, McGrenere, Joanna and Moore, Gale (2000): Reducing the Gap Between What Users Know and What They Need to Know. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2000. pp. 17-23. Available online

Universal usability [17] is currently impeded by system complexity and poorly-crafted interfaces which lead to confusion, frustration, and failure. One of the key challenges is the gap between what users know and what they need to know [17, p.86]. This paper describes and presents early results from three related research projects designed to identify and close this gap and to examine how users might learn what they need to know.

© All rights reserved Baecker et al. and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (1999): A digital video authoring and publishing system designed for the Internet. In: ACM Multimedia 1999 1999. p. 191. Available online

1998
 
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Abrams, David, Baecker, Ronald M. and Chignell, Mark (1998): Information Archiving with Bookmarks: Personal Web Space Construction and Organization. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 41-48. Available online

Bookmarks are used as "personal Web information spaces" to help people remember and retrieve interesting Web pages. A study of personal Web information spaces surveyed 322 Web users and analyzed the bookmark archives of 50 Web users. The results of this study are used to address why people make bookmarks, and how they create, use, and organize them. Recommendations for improving the organization, visualization, representation, and integration of bookmarks are provided. The recommendations include simple mechanisms for filing bookmarks at creation time, the use of time-based visualizations with automated filters, the use of contextual information in representing bookmarks, and the combination of hierarchy formation and Web page authoring to aid in organizing and viewing bookmarks.

© All rights reserved Abrams et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Hewett, Thomas T., Baecker, Ronald M., Card, Stuart K., Carey, Tom, Gasen, Jean G., Mantei, Marilyn, Perlman, Gary, Strong, Gary W. and Verplank, William (1997). ACM SIGCHI Curricula for Human-Computer Interaction. Retrieved 7 August 2003 from ACM SIGHCI: http://sigchi.org/cdg/index.html

 Cited in the following chapter:

: [Not yet published]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

: [Not yet published]


 
 
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Yiu, Kelvin S., Baecker, Ronald M., Silver, Nancy and Long, Byron (1997): A Time-Based Interface for Electronic Mail and Task Management. In: Smith, Michael J., Salvendy, Gavriel and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 19-22.

 
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Posner, Ilona, Baecker, Ronald M. and Mitchell, Alex (1997): Evaluating REAL Users, Using REAL Software, Performing REAL Tasks, in REAL Contexts. In: Smith, Michael J., Salvendy, Gavriel and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 597-600.

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., DiGiano, Chris and Marcus, Aaron (1997): Software Visualization for Debugging. In Communications of the ACM, 40 (4) pp. 44-54.

1996
 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Rosenthal, Alan J., Friedlander, Naomi, Smith, Eric and Cohen, Andrew (1996): A Multimedia System for Authoring Motion Pictures. In: ACM Multimedia 1996 1996. pp. 31-42.

1995
 
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Mitchell, Alex, Posner, Ilona and Baecker, Ronald M. (1995): Learning to Write Together Using Groupware. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 288-295. Available online

Most studies of collaborative writing have focused on mature writers who have extensive experience with the process of writing together. Typically, these studies also deal with short, somewhat artificial tasks carried out in a laboratory, and thus do not extend over a period of time as real writing usually does. This paper describes an ethnographic study of collaborative writing by two groups of 4 grade six students using synchronous collaborative writing software for one hour per week over a 12 week period. Despite initially having little appreciation of what it means to write together, and no experience in synchronous collaborative writing, both groups produced nearly one dozen short collaboratively conceived, written, and edited documents by the end of the study. A careful analysis of video tape records, written documents, questionnaires, and interviews demonstrated the importance of concepts such as awareness, ownership, and control in the writing process, and highlighted many examples of strengths and weaknesses in the writing software.

© All rights reserved Mitchell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Grudin, Jonathan, Buxton, Bill and Greenberg, Saul (eds.) (1995): Readings in Human-Computer Interaction: Toward the Year 2000. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

1994
 
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Rosenthal, Alan J. and Baecker, Ronald M. (1994): Multimedia for authoring motion pictures. In: Graphics Interface 94 May 18-20, 1994, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 133-140.

