Number of co-authors:36
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Allan MacLean:15Jon May:11Nick Hammond:6
Philip J. Barnard's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Jonathan Grudin:105Ann Blandford:69Michael D. Harriso..:50
Computer programs emerge as the outcome of complex human processes of cognition, communication and negotiation, which serve to establish the meaningful embedding of the computer system in its intended use context.
-- Floyd, 1992, p. 24
Read the fascinating history of Wearable Computing, told by its father, Steve Mann
Read Steve's chapter !
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
Philip J. Barnard
Has also published under the name of:
"Phil Barnard" and "Philip J Barnard"
Personal Homepage: mrc-cbu.cam.ac.uk/people/phil.barnard/
Current place of employment: Retired but visiting scientist at mrc-cbu
Philip is a psychologist, who worked at the Medical Research Council's Cognition and Brain Sciences Unit (CBU) in Cambridge UK from 1972-2011. This unit was previously called the MRC Applied Psychology Unit from 1944-1998. From the mid-1970's to the mid-1990's he worked extensively on HCI research. He now works mostly on human cognition and emotion and on theories of a range of conditions in mental health - e.g. depression, anxiety, eating disorders and schizophrenia. He continues as a visiting scientist at the CBU but now focuses on studies of human cognitive evolution and acts as scientific adviser to Wayne McGregor | Random Dance where he works on creative processes in the arts.
Publications by Philip J. Barnard (bibliography)
May, Jon, Dean, Michael P. and Barnard, Philip J. (2003): Using Film Cutting Techniques in Interface Design. In Human-Computer Interaction, 18 (4) pp. 325-372.
It has been suggested that computer interfaces could be made more usable if
their designers utilized cinematography techniques, which have evolved to guide
the viewer through a narrative despite frequent discontinuities in the
presented scene (i.e., cuts between shots). Because of differences between the
domains of film and interface design, it is not straightforward to understand
how such techniques can be transferred. May and Barnard (1995) argued that a
psychological model of watching film could support such a transference. This
article presents an extended account of this model, which allows identification
of the practice of collocation of objects of interest in the same screen
position before and after a cut. To verify that filmmakers do, in fact, use
such techniques successfully, eye movements were measured while participants
watched the entirety of a commercially released motion picture, in its original
theatrical format. For each of 10 classes of cut, predictions were made about
the use of collocation. Peaks in eye movements between 160 and 280 msec after
the cut were detected for 6 of the 10 classes, and results were broadly in line
with collocation predictions, with two exceptions. It is concluded that
filmmakers do successfully use collocation when cutting in and out from a
detail, following the motion of an actor or object, and in showing the result
of an action. The results are used to make concrete recommendations for
interface designers from the theoretical analysis of film comprehension.
© All rights reserved May et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
May, Jon and Barnard, Philip J. (2003): Cognitive Task Analysis. In: Diaper, Dan and Stanton, Neville (eds.). "The Handbook of Task Analysis for HCI". Hillsdale, New Jersey, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associatespp. 291-325
Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) techniques seek to model the mental activity of a task operator. With the rise of computing artefacts, the focus of CTA has changed from supporting the tutoring of operators, to modelling knowledge application, to modelling cognitive processes. Descendants of knowledge based approaches include GOMS, and produce quantitative temporal behavioural predictions for well defined interfaces. The increasing pace of design, and the dominance of small design teams has led to a demand for more flexible techniques. This chapter describes a particular approach to CTA using a cognitive theory called Interacting Cognitive Subsystems (ICS). A CTA in ICS requires a prior task analysis to have been conducted, but the analyst then identifies the configuration of cognitive processes necessary to transform information about the task, through the phases of goal formation, action specification and action execution, for novices, occasional (normal) and expert operators. The availability of procedural knowledge, experiential and abstracted memories influence the ease of processing, and the scope a design offers for their development informs ease of learning and skill acquisition. The location of a particular form of buffered processing predicts subjective awareness of different aspects of the task, and of task complexity. Two notations supporting analysis are described. The close coupling of the analytic approach and the underlying theory enables a CTA in ICS to provide supportive evaluation, allowing iterative redesign. It is also allowing further research linking ICS to formal models of systems analysis (Syndetics) and to other methods of TA, namely TKS, to extend both techniques to collaborative and multiple task performance.
© All rights reserved May and Barnard and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates
Duke, David, Barnard, Philip J., Halper, Nick and Mellin, Mara (2003): Rendering and Affect. In Computer Graphics Forum, 22 (3) pp. 59-368.
