Number of co-authors:28
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Stuart K. Card:6Jock D. Mackinlay:4Peter Pirolli:3
Ramana Rao's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Catherine Plaisant:78Stuart K. Card:75George G. Robertso..:61
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Publications by Ramana Rao (bibliography)
Rao, Ramana (1999): Reflections: seegomanifesto. In Interactions, 6 (5) p. 64. Available online
Tenev, Tichomir and Rao, Ramana (1997): Managing multiple focal levels in Table Lens. In: InfoVis 1997 - IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization October 18-25, 1997, Phoenix, AZ, USA. pp. 59-. Available online
Rao, Ramana (1997): From Research to Real World with Z-GUI. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 17 (4) pp. 71-73. Available online
Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States.
Pirolli, Peter, Pitkow, James and Rao, Ramana (1996): Silk from a Sow's Ear: Extracting Usable Structure from the Web. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 118-125. Available online
In its current implementation, the World-Wide Web lacks much of the explicit structure and strong typing found in many closed hypertext systems. While this property probably relates to the explosive acceptance of the Web, it further complicates the already difficult problem of identifying usable structures and aggregates in large hypertext collections. These reduced structures, or localities, form the basis for simplifying visualizations of and navigation through complex hypertext systems. Much of the previous research into identifying aggregates utilize graph theoretic algorithms based upon structural topology, i.e., the linkages between items. Other research has focused on content analysis to form document collections. This paper presents our exploration into techniques that utilize both the topology and textual similarity between items as well as usage data collected by servers and page meta-information lke title and size. Linear equations and spreading activation models are employed to arrange Web pages based upon functional categories, node types, and relevancy.
© All rights reserved Pirolli et al. and/or ACM Press
Hascoet-Zizi, Mountaz, Plaisant, Catherine, Ahlberg, Christopher, Chalmers, Matthew, Korfhage, Robert R. and Rao, Ramana (1996): Where is Information Visualization Technology Going?. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 75-77. Available online
Over the past few years a lot of different information visualization techniques have been proposed. Being a relatively new and large field, the spectrum of emerging techniques has not clearly been identified. Another major consequence of the youthfulness of the field is that very few evaluation have been conducted so far. The aim of the panel will be to address these two points. First, panelist will characterize the spectrum of information visualization technology depending on tasks, users or data. Panelists will further discuss future trends in visualization technology by determining which are the most important features or challenges that information visualization systems should address. Second, the discussion will focus on how these systems are to be evaluated: through controlled experiments, system evaluation, long-time studies, verbal protocols, theoretical evaluations, or else?
© All rights reserved Hascoet-Zizi et al. and/or ACM Press
Pirolli, Peter and Rao, Ramana (1996): Table lens as a tool for making sense of data. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Levialdi, Stefano and Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) AVI 1996 - Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced visual interfaces May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy. pp. 67-80. Available online
Lamping, John and Rao, Ramana (1996): The Hyperbolic Browser: A Focus + Context Technique for Visualizing Large Hierarchies. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 7 (1) pp. 33-55.
Lamping, John, Rao, Ramana and Pirolli, Peter (1995): A Focus+Context Technique Based on Hyperbolic Geometry for Visualizing Large Hierarchies. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 401-408. Available online
We present a new focus+context (fisheye) technique for visualizing and manipulating large hierarchies. Our technique assigns more display space to a portion of the hierarchy while still embedding it in the context of the entire hierarchy. The essence of this scheme is to lay out the hierarchy in a uniform way on a hyperbolic plane and map this plane onto a circular display region. This supports a smooth blending between focus and context, as well as continuous redirection of the focus. We have developed effective procedures for manipulating the focus using pointer clicks as well as interactive dragging, and for smoothly animating transitions across such manipulation. A laboratory experiment comparing the hyperbolic browser with a conventional hierarchy browser was conducted.
© All rights reserved Lamping et al. and/or ACM Press
Mackinlay, Jock D., Rao, Ramana and Card, Stuart K. (1995): An Organic User Interface for Searching Citation Links. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 67-73. Available online
This paper describes Butterfly, an Information Visualizer application for accessing DIALOG's Science Citation databases across the Internet. Network information often involves slow access that conflicts with the use of highly-interactive information visualization. Butterfly addresses this problem, integrating search, browsing, and access management via four techniques: 1) visualization supports the assimilation of retrieved information and integrates search and browsing activity, 2) automatically-created "link-generating" queries assemble bibliographic records that contain reference information into citation graphs, 3) asynchronous query processes explore the resulting graphs for the user, and 4) process controllers allow the user to manage these processes. We use our positive experience with the Butterfly implementation to propose a general information access approach, called Organic User Interfaces for Information Access, in which a virtual landscape grows under user control as information is accessed automatically.
© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press
Rao, Ramana, Pedersen, Jan O., Hearst, Marti A., Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K., Masinter, Larry, Halvorsen, Per-Kristian and Robertson, George G. (1995): Rich Interaction in the Digital Library. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (4) pp. 29-39.