 
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Harrison, Beverly L., Owen, Russell N. and Baecker, Ronald M. (1994): Timelines: An interactive system for the collection and visualization of temporal data. In: Graphics Interface 94 May 18-20, 1994, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 141-148.

1993
 
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DiGiano, Christopher J., Baecker, Ronald M. and Owen, Russell N. (1993): LogoMedia: A Sound-Enhanced Programming Environment for Monitoring Program Behavior. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 301-302. Available online

Even for the programmer, computer software can be a mysterious black box. But what if the programmer were able to give the box a good shake and listen to things rattle inside? Are there tools like the doctor's stethoscope that can help programmers listen to the heartbeat of their software? These are the kinds of questions we decided to explore by building LogoMedia, a sound-enhanced programming environment. LogoMedia supports the ability to associate non-speech audio with program events while the code is being developed. These associations cause subsequent test runs of the program to generate and manipulate sounds which can aid in the comprehension and analysis of the program's behavior.

© All rights reserved DiGiano et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (ed.) (1993): Readings in Groupware and Computer Supported Cooperative Work: Assisting Human-Human Collaboration. Mountain View, CA, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

 
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Price, Blaine A., Baecker, Ronald M. and Small, Ian S. (1993): A Principled Taxonomy of Software Visualization. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 4 (3) pp. 211-266.

1992
 
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DiGiano, Christopher J. and Baecker, Ronald M. (1992): Program auralization: Sound enhancements to the programming environment. In: Graphics Interface 92 May 11-15, 1992, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 44-52.

 
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Harrison, Beverly L. and Baecker, Ronald M. (1992): Designing video annotation and analysis systems. In: Graphics Interface 92 May 11-15, 1992, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 157-166.

 
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Harrison, Beverly L., Chignell, Mark and Baecker, Ronald M. (1992): Out of Site, Still in Mind? A Case Study in Video Mediated Communication. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. pp. 242-246.

Video mediated communication alters our perception of the way in which we interact and communicate. In contrast to face to face or audio only (e.g., telephone) communication, there is relatively little systematic research on the effect of video conferencing on communication within groups of people at dispersed locations (Harrison, 1991b; Harrison et al, 1992b; Sellen, 1992; Wolf, 1988; Cohen, 1982; Short, Williams, and Christie, 1976). In this paper we describe a study of how participants at three distant locations perceived differences between face to face (within site) and video mediated (between site) communication. Results indicate that participants perceived between site, mediated communication to be unnatural and uncomfortable. They felt there were problems with gaining floor control and with conversation flow. Additionally, participants perceived the between site, mediated communication to be less interactive, less social, and less enjoyable than the face to face, within site communication. The insights gained through this and other case studies, summarized here, will be used to guide our future research. This study is one in a series of field trials and controlled experiments aimed at understanding the human factors issues associated with video communication and the design of such systems.

© All rights reserved Harrison et al. and/or Human Factors Society

 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (1992): Readings in Groupware and Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Assisting Human-Human Collaboration (Interactive Technologies). Morgan Kaufmann

This comprehensive introduction to the field represents the best of the published literature on groupware and computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW). The papers were chosen for their breadth of coverage of the field, their clarity of expression and presentation, their excellence in terms of technical innovation or behavioral insight, their historical significance, and their utility as sources for further reading. Taken as a whole, the papers and their introductions are a complete sourcebook to the field. This book will be useful for computer professionals involved in the development or purchase of groupware technology as well as for researchers and managers. It should also serve as a valuable text for university courses on CSCW, groupware, and human-computer interaction.

© All rights reserved Baecker and/or Morgan Kaufmann

1991
 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Small, Ian and Mander, Richard (1991): Bringing Icons to Life. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 1-6. Available online

Icons are used increasingly in interfaces because they are compact "universal" pictographic representations of computer functionality and processing. Animated icons can bring to life symbols representing complete applications or functions within an application, thereby clarifying their meaning, demonstrating their capabilities, and even explaining their method of use. To test this hypothesis, we carried out an iterative design of a set of animated painting icons that appear in the HyperCard tool palette. The design discipline restricted the animations to 10 to 20 second sequences of 22x20 pixel bit maps. User testing was carried out on two interfaces - one with the static icons, one with the animated icons. The results showed significant benefit from the animations in clarifying the purpose and functionality of the icons.

