Publication statistics

Pub. period:1987-2002
Pub. count:16
Number of co-authors:28



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

David Ungar:3
William W. Gaver:3
Tim O'Shea:2

 

 

Productive colleagues

Randall B. Smith's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Gary M. Olson:45
John C. Tang:37
Clayton H. Lewis:37
 
 
 

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Randall B. Smith

 

Publications by Randall B. Smith (bibliography)

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2002
 
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Begole, James, Tang, John C., Smith, Randall B. and Yankelovich, Nicole (2002): Work rhythms: analyzing visualizations of awareness histories of distributed groups. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 334-343. Available online

We examined records of minute-by-minute computer activity coupled with information about the location of the activity, online calendar appointments, and e-mail activity. We present a number of visualizations of the data that exhibit meaningful patterns in users' activities. We demonstrate how the patterns vary between individuals and within individuals according to time of day, location, and day of the week. Some patterns augment the schedule information found in people's online calendars. We discuss applications for group coordination (especially across time zones) plus opportunities for future research. In light of the popularity of instant messaging, this research identifies some of the benefits and privacy risks associated with the uses of online presence and awareness information.

© All rights reserved Begole et al. and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Smith, Randall B. and Taivalsaari, Antero (1999): Generalized and Stationary Scrolling. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 1-9. Available online

We present a generalized definition of scrolling that unifies a wide range of existing interaction techniques, from conventional scrolling through pan and zoom systems and fish-eye views. Furthermore it suggests a useful class of new scrolling techniques in which objects do not move across the display. These "stationary scrolling" techniques do not exhibit either of two problems that plague spatial scrolling system: discontinuity in salience and the undermining of the user's spatial memory.

© All rights reserved Smith and Taivalsaari and/or ACM Press

1998
 
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Smith, Randall B., Hixon, Ronald and Horan, B. (1998): Supporting Flexible Roles in a Shared Space. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 197-206. Available online

We describe the support for roles in a shared space application and programming environment called Kansas. As in reality, the underlying physics of Kansas has no notion of role. However, roles are supported by two features of the system: the spatial character of Kansas (which enables different views for different users) and a capability system that filters user inputs. Spatial positions and capabilities can be easily changed, so the support for roles is dynamic, lightweight, and flexible. Our system is simple, and intentionally limited in scope.

© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Begole, James, Struble, Craig A., Shaffer, Clifford A. and Smith, Randall B. (1997): Transparent Sharing of Java Applets: A Replicated Approach. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 55-64. Available online

People interact together in all aspects of life and, as computers have become prevalent, users seek computer support for their interactions. The WWW provides an unprecedented opportunity for users to interact with each other, and the advent of Java has created a consistent computing environment to support synchronous collaboration. We describe JAMM, a prototype Java runtime environment that supports the shared use of existing Java applets, thus leveraging the existing base of software for synchronous collaboration. Our approach is based on a replicated architecture, where each user maintains their own copy of the Java applet, and the users' input events are broadcast to each applet copy. We discuss solutions to certain key problems, such as unanticipated sharing, supporting late-joiners and replicating input sources other than user inputs (e.g., files, sockets, and random number generators).

© All rights reserved Begole et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Smith, Randall B., Wolczko, Mario and Ungar, David (1997): From Kansas to Oz. In Communications of the ACM, 40 (4) pp. 72-78.

1995
 
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Maloney, John H. and Smith, Randall B. (1995): Directness and Liveness in the Morphic User Interface Construction Environment. In: Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 21-28. Available online

Morphic is a user interface construction environment that strives to embody directness and liveness. Directness means a user interface designer can initiate the process of examining or changing the attributes, structure, and behavior of user interface components by pointing at their graphical representations directly. Liveness means the user interface is always active and reactive -- objects respond to user actions, animations run, layout happens, and information displays update continuously. Four implementation techniques work together to support directness and liveness in Morphic: structural reification, layout reification, ubiquitous animation, and live editing.

© All rights reserved Maloney and Smith and/or ACM Press

 
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Chang, Bay-Wei, Ungar, David and Smith, Randall B. (1995): Getting Close to Objects: Object-Focused Programming Environments. In: Burnett, Margaret M., Goldberg, Adele and Lewis, Ted (eds.). "Visual Object-Oriented Programming: Concepts and Environments". Prentice Hallpp. 185-198

1992
 
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Ungar, David, Smith, Randall B., Chambers, Craig and Holzle, Urs (1992): Object, Message, and Performance: How They Coexist in Self. In IEEE Computer, 25 (10) pp. 53-64.

1991
 
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Makkuni, Ranjit and Smith, Randall B. (1991): Electronic Capture and Transmission of Cultural Expertise in Craft Communities. In: Bannon, Liam, Robinson, Mike and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 91 - Proceedings of the Second European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work September 24-27, 1991, Amsterdam, Netherlands. .

 
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Gaver, William W. and Smith, Randall B. (1991): Auditory Icons in Large-Scale Collaborative Environments. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (1) p. 96.

We discuss the potential for auditory icons to address several common problems in large-scale, multiprocessing, and collaborative systems. These problems include those of confirming user-initiated actions, providing information about ongoing processes or system states, providing adequate navigational information, and signalling the existence and activity of other users who may be working in a part of the system that is not visible. We provide several examples of useful auditory icons drawn from a large, shared, multitasking environment called SharedARK, and discuss their implications for other systems.