Rao, Ramana and Card, Stuart K. (1994): The Table Lens: Merging Graphical and Symbolic Representations in an Interactive Focus+Context Visualization for Tabular Information. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 318-322. Available online
We present a new visualization, called the Table Lens, for visualizing and making sense of large tables. The visualization uses a focus+context (fisheye) technique that works effectively on tabular information because it allows display of crucial label information and multiple distal focus areas. In addition, a graphical mapping scheme for depicting table contents has been developed for the most widespread kind of tables, the case-by-variables table. The Table Lens fuses symbolic and graphical representations into a single coherent view that can be fluidly adjusted by the user. This fusion and interactivity enables an extremely rich and natural style of direct manipulation exploratory data analysis.
© All rights reserved Rao and Card and/or ACM Press
Lamping, John and Rao, Ramana (1994): Laying Out and Visualizing Large Trees Using a Hyperbolic Space. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 13-14. Available online
We present a new focus+context (fisheye) scheme for visualizing and manipulating large hierarchies. The essence of our approach is to lay out the hierarchy uniformly on the hyperbolic plane and map this plane onto a circular display region. The projection onto the disk provides a natural mechanism for assigning more space to a pardon of the hierarchy while still embedding it in a much larger context. Change of focus is accomplished by translating the structure on the hyperbolic plane, which allows a smooth transition without compromising the presentation of the context.
© All rights reserved Lamping and Rao and/or ACM Press
Johnson, Walter, Jellinek, Herbert, Klotz Jr, Leigh, Rao, Ramana and Card, Stuart K. (1993): Bridging the Paper and Electronic Worlds: The Paper User Interface. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 507-512. Available online
Since its invention millenia ago, paper has served as one of our primary communications media. Its inherent physical properties make it easy to use, transport, and store, and cheap to manufacture. Despite these advantages, paper remains a second class citizen in the electronic world. In this paper, we present a new technology for bridging the paper and the electronic worlds. In the new technology, the user interface moves beyond the workstation and onto paper itself. We describe paper user interface technology and its implementation in a particular system called XAX.
© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or ACM Press
Rao, Ramana, Russell, Daniel M. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1993): System Components for Embedded Information Retrieval from Multiple Disparate Information Sources. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 23-33. Available online
Current information retrieval interfaces only address a small part of the reality of rich interactions amongst user, task, and information sources. We view information gathering as an interactive, iterative activity involving multiple disparate information sources and embedded in the context of broader processes of information use. We have developed two key system components that enable information workspaces that adhere to this reformulation of information retrieval. The first is a design for a user/system interaction model for retrieval from multiple, disparate information sources. The second is a repository modeling system, called Repo, that represents meta-information about different information repositories in a manner that supports system operation as well as provides a direct information resource to the user. To test these ideas, we have utilized Repo and embodied the interaction model in the user interface of a system called Labrador.
© All rights reserved Rao et al. and/or ACM Press
Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K., Jellinek, Herbert, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1992): The Information Grid: A Framework for Information Retrieval and Retrieval-Centered Applications. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 23-32. Available online
The Information Grid (InfoGrid) is a framework for building information access applications that provides a user interface design and an interaction model. It focuses on retrieval of application objects as its top level mechanism for accessing user information, documents, or services. We have embodied the InfoGrid design in an object-oriented application framework that supports rapid construction of applications. This application framework has been used to build a number of applications, some that are classically characterized as information retrieval applications, other that are more typically viewed as personal work tools.
© All rights reserved Rao et al. and/or ACM Press
Mackay, Wendy E., Malone, Thomas W., Crowston, Kevin, Rao, Ramana, Rosenblitt, David and Card, Stuart K. (1989): How Do Experienced Information Lens Users Use Rules?. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 211-216.
The Information Lens provides electronic mail users with the ability to write rules that automatically sort, select, and filter their messages. This paper describes preliminary results from an eighteen-month investigation of the use of this system at a corporate test site. We report the experiences of 13 voluntary users who have each had at least three months experience with the most recent version of the system. We found that: 1. People without significant computer experience are able to create and use rules effectively. 2. Useful rules can be created based on the fields present in all messages (e.g., searching for distribution lists or one's own name in the address fields or for character strings in the subject field), even without any special message templates. 3. People use rules both to prioritize messages before reading them and to sort messages into folders for storage after reading them. 4. People use delete rules primarily to filter out messages from low-priority distribution lists, not to delete personal messages to themselves.
© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press
Malone, Thomas W., Grant, Kenneth R., Lai, Kum-Yew, Rao, Ramana and Rosenblitt, David (1987): Semistructured Messages Are Surprisingly Useful for Computer-Supported Coordination. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 5 (2) pp. 115-131.
This paper argues that using a set of semistructured message templates is surprisingly helpful in designing a variety of computer-based communication and coordination systems. Semistructured messages can help provide automatic aids for (1) composing messages to be sent, (2) selecting, sorting, and prioritizing messages that are received, (3) responding automatically to some messages, and (4) suggesting likely responses to other messages. The use of these capabilities is illustrated in a range of applications including electronic mail, computer conferencing, calendar management, and task tracking. The applications show how ideas from artificial intelligence (such as inheritance and production rules) and ideas from user interface design (such as interactive graphical editors) can be combined in novel ways for dealing with semistructured messages. The final part of the paper discusses how communities can evolve a useful set of message type definitions.
© All rights reserved Malone et al. and/or ACM Press
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