Previous studies at the intersection between rendering and psychology have concentrated on issues such as realism and acuity. Although such results have been useful in informing development of realistic rendering techniques, studies have shown that the interpretation of images is in uenced by factors that have little to do with realism. In this paper, we summarize a series of experiments, the most recent of which are reported in a separate paper, that investigate affective (emotive) qualities of images. These demonstrate signi cant effects that can be utilized within interactive graphics, particularly via non-photorealistic rendering (NPR). We explain how the interpretation of these results requires a high-level model of cognitive information processing, and use such a model to account for recent empirical results on rendering and judgement.
© All rights reserved Duke et al. and/or Blackwell
Duke, David J., Duce, David A., Barnard, Philip J. and May, Jon (2001): Human-computer protocols. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) HCI International 2001 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 5-10, 2001, New Orleans, USA. pp. 296-300.
Barnard, Philip J., May, Jon, Duke, David and Duce, David A. (2000): Systems, Interactions, and Macrotheory. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (2) pp. 222-262.
A significant proportion of early HCI research was guided by one very clear vision: that the existing theory base in psychology and cognitive science could be developed to yield engineering tools for use in the interdisciplinary context of HCI design. While interface technologies and heuristic methods for behavioral evaluation have rapidly advanced in both capability and breadth of application, progress toward deeper theory has been modest, and some now believe it to be unnecessary. A case is presented for developing new forms of theory, based around generic "systems of interactors." An overlapping, layered structure of macro- and microtheories could then serve an explanatory role, and could also bind together contributions from the different disciplines. Novel routes to formalizing and applying such theories provide a host of interesting and tractable problems for future basic research in HCI.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or ACM Press
Barnard, Philip J. and May, Jon (1999): Representing Cognitive Activity in Complex Tasks. In Human-Computer Interaction, 14 (1) pp. 93-158.
Although cognitive theory has been recognized as essential for the analysis of human-computer interaction (HCI), the representations that have been developed have been directed more toward theoretical purposes than practical application. To bridge the gap between theory and application, representations need to satisfy requirements for broad scope, a unified theoretical basis, and abstraction. Interacting cognitive subsystems (ICS) is proposed as a unified cognitive theory that can be used as the basis for such representations, and two approaches based on the theory are described. One entails the description of cognitive task models, which are a relatively complete representation of the cognitive activity required of a user in the course of an interaction. The other entails the production of less complete diagrammatic notations, which are intended to provide support in small-scale problem identification and resolution and which can be applied across tasks, visual interface, and sound interface issues and can handle static and dynamic situations. Although the former can be implemented in a production-rule expert system (ICSpert) and, therefore, does not require detailed modeling knowledge on the part of the analyst, the latter is a pencil-and-paper technique that does require theoretical knowledge but is intended to facilitate the acquisition of such knowledge in the interest of educating its users about the human aspects of HCI. The representations differ in the knowledge required for their use, in the support that they offer, and in the situations for which they are appropriate. They have been used to represent problems from experimental situations, core HCI scenarios, and real-world design projects. They share breadth of scope and abstraction, and their parent theory supports transfer of knowledge across domains of application and from older to newer technologies and feedback between the domain of application and the domain of theory.
© All rights reserved Barnard and May and/or Taylor and Francis
Duke, David, Barnard, Philip J., Duce, David A. and May, Jon (1998): Syndetic Modelling. In Human-Computer Interaction, 13 (4) pp. 337-393.
User and system models typically are viewed as independent representations that provide complementary insights into aspects of human-computer interaction. Within system development, it is usual to see the 2 activities as separate, or at best loosely coupled, with either the design artifact or some third "mediating" expression providing the context in which the results of modelling can be related. This article proposes that formal system models can be combined directly with a representation of human cognition to yield an integrated view of human-system interaction: a syndetic model. Aspects of systems that affect usability then can be described and understood in terms of the conjoint behavior of user and computer. This article introduces and discusses, in syndetic terms, 2 scenarios with markedly different properties. We show how syndesis can provide a formal foundation for reasoning about interaction.
© All rights reserved Duke et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Barnard, Philip J., May, Jon and Salber, Daniel (1996): Deixis and Points of View in Media Spaces: An Empirical Gesture. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 15 (1) pp. 37-50.