© All rights reserved Gaver and Smith and/or ACM Press

 
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Gaver, William W., Smith, Randall B. and O'Shea, Tim (1991): Effective Sounds in Complex Systems: The Arkola Simulation. In , . Available online

We designed an ecology of auditory icons which worked together to convey information about a complex, demanding simulation task, and observed users collaborating on it with and without sound. Our observations suggest that audio cues can provide useful information about processes and problems, and support the perceptual integration of a number of separate processes into one complex one. In addition, they can smooth the transition between division of labour and collaboration by providing a new dimension of reference. These results suggest that auditory icons can play a significant role in future multiprocessing and collaborative systems.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or their publisher

1990
 
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Schleifer, Lawrence M., Sauter, Steven L., Smith, Randall B. and Knutson, Sheri (1990): Ergonomic Predictors of Visual System Complaints in VDT Data Entry Work. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 9 (4) pp. 273-282.

The relationship between ergonomic demands and visual system complaints was investigated among video-display-terminal (VDT) operators at two state agencies. Ergonomics factors suspected of posing visual demands were objectively assessed at 40 data-entry workstations. A questionnaire survey was also administered to gather information on somatic discomfort, demographic and personal characteristics, and extent of VDT use for operators at these workstations, and for several hundred additional operators in the two agencies. Regression analyses indicated that personal factors such as age and use of corrective eyewear accounted for relatively little of the variance in measures of visual system complaints. However, regression models that incorporated viewing distance and illumination measures accounted for 38%-49% of the variance in these measures. The present investigation is one of the few attempts to assess objectively an array of physical workplace factors and to examine, within a multivariate framework, their influence on visual system complaints.

© All rights reserved Schleifer et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Gaver, William W. and Smith, Randall B. (1990): Auditory Icons in Large-Scale Collaborative Environments. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 735-740.

We discuss the potential for auditory icons to address several common problems in large-scale, multiprocessing, and collaborative systems. These problems include those of confirming user-initiated actions, providing information about ongoing processes or system states, providing adequate navigational information, and signalling the existence and activity of other users who may be working in a part of the system that is not visible. We provide several examples of useful auditory icons drawn from a large, shared, multitasking environment called SharedARK, and discuss their implications for other systems.

© All rights reserved Gaver and Smith and/or North-Holland

1989
 
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Smith, Randall B., O'Shea, Tim, O'Malley, Claire, Scanlon, E. and Taylor, J. (1989): Preliminary experiments with a distributed, multi-media, problem solving environment. In: EC-CSCW 89 - Proceedings of the First European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 13-15 September, 1989, Gatwick, London. pp. 19-34.

We report on studies of pairs of subjects using a system called SharedARK (for "Shared Alternate Reality Kit"). In SharedARK, users at separate workstations interact in real time with the same world of simulated physical objects. In the experiments, two users are in separate rooms with a workstation each, and communicate through a high fidelity, hands-free audio and a camera-monitor device called a "video tunnel" which enables eye contact. For comparison, we have removed the video tunnel for some subjects, and have placed other subject pairs in the same room, giving them only a workstation each. Within SharedARK, subjects are given a "microworld" within which to solve a problem in everyday physics. Subjects are videotaped and monitored from a remote room. The protocols have been submitted to a preliminary analysis, in which we categorise activities as they relate to use of the interface, task performance and social interaction. We also catalogue eye glances and eye contact in terms of their relation to these activities. Our primary purpose has been to assess the learnability and usability of this technology, and to identify factors that are important in facilitating collaborative problem solving by directly comparing remote, electronically mediated communication with physical co-presence. We find the system is easily learned and fairly easily used. Subjects normally find the task engaging, and usually work together through largely unarticulated task division to obtain at least a partial understanding of the solution space. Our observations have led us to the hypothesis that this technology can bring subjects in some ways closer together than if they were to engage in a similar task in the real world. We present evidence suggesting that this artificially enhanced proximity may play a positive role in supporting non-interface specific discourse and task division negotiation.

© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or ACM Press

1988
 
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Olson, Gary M., Borning, Alan, diSessa, Andrea A., Lewis, Clayton H., Sherwood, Bruce and Smith, Randall B. (1988): Making Interactive Graphics Accessible: Comparison of Approaches. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. p. 249.

The participants have all created systems designed to make it easier to build interactive graphics applications such as animated physics demonstrations: Borning, ThingLab; DiSessa, BOXER; Lewis, NoPumpG; Sherwood, CMU Tutor; Smith, Alternate Reality Kit. These systems represent a wide variety of technical approaches, including spreadsheet extensions, object-oriented programming, constraint management, and procedural languages. In preparation for the panel, the panelists have exchanged problems selected to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of their systems, and each has undertaken to solve all of the problems. Based on this experience the panelists will discuss general issues raised by the problems, the advantages and limitations of their systems, and what suggestions can be made about the value of particular approaches to making interactive graphics accessible to a wide audience.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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Smith, Randall B. (1987): Experiences with the alternate reality kit --- An example of the tension between literalism and magic. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 61-67.

 
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