Number of co-authors:13
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Doug Mahar:5Ron Henderson:4William Laverty:3
Renee Napier's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Ron Henderson:16Michael Wagner:12Doug Mahar:9
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Publications by Renee Napier (bibliography)
Henderson, Ron, Mahar, Doug, Saliba, Anthony, Deane, Frank and Napier, Renee (1998): Electronic Monitoring Systems: An Examination of Physiological Activity and Task Performance within a Simulated Keystroke Security and Electronic Performance Monitoring System. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 48 (2) pp. 143-157.
Electronic monitoring systems are becoming a prominent feature of the modern office. The aims of the present study were three-fold. First, to assess the effects electronic security monitoring systems (ESM) have on the user's physiological state. Second, the researches aimed to examine the effects explicit security challenges have on both user behaviour and physiological state when using an ESM system. Finally, the research aimed to examine the effects one form of electronic performance monitoring system may have on the user's physiological state. To this effect, the present study examined the physiological and performance effects of two simulated electronic monitoring systems (security/performance). The computer task required 32 subjects to enter mock clinical case notes under various conditions. In the first session subjects were only required to enter the case notes while keystroke data were collected. In the "security baseline" condition subjects were informed that a keystroke security monitoring system had been instituted, but no security challenges occurred. In the "security challenge" condition, however, a number of explicit security challenges occurred. In the final "performance monitoring" condition, subjects were informed that their data entry speed was monitored and they were placed on a response-cost schedule for poor performance. Blood pressure and continuous inter-heartbeat latency were recorded for the security and performance conditions. Results indicated that monitoring systems have the potential to evoke altered arousal states in the form of increased heart rate and blood pressure. Contrary to expectations, the hypothesized improvement in task performance within the performance monitoring condition was not observed. The implications of these results for the design and implementation of electronically based behavioural-based security and performance monitoring systems are discussed.
© All rights reserved Henderson et al. and/or Academic Press
Napier, Renee, Laverty, William, Mahar, Doug, Henderson, Ron, Hiron, Michael and Wagner, Michael (1995): Keyboard User Verification: Toward an Accurate, Efficient, and Ecologically Valid Algorithm. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 43 (2) pp. 213-222.
This paper proposes new measures of individual differences in typing behaviour which provide a means of accurately verifying the identity of the typist. A first study examined the efficacy of a multivariate measure of inter-key latencies and a probabilistic discriminator statistic in conjunction with an individual filtering system which eliminates occasional disfluent keystrokes. The results indicate that, under optimum conditions but with a very small test sample, these measures lead to better typist verification than measures suggested earlier by Umphress and Williams and then Leggett and Williams. A second study validated the improved algorithm under more ecologically valid conditions and showed that when training and test sessions were separated by one week, typist verification using the new algorithm achieved combined false-acceptance and false-rejection rates of 0.9% and 3.8% for test samples of 300 and 50 digraphs respectively.
© All rights reserved Napier et al. and/or Academic Press
Mahar, Doug, Napier, Renee, Wagner, Michael, Laverty, William, Henderson, R. D. and Hiron, M. (1995): Optimizing Digraph-Latency Based Biometric Typist Verification Systems: Inter and Intra Typist Differences in Digraph Latency Distributions. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 43 (4) pp. 579-592.
Umphress and Williams have shown that individual differences in digraph latency may provide a means of accurately verifying the identity of computer users. The present research refined this technique by exploring inter and intra subject differences in digraph latency distributions. Experiment 1 showed that there is marked heterogeneity in the latency with which individual subjects type different digraphs. Consequently, it was found that typist verification accuracy improved when a digraph-specific index of the distance between test and reference digraph latencies was employed. Experiment 1 also showed the utility of nonlinear modelling as a tool to establish optimum verification parameter settings. Experiment 2 showed that the use of a common low-pass temporal filter cutoff setting for all typists when screening digraphs is unwise. It was found that there is a significant interaction between subjects and filter settings such that verification accuracy may improve if subject-specific filter settings are used.
© All rights reserved Mahar et al. and/or Academic Press
Henderson, Ron, Mahar, Doug, Saliba, Anthony, Barrelle, Kate, Deane, Frank, Napier, Renee and Hiron, Michael (1995): The Psysiological Effects of Electronic Employee Performance and Security Monitoring Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 223-228.
The present study examined the effects of both security and performance based electronic monitoring systems on physiological and performance indices of users' behaviour. The 32 subjects performed a computer-based data entry task under various conditions. In the "control security challenge" condition subjects were informed that a keystroke security monitoring system had been instituted, but no security challenges occurred. In the "explicit security challenge" condition, however, a number of explicit security challenges occurred. In the final "electronic performance monitoring" (EPM) condition, subjects were informed their data entry speed was monitored and they were placed on a response-cost schedule for poor performance. Blood pressure and continuous inter-heart beat latency were recorded for the security challenge and EPM conditions. Results indicated that monitoring systems have the potential to evoke altered arousal states in the form of increased heart rate and blood pressure. The implications of these results for the design and implementation of electronic behavioural based security and performance monitoring systems are discussed.
© All rights reserved Henderson et al. and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia
Napier, Renee, Mahar, Doug, Henderson, Ron, Laverty, William, Hiron, Mike, Gough, Jon and Wagner, Mike (1994): Typist Identity Verification: A Comparison of the Utility of the Overall Reference Profile and the Digraph-Specific Estimates of Digraph Latency Variability. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1994. pp. 253-257.
Data security is important for both social and organisational reasons. Umphress and Williams  have shown that individual differences in typing behaviour may provide a means of accurately verifying the identity of the user. The present research attempted to enhance their technique by using a digraph-specific measure of inter-key latency variability. Sixty seven subjects undertook a transcriptional typing task, typing both computer relevant words, and sentences. False acceptance and false rejection rates were calculated using the traditional overall estimate of inter-key latency variability and a new digraph-specific measures of inter-key latency variability. Results revealed that the digraph specific measure of inter-key latency variability, not only produced a better optimum false acceptance plus false rejection rate, than the overall method, but did so over a wide range of parameter settings.
© All rights reserved Napier et al. and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia
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