Claims are being made that videophone facilities on microcomputers allow transparent and effective use of shared work spaces by geographically separated colleagues. This can only be true if the video image helps the users understand each other's everyday speech. This study examines factors affecting the comprehension of deictic, gestural reference in videophone communication. Three camera positions were compared: the standard, 'face-to-face' view of the colleague, a 'reversed' view, and a rear three-quarters 'hind' view. Task conditions involved low referential ambiguity (where reference was verbally explicit as well as deictically indicated by gesture) and high referential ambiguity (deictic reference alone). The reference was either to an item in the workspace or a spatial relationship, and two-dimensional and three-dimensional workspaces were compared. Results indicate that the standard face-to-face view found on many systems does not allow gestures made towards shared areas of the screen to be understood when the verbal information is ambiguous. In designing systems that encourage the use of normal patterns of speech, and hence the use of deictic reference, it is necessary to understand which cues are likely to resolve ambiguities, in which dimensions, and the extent to which the cues provided are likely to achieve that end.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
May, Jon and Barnard, Philip J. (1996): A Modest Experiment in the Usefulness of Electronic Archives. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 15 (3) pp. 193-201.
As part of a collaborative long-term research project in human computer interaction (HCI), the use of electronic archiving was studied by making pre-publication material available over the Internet, through anonymous FTP directories and pages on the World Wide Web. The archive was designed to fulfil two aims. First it was a live experiment in computer supported co-operative work. Documents were no longer prepared and distributed in paper form but were made available electronically for use throughout the project. This resulted in substantial economies in the management of the project, virtually eliminating the need for routine mass duplication of all documents and minimizing postage, courier and facsimile costs. Second, the directories also appeared to function well in support of the rapid dissemination of our results to their potential users outside the project. Data on the use of the archive by project and non-project sites are presented here.
© All rights reserved May and Barnard and/or Taylor and Francis
Blandford, Ann, Harrison, Michael and Barnard, Philip J. (1995): Using Interaction Framework to Guide the Design of Interactive Systems. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 43 (1) pp. 101-130.
Understanding the properties of interactions is essential to the design of effective interactive systems involving two or more agents, and to the evaluation of existing systems. This understanding can inform the design of multi-agent systems by helping the designer identify properties that a system should conform to. In addition, a focus on the properties of interactions can lead to a better understanding of the space of possibilities, by recognizing features of multi-agent systems which are often simply incidental outcomes of design, not explicitly considered in the design specification. We present an Interaction Framework, in which abstract interactional requirements and properties can be expressed in a way which is not biased towards the perspective of any one agent to the interaction. These can be used to derive requirements on the design of computer systems, to highlight those aspects of users which influence the properties of the interaction, and hence to guide the design of the interactive system.
© All rights reserved Blandford et al. and/or Academic Press
May, Jon and Barnard, Philip J. (1995): The Case for Supportive Evaluation During Design. In Interacting with Computers, 7 (2) pp. 115-143.
The relevance of human-computer interaction to industry is being questioned, and the emphasis is shifting away from providing generalised support to systematic evaluation methods, typified by cognitive walkthroughs (CW). The evidence suggests that CW has not proved as effective as hoped. This evidence is examined, and the authors argue that the problem lies not with CW or its underlying theory in particular, but with its limited scope and in the increasing dissociation of an evaluation method from its theoretical foundation. Evaluation methods retaining a theoretical element would provide the necessary conceptual support to enable designers to identify, comprehend and resolve usability problems, and would also be less limited than dissociated evaluation methods in their breadth and depth of application. A vision of a 'supportive evaluation' tool is presented and cognitive task analysis (CTA), the methodology upon which a proof-of-concept tool has been based is described. Three brief design scenarios are described to illustrate how CTA supports the identification and resolution of usability problems and the role of cognitive modelling in the context of design is discussed.
© All rights reserved May and Barnard and/or Elsevier Science
Barnard, Philip J. and May, Jon (1994): Interactions with Advanced Graphical Interfaces and the Deployment of Latent Human Knowledge. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) DSV-IS 1994 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems94, Proceedings of the First International Eurographics Workshop June 8-10, 1994, Bocca di Magra, Italy. pp. 15-49.
Harrison, Michael D., Blandford, Ann and Barnard, Philip J. (1994): Modelling Interactive Systems and Providing Task Relevant Information. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) DSV-IS 1994 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems94, Proceedings of the First International Eurographics Workshop June 8-10, 1994, Bocca di Magra, Italy. pp. 267-277.
Lee, Wai On and Barnard, Philip J. (1993): Precipitating Change in System Usage by Function Revelation and Problem Reformulation. In: Alty, James L., Diaper, Dan and Guest, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VIII August 7-10, 1993, Loughborough University, UK. pp. 35-47.
Long term learning has been neglected in much of HCI research. Although many workers have observed that users typically asymptote at mediocre levels of expertise and make sub-optimal usage of system functionality, little detailed research has been applied to examine such a phenomenon. Attempts to tackle the problem in the past have focused on finding effective ways to reveal system functionality to the users. In this paper, we examined the adequacy of such an approach to effect change in users' function repertoire. The results showed that to precipitate a permanent change, users have to be supported in reformulating problems on the basis of their relevant features. The implications of the results are discussed.
