Number of co-authors:13
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:John F. Patterson:3Steven L. Rohall:3Tom Brinck:2
Ralph Hill's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Bill Buxton:78Alison Lee:20Jim Miller:20
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Publications by Ralph Hill (bibliography)
Hill, Ralph, Brinck, Tom, Rohall, Steven L., Patterson, John F. and Wilner, Wayne (1994): The Rendezvous Architecture and Language for Constructing Multiuser Applications. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1 (2) pp. 81-125. Available online
When people have meetings or discussions, frequently they use conversational props: physical models, drawings, or other concrete representations of information used to enhance the exchange of information. If the participants are geographically separated, it is difficult to make effective use of props since each physical prop can only exist in one place. Computer applications that allow two or more users to simultaneously view and manipulate the same data can be used to augment human-to-human telecommunication. We have built the Rendezvous system to aid the construction of applications that can be used as conversational props. The Rendezvous system is similar to many UIMSs or user interface toolkits in that it is intended to simplify the construction of graphical direct-manipulation interfaces. It goes beyond these systems by adding functionality to support the construction of multiuser applications. Based on experience with several large applications built with the Rendezvous system, we believe that it is useful for building conversational props and other computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW) applications. We present a list of required features of conversational props, some example applications built with the Rendezvous system, and a description of the Rendezvous system.
© All rights reserved Hill et al. and/or ACM Press
Brinck, Tom and Hill, Ralph (1993): Building Shared Graphical Editors Using the Abstraction-Link-View Architecture. In: Michelis, Giorgio De, Simone, Carla and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 93 - Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1993. pp. 311-324.
We have written several multi-user graphical editors in the Rendezvous system. In our approach to building these editors, the applications are first written as single-user editors. When multiple users wish to share a drawing surface, the drawing surfaces of their individual editors are connected using the Abstraction-Link-View (ALV) architecture. "Links" communicate the editing operations among the editors they connect. Links are designed to be invisible to the applications they are attached to, allowing the interface for each user to be highly customized. Links can also attach editors to the interface of a running RENDEZVOUS application, allowing the interface to be edited as the application is being used.
© All rights reserved Brinck and Hill and/or Kluwer
Hill, Ralph (1993): The Rendezvous Constraint Maintenance System. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 225-234. Available online
The Rendezvous language and architecture are designed to build computer-supported cooperative work applications that support simultaneous work at a distance. The language includes a feature-rich constraint maintenance system. The features in the constraint system were selected based on feedback from user-interface developers using earlier versions of the Rendezvous language. Three important features in the constraint system are: indirectly referenced source and target variables, tolerance of side-effects, and special handling of uninitialized variables to simplify initialization. Application requirements that motivate these features and implementation techniques are described. The Rendezvous constraint system is faster, on some benchmarks, than other constraint systems currently being used for interface construction.
© All rights reserved Hill and/or ACM Press
Hill, Ralph (1992): The Abstraction-Link-View Paradigm: Using Constraints to Connect User Interfaces to Applications. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 335-342. Available online
The goal of the RENDEZVOUS project is to build interactive systems that are used by multiple users from multiple workstations, simultaneously. This goal caused us to choose an architecture that requires a clean run-time separation of user interfaces from applications. Such a separation has long been a stated goal of UIMS researchers, but it is difficult to achieve. A key technical reason for the difficulty is that modern direct manipulation interfaces require extensive communication between the user interface and the application to provide semantic feedback. We discuss several communications mechanisms that have been used in the past, and present our approach -- the Abstraction-Link-View paradigm. Links are objects whose sole responsibility is to facilitate communication between the abstraction objects (application) and the view objects (user interfaces). The Abstraction-Link-View paradigm relies on concurrency and a fast but powerful constraint system.
© All rights reserved Hill and/or ACM Press
Rohall, Steven L., Patterson, John F. and Hill, Ralph (1992): Go Fish! A Multi-User Game in the Rendezvous System. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. p. 647. Available online
The Rendezvous System is an infrastructure for building multi-user, synchronous applications. Multi-user, synchronous applications are those that are designed to be used by several people simultaneously. Examples of such applications range from collaborative debugging of software to multi-party contract negotiations to games for several players. This videotape shows a demonstration of one multi-user application we have built. The application is a card table that allows up to four people to play any card game they wish. On the tape, you will see several rounds of a game of fish. This game, though simple, serves to highlight four key capabilities that an infrastructure for building multi-user applications must support. These are: 1) support for separate, customized views for each user of the same underlying data, 2) support for public data (i.e., data shown to all users) as well as private data (i.e., data shown only to a particular user), 3) support for access control among users so that certain data is only accessible to some users, and 4) support for the direct manipulation of data objects on the users' displays. We believe that the ability for people to communicate with one another in the structured manner of multi-user applications offers an enormous opportunity for people to enrich the way they work, learn, and play. Many sorts of multi-user applications are possible and research into infrastructures like the Rendezvous System may some day allow for the rapid production of these types of systems. For more information, please see the suggested readings.
© All rights reserved Rohall et al. and/or ACM Press
Patterson, John F., Hill, Ralph, Rohall, Steven L. and Meeks, W. Scott (1990): Rendezvous: An Architecture for Synchronous Multi-User Applications. In: Halasz, Frank (ed.) Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work October 07 - 10, 1990, Los Angeles, California, United States. pp. 317-328.
Rendezvous is an architecture for creating synchronous multi-user applications. It consists of two parts: a run-time architecture for managing the multi-user session and a start-up architecture for managing the network connectivity. The run-time architecture is based on a User Interface Management System called MEL, which is a language extension to Common Lisp providing support for graphics operations, object-oriented programming, and constraints. Constraints are used to manage three dimensions of sharing: sharing of underlying information, sharing of views, and sharing of access. The start-up architecture decouples invoking and joining an application so that not all users need be known when the application is started. At present, the run-time architecture is completed and running test applications. As a first test of the complete Rendezvous architecture, we will implement a multi-user card game by the end of the summer.
© All rights reserved Patterson et al. and/or ACM Press
Rosenberg, Jarrett, Hill, Ralph, Miller, Jim, Schulert, Andrew and Shewmake, David (1988): UIMSs: Threat or Menace?. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 197-200.
Hill, Ralph (1987): Event--response systems --- A technique for specifying multi--threaded dialogues. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 241-248.
Buxton, Bill, Fiume, Eugene, Hill, Ralph, Lee, Alison and Woo, Carson C. (1983): Continuous hand--gesture driven input. In: Graphics Interface 83 May 9-13, 1983, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. pp. 191-195.
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