© All rights reserved Baecker et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mantei, Marilyn, Baecker, Ronald M., Sellen, Abigail, Buxton, Bill, Milligan, Thomas and Wellman, Barry (1991): Experiences in the Use of a Media Space. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 203-208. Available online

A media space is a system that uses integrated video, audio, and computers to allow individuals and groups to work together despite being distributed spatially and temporally. Our media space, CAVECAT (Computer Audio Video Enhanced Collaboration And Telepresence), enables a small number of individuals or groups located in separate offices to engage in collaborative work without leaving their offices. This paper presents and summarizes our experiences during initial use of CAVECAT, including unsolved technological obstacles we have encountered, and the psychological and social impact of the technology. Where possible we discuss relevant findings from the psychological literature, and implications for design of the next-generation media space.

© All rights reserved Mantei et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Mantei, Marilyn, Buxton, Bill and Fiume, Eugene (1991): The University of Toronto Dynamic Graphics Project. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 467-468. Available online

 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (1991): New paradigms for computing in the nineties. In: Graphics Interface 91 June 3-7, 1991, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. pp. 224-229.

 
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Price, Blaine A. and Baecker, Ronald M. (1991): The Automatic Animation of Concurrent Programs. In: First Moscow International HCI91 Workshop Proceedings 1991. pp. 128-137.

Much of the program visualization research to date has been devoted to hand-crafted animations of small sequential programs for use in computer science education. Instead, our work focuses on the development of automatic concurrent program visualization tools for use in software engineering. This paper describes a framework for concurrent program animation and a prototype tool based on this framework. Our user testing experiments with the prototype showed a significant increase in programmer insights when compared with conventional tools.

© All rights reserved Price and Baecker and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information

1990
 
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Dudley, Tim, Baecker, Ronald M., Eisenstadt, Marc, Glinert, Ephraim P. and Rosson, Mary Beth (1990): Multi-Dimensional Interfaces for Software Design. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1063-1066.

 
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Baecker, Ronald M. and Marcus, Aaron (1990): Human Factors and Typography for More Readable Programs. Reading, MA, Addison-Wesley Publishing

1989
 
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Baecker, Ronald M. (1989): A Vision of Education in User-Centered System and Interface Design. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (3) pp. 10-13.

This paper outlines a proposal for a new curriculum in human-computer interaction and user-centered system and interface design that is intended to be based within a computer science departmental framework. The intellectual foundations and political assumptions underlying the curriculum are described. A preliminary list of course offerings and requirements for a B.Sc. degree is presented.

© All rights reserved Baecker and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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Baecker, Ronald M. and Buxton, W.A.S. (eds.) (1987): Readings in Human-Computer Interaction: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Los Altos, CA, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

1983
 
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Baecker, Ronald M. and Marcus, Aaron (1983): On Enhancing the Interface to the Source Code of Computer Programs. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 251-255.

This paper addresses issues in the human factors of computer program documentation. We develop a framework for research on enhancing the interface to the source code of computer programs through designing and automating the production of effective typeset representations of the source text. Principles underlying the design research and examples of sample production are presented.

© All rights reserved Baecker and and/or ACM Press

1982
 
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Marcus, Aaron and Baecker, Ronald M. (1982): On the graphic design of program text. In: Graphics Interface 82 May 17-21, 1982, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 303-311.

1981
 
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Baecker, Ronald M. and Sherman, D. (1981): A computer animated explanation of internal sorting methods. In: Seventh Canadian Man-Computer Communications Conference June 10-12, 1981, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. pp. 145-146.

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Miller, D. and Reeves, W. (1981): A prototype laboratory instrument for video motion analysis. In: Seventh Canadian Man-Computer Communications Conference June 10-12, 1981, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. pp. 357-358.

 
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