© All rights reserved Lee and Barnard and/or Cambridge University Press
May, Jon, Tweedie, Lisa and Barnard, Philip J. (1993): Modelling User Performance in Visually Based Interactions. In: Alty, James L., Diaper, Dan and Guest, D. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eighth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VIII August 7-10, 1993, Loughborough University, UK. pp. 95-110.
This paper outlines a general technique for analysing user performance in visually based interactions. Such interactions are modelled as an evaluation process in which the user compares the visual structure of an object with an internally-generated propositional representation of the target. The content and structure of this propositional representation is dependent upon the context within which the target has been learnt and searched for previously. The technique is used to frame a specific model of icon search, and an experiment is described which tests the model against icon sets with different visual structures, and by keeping one set of icons constant but changing the context within which they are presented. The results provide general support for the technique, with icon search times being affected both by the number of icons which contain the 'psychological subject' of the target icon, and by the depth to which the propositional representations must be evaluated before icons can be rejected or accepted as the target.
© All rights reserved May et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Barnard, Philip J. (1993): Modelling Users, Systems and Design Spaces (Esprit Basic Research Action 3066). In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 331-336.
This paper provides an overview of AMODEUS (Assimilating Models Of DEsigners Users and Systems), an Esprit Basic Research Action. The focus of the collaboration was the development of interdisciplinary methods and concepts for studying interactions between users and systems offering long-term implications for interface design and development.
© All rights reserved Barnard and/or Elsevier Science
Young, Richard M. and Barnard, Philip J. (1992): Multiple Uses of Scenarios: A Reply to Campbell. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (4) p. 10.
Barnard, Philip J. and Harrison, Michael D. (1992): Towards a Framework for Modelling Human-Computer Interactions. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI92 1992. pp. 189-196.
In human-computer interaction, techniques are available for modelling users, systems and work tasks. However, there are few techniques or concepts that specifically address the form and contents of interactions per se. This paper outlines the concept of an Interaction Framework. The main functions of such a framework are to support intercommunication between specialist modellers and to assist in the design process itself. In this paper the approach is outlined. Its possible value in supporting interdisciplinary communication and in the development of design ideas is illustrated by reference to the "unselected window" phenomenon. Empirical evidence is cited in support of a particular set of interactional principles and their broader implications discussed.
© All rights reserved Barnard and Harrison and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information
Hammond, Nick, Barnard, Philip J., Coutaz, Joëlle, Harrison, Michael, MacLean, Allan and Young, Richard M. (1991): Modelling User, System and Design: Results of a Scenarios Matrix Exercise. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 377-380.
This panel will discuss the results of an exercise aimed at investigating how various modelling approaches from Cognitive Science and Software Engineering can be integrated into HCI design. Each panelist will outline their approach and present their approach's performance on two agreed upon design scenarios.
© All rights reserved Hammond et al. and/or ACM Press
Young, Richard M. and Barnard, Philip J. (1991): Signature Tasks and Paradigm Tasks: New Wrinkles on the Scenarios Methodology. In: Diaper, Dan and Hammond, Nick (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VI August 20-23, 1991, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 91-101.
Scenarios are increasingly being used in HCI to explore alternative designs or assess user models. We seek to strengthen the use of scenarios within modelling methodologies by clarifying what scenarios are good for and what makes a good scenario. The first clarification concerns scenarios that are "privileged" in certain ways with respect to the modelling technique used to analyse them. A signature task is one deliberately chosen to match the capabilities of the technique. A paradigm task is one which has been thoroughly analysed and understood in terms of the technique. Perhaps surprisingly, signature tasks and paradigm tasks are often not the same. The second clarification is that although scenarios represent a particular concrete instance of human-computer interaction, some form of contrast is generally involved -- whether explicitly stated or merely implied. Good scenarios are characterised by the presence of a meaningful contrast that captures an issue and focuses the analysis.
© All rights reserved Young and Barnard and/or Cambridge University Press
Barnard, Philip J. (1990): Research on Human-Computer Interaction at the MRC Applied Psychology Unit. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 379-380.
Barnard, Philip J. (1990): Summary of the CHI'90 Doctoral Consortium. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 459-460.
Duff, Simon C. and Barnard, Philip J. (1990): Influencing Behaviour Via Device Representation; Decreasing Performance by Increasing Instruction. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 61-66.
Several studies including those of Duff (1989) suggest that prior knowledge plays a crucial role in learning operating procedures and problem solving with computer based systems. This paper tests a counter-intuitive prediction derived from Barnard's (1987) Cognitive Task Analysis. The analysis predicts that the advantageous effects of device knowledge can be offset by providing users with additional procedural instructions during the learning phase. Experimental evidence in support of this prediction comes from users learning to control a simple laboratory application.
© All rights reserved Duff and Barnard and/or North-Holland
Green, Alison J. K. and Barnard, Philip J. (1990): Iconic Interfacing: The Role of Icon Distinctiveness and Fixed or Variable Screen Locations. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 457-462.
This study examined the ease with which icons differing in visual distinctiveness are learned and searched in either fixed or variable screen locations. Previous research by Arend, Muthig and Wandmacher  found that with random arrays, abstract icons were searched faster than representational icons. The present experiment manipulated the degree of locational ambiguity within arrays of abstract and representational icons in order to identify general principles governing the learning and searching of icon arrays. Results clearly show that differences between search times for abstract and representational icons are substantially reduced with arrays in which the position of all icons remained fixed. These and more detailed findings are used to frame constraints which may be governing cognitive activity in search and select tasks.
© All rights reserved Green and Barnard and/or North-Holland
Barnard, Philip J. and Harrison, Michael (1989): Integrating Cognitive and System Models in Human Computer Interaction. In: Sutcliffe, Alistair G. and Macauley, Linda (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers V August 5-8, 1989, University of Nottingham, UK. pp. 87-103.
System and user modelling are means of improving the usability of interactive systems, enabling designers to discuss features of the system and implementers to produce full and coherent implementations. Both types of modelling have something to say about the usability of interface and content that can be capitalised in design. However the apparatus is fundamentally different in each case. Here we are concerned with the central problem of bridging the gaps between psychological representations of user behaviour and formal descriptions of how the computer system behaves. We argue that a third framework is required, the interaction framework, that will incorporate appropriate concepts and principles for representing properties of conjoint user-system behaviour. We propose an agenda for developing such a framework. The purpose of this paper is to stimulate discussion rather than present a concrete proposal.
© All rights reserved Barnard and Harrison and/or Cambridge University Press
Barnard, Philip J., Ellis, Judi and MacLean, Allan (1989): Relating Ideal and Non-Ideal Verbalised Knowledge to Performance. In: Sutcliffe, Alistair G. and Macauley, Linda (eds.) Proceedings of the Fifth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers V August 5-8, 1989, University of Nottingham, UK. pp. 461-473.
It is important to understand relationships between knowledge and performance. We need to establish what users really know about systems rather than simply modelling ideal knowledge. A picture probe task is used to elicit user's ideal and non-ideal knowledge of task-action mappings in two different interfaces supporting common functionality. The users of these interfaces articulated different amounts of both ideal knowledge and non-ideal knowledge. For a given interface, however, users who articulate more ideal knowledge of task action mappings generally perform well but their amount of non-ideal knowledge does not relate systematically to their performance. Non-ideal knowledge discriminated between interfaces but not between the relatively efficient and inefficient users. We discuss these results in relation to models which should ultimately help in system design, and in relation to the provision of diagnostic tests and adequate on-line support for users.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Young, Richard M., Barnard, Philip J., Simon, Tony and Whittington, Joyce (1989): How Would Your Favourite User Model Cope with These Scenarios?. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (4) pp. 51-55.
Barnard, Philip J., MacLean, Allan and Wilson, Michael (1988): Navigating Integrated Facilities: Initiating and Terminating Interaction Sequences. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 121-126.
Human performance data are reported for two dialogue conventions involving menu interactions with integrated facilities. Users prepared material for overhead foils in a six session experiment. An initiation style of dialogue in a flexible menu hierarchy was compared with a strict hierarchy involving explicit termination of dialogue sequences. Although tasks could be performed in the same number of steps with either interface, initiation had greater time and transaction costs than termination. The results are discussed in relation to the trade-offs that need to be considered in designing for navigational flexibility and to requirements for modeling user behavior.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or ACM Press
Hammond, N. V., Barnard, Philip J., Morton, J., Long, John and Clark, I. A. (1987): Characterizing User Performance in Command-Driven Dialogue. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 6 (2) pp. 159-205.
To learn to use an interactive system, a person typically has to acquire a good deal of new knowledge. The ease of learning will depend on the extent to which the design of the task and the interface capitalizes on the user's pre-existing knowledge and his or her cognitive capabilities for learning. This paper explores the nature of both design decisions and user learning with a command-based system. Three studies were conducted, all involving a task in which secret messages were decoded by means of a sequence of commands (based on the task used by Barnard et al. 1981). In Study I, software specialists designed command structures for the task and gave reasons for their choices. In Study II, naive subjects chose between alternative command terms. In Study III, subjects learned to use interactive versions of the task in which dialogue factors (command terms and argument structures) were systematically varied. The results enabled the development of user knowledge of the system to be specified in detail. Comparisons across the three studies highlighted the diversity of the factors determining both design decisions and user behaviour.
© All rights reserved Hammond et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Barnard, Philip J., Wilson, Michael and MacLean, Allan (1987): Approximate modelling of cognitive activity: Towards an expert system design aid. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 21-26.
Young, Richard M. and Barnard, Philip J. (1987): The use of scenarios in human--computer interaction research: Turbocharging the Tortoise of cumulative science. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 291-296.
Barnard, Philip J., Wilson, Michael and MacLean, Allan (1986): The Elicitation of System Knowledge by Picture Probes. In: Mantei, Marilyn and Orbeton, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 86 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 13-17, 1986, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 235-240.
A technique is described in which a user's knowledge of a software package is elicited by means of a series of photographs depicting the system in a variety of states. The resultant verbal protocols were codified and scored in relation to the way in which the system actually worked. In the illustrative study described, the probes were administered twice after 5 and 10 hrs of system experience with an office product (VisiOn). The number of true claims elicited increased with experience but the number of false claims remained stable. The potential value of the technique and its outputs are discussed.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or ACM Press
MacLean, Allan, Barnard, Philip J. and Wilson, Michael (1986): Rapid Prototyping of Dialogue for Human Factors Research: The EASIE Approach. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Monk, Andrew (eds.) Proceedings of the Second Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers II August 23-26, 1986, University of York, UK. pp. 180-195.
Facilities for the rapid prototyping of dialogue are an extremely important component of a successful User Interface Management System (UIMS). Exactly how the UIMS should be optimised will depend on the type of application being developed and the environment in which it is being used. This paper focusses on the support for dialogue construction provided in EASIE (Experimental Applications System for Integrated Environments). EASIE is specifically designed to support human factors research into the human interface of so called 'integrated systems' by providing both flexibility and simplicity in the construction and modification of the dialogue. This is done by treating the dialogue specification at two distinct levels. A Dialogue Script (DS) text file contains the minimum amount of information necessary to define and modify the dialogue, and a separate Dialogue Interface (DI) maps the DS onto the basic functionality of the application.
© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Wilson, Michael, Barnard, Philip J. and MacLean, Allan (1986): Using an Expert System to Convey HCI Information. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Monk, Andrew (eds.) Proceedings of the Second Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers II August 23-26, 1986, University of York, UK. pp. 482-497.
Where the focus is upon human cognition, guidelines and technical reports are an inadequate means of conveying information from the research to the design communities concerned with HCI. Automated databases or simple expert systems assist in accessing relevant information. They do not, however, readily predict behaviour in novel settings. This possibility is offered by expert systems that incorporate a cognitive analysis of user knowledge and human information processing activity. The present paper outlines an approach to Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) in which a theoretical framework (Barnard, 1985; in press) is used to derive an explicit representation of cognitive activity associated with dialogue tasks. The representation constructed (or Task Model) includes a specification of mental processes; procedural knowledge; the contents of episodic memory; and a characterisation of the way in which the cognitive mechanism is controlled during task execution. Prespecified mappings from the contents of Task Models then predict aspects of user behaviour. Components of an example analysis, implemented in a working expert system, are used to illustrate the approach.
© All rights reserved Wilson et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Landauer, Thomas K., Gould, John D., Anderson, John R. and Barnard, Philip J. (1985): Psychological Research Methods in the Human Use of Computers. In: Borman, Lorraine and Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 41-45.
Psychological research methods have been used with increasing frequency in work on computer-human interaction. Judging from the state of the literature and from remarks heard in the halls at conferences such as this, the utility and appropriate roles of such methods are not yet clear. Panel members, who are all research psychologists working on issues related to human use of computers, will present a variety of contrasting views on how to go about such research, and on its proper goals. John Gould will describe two different but complementary approaches, applied research on general design issues, and formative human factors participation in development. John Anderson will discuss the use of formal models of human cognition. Phil Barnard will consider the role of applied research in the discovery of underlying principles to guide design. Tom Landauer will propose that psychological research can be the basis for invention of new "cognitive tools". Short synopses of the positions they will take are given below. Panel members hope that the audience will join them in bringing out important differences between the various approaches and methods and arguing their absolute and relative merits.
© All rights reserved Landauer et al. and/or ACM Press
Grudin, Jonathan and Barnard, Philip J. (1985): When Does an Abbreviation Become a Word? And Related Questions. In: Borman, Lorraine and Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 121-125.
An experiment is reported in which subjects previously naive to text editing learned to use a set of editing commands. Some subjects used abbreviations from the beginning. Others began by using full command names, then switched to the (optional) use of abbreviations, either of their own devising or of our selection. We found significant differences in the number and nature of the errors produced by subjects in the different conditions. People who created their own abbreviations did most poorly, and did not appear to learn from this experience. Those who used abbreviations from the start were more likely to fall into error through misrecalling the referent names. The results suggest aspects of the underlying cognitive representations, with implications for the design of software interfaces.
© All rights reserved Grudin and Barnard and/or ACM Press
Wilson, M. D., Barnard, Philip J. and MacLean, Allan (1985): Analysing the Learning of Command Sequences in a Menu System. In: Johnson, Peter and Cook, Stephen (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers I August 17-20, 1985, University of East Anglia. pp. 63-75.
Although there is a substantial literature on both novice and expert performance, there is little data on the transition from one to the other. This paper presents data from 8 subjects performing a core set of tasks in each of word processing, graph drawing and calculation environments during this transition. A descriptive model of the command structure used in these tasks is presented which permits the analysis of both the successful attempts to complete the tasks and those involving deviations from optimal performance. The pattern of deviations changes over learning in that the proportion of those involving major re-attempts at tasks decreases while that involving local corrections increases. Two classes of mental representation are used to explain the changing performance: those involving general system principles, and those using specific procedures. The changes that take place during learning are characterised as an increase in the proportion of specific procedures in the repertoire of representation sampled during task performance.
© All rights reserved Wilson et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
MacLean, Allan, Barnard, Philip J. and Wilson, M. D. (1985): Evaluating the Human Interface of a Data Entry System: User Choice and Performance Measures Yield Different Tradeoff Functions. In: Johnson, Peter and Cook, Stephen (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers I August 17-20, 1985, University of East Anglia. pp. 172-185.
When people use computer systems, they are often faced with alternative methods for carrying out a given task. They have to be able to judge which method is likely to be most appropriate for the particular task with which they are faced. A study is presented which compares the most common means of evaluation used in computer design, the time to carry out a given task, with the method the user actually chooses to carry out the task. The results suggest that users are not good at optimising their behaviour on the criterion used by designers.
© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or Cambridge University Press
Barnard, Philip J., MacLean, Allan and Hammond, Nick (1984): User Representations of Ordered Sequences of Command Operations. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 289-293.
An experiment is reported in which users learned how to operate a "laboratory" system for handling electronic mail. Two variables were manipulated. Users were asked to learn one of two task structures involving eight operations. In one form the task was structured into a sequence of four pairs of semantically related operations (4x2). In the other, operations were structured into two groups of four on the basis of their abstract class. Two sets of command names were employed one being less discriminable than the other. Both variables were found to influence the ways in which users learned the system. The results suggested that users of the 4x2 structure were constructing mental representations in which individual operations were more semantically integrated than users of the 2x4 grouped structure.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or North-Holland
Grudin, Jonathan and Barnard, Philip J. (1984): The Role of Prior Task Experience in Command Name Abbreviation. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 295-299.
An experiment is reported in which subjects previously naive to text editing are asked to generate abbreviations for a set of editing commands. We manipulated the degree of the subjects' experience with the editing task prior to the point at which they were asked to produce the abbreviations. We found effects of experience on both the length and the form of the abbreviations produced, with more experienced subjects inclined toward shorter abbreviations and, independently, toward truncation as an abbreviation scheme. We conclude that experimental paradigms previously used to investigate naming and abbreviation may have encouraged subjects to construe their task falsely as one in which they would be using abbreviations to reconstruct referent names, whereas the actual task involved recalling the abbreviation given recall of the referent object or its name.
© All rights reserved Grudin and Barnard and/or North-Holland
MacLean, Allan, Barnard, Philip J. and Hammond, Nick (1984): Recall as an Indicant of Performance in Interactive Systems. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 311-315.
Recall measures are often used in the area of human computer communication as a quick means of obtaining an index of the 'goodness' of alternative command sets. However there is a rich assortment of additional information available to mediate use of an on-line system, which is absent in conditions under which recall is typically elicited. The present paper reviews a number of experiments in which both on-line performance and recall measures are available, with a view to determining the extent to which recall can be used to explore the user's representation of the computer system in interactive performance. In addition, it relates the phenomena observed to established findings from the psychological study of memory.
© All rights reserved MacLean et al. and/or North-Holland
Hammond, Nick, Hinton, Geoffrey, Barnard, Philip J., MacLean, Allan, Long, John and Whitefield, Andy (1984): Evaluating the Interface of a Document Processor: A Comparison of Expert Judgement and User Observation. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 725-729.
Efforts to improve the usability of systems have resulted in the development of several techniques for interface evaluation. This paper explores evaluation through (1) assessment by Human Factors researchers and (2) analysis of user performance. Three pairs of researchers prepared reports on the interface of a document processor. Separately, five novice users were observed learning the system. The two evaluations generated overlapping but separable classes of information. User testing provided low-level information on procedural and conceptual difficulties, while experts provided a more integrated overview and hypotheses concerning the sources of problems.
© All rights reserved Hammond et al. and/or North-Holland
Hammond, Nick, Jorgensen, A., MacLean, Allan, Barnard, Philip J. and Long, John (1983): Design Practice and Interface Usability: Evidence from Interviews with Designers. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 40-44.
Long, John, Hammond, N. V., Barnard, Philip J., Morton, J. and Clark, I. (1983): Introducing the Interactive Computer at Work: The Users' Views. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 2 (1) pp. 39-106.
This study had two aims: (i) to document the problem of interface usability in terms of the users' views and (ii) to characterize the context within which usability operates by identifying the general set of variables underlying the attitudes of both users and non-users to the introduction of an interactive computer system into their place of work. The particular system studied included an interactive planning package designed for professionals with no programming skills. An in-depth discussion technique was used to collect the views of 16 professional employees working for a large local authority. A total of 440 'statements' were classified in a hierarchy (main headings: pre-planning introduction; effects of the system; use of the system; assessment of the system; general attitudes). Twenty-seven variables (e.g. decisionmaking involvement; skill change; specialist language) and nine contexts over which they operated (e.g. computer applications; departmental relations) were generated from the statements. The study indicated a general problem of usability at the level of the interface, individual relations and group relations. Cognitive and linguistic difficulties in using the system appeared to depend on the command language, the type of user and the class of application. Selective issues are discussed including non-use of the interactive system; the role of the link man; the spread of computer knowledge and skills; and the extent of user insight. Further discussion centres on differing levels of impact, uses of data and an evaluation of the study's methodology.
© All rights reserved Long et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Barnard, Philip J., Hammond, Nick, MacLean, Allan and Morton, J. (1982): Learning and Remembering Interactive Commands. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 2-7.
Barnard, Philip J., Hammond, N. V., MacLean, Allan and Morton, J. (1982): Learning and Remembering Interactive Commands in a Text-Editing Task. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 1 (4) pp. 347-358.
Users of interactive computer systems often experience difficulty in learning and remembering the command vocabulary needed to communicate with the system. This study investigates how task and vocabulary differences affect initial learning and subsequent memory for commands used in a simple editing task. Systems with semantically specific terms were learned no more quickly than systems with semantically general terms, but the nature of the command vocabulary induced different learning strategies. Users of the specific vocabulary made less use of help (provided in the form of a command menu and definitions of operations) than did users of the general command vocabulary. However, users of the specific vocabulary appeared to make more time actively considering options before deciding to consult HELP. These strategy differences were reflected in users' memory for the commands and the task operations 2 weeks later. In addition, the learning strategies adopted were dependent on users' predispositions as measured by individual difference questionnaires.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Barnard, Philip J., Hammond, N. V., Morton, J. and Long, John (1981): Consistency and Compatibility in Human-Computer Dialogue. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 15 (1) pp. 87-134.
To tackle problems of human-computer interaction the traditional scope of human-machine studies needs extending to include the complex cognitive skills of understanding, communication and problem solving. This extension requires a fusion of the conceptual and empirical tools of human factors with those of cognitive psychology. A methodological approach to this fusion is outlined as a background for three studies of structured human-computer dialogue. The studies involved a task in which secret messages were decoded in a number of discrete steps corresponding to computer commands. Each "command" required two numeric arguments. The study investigated underlying variables using questionnaire techniques in addition to user performance in an interactive version of the task. Three factors concerning the order of arguments in a command string were investigated: the consistent positioning of a recurrent argument, the relationship between argument entry order and their order in natural language, and the relationship between argument entry order and the position of argument values on a VDU. In Study I software specialists were asked to design command structures for the task and to give reasons for their choices. In Study II naive subjects were asked to choose between telegrams in which alternative argument orders were expressed in terms of alternative word orders. In the interactive version of the task, used in Study III, positionally consistent systems were most readily learned, but this depended on having the recurrent argument in the first position. With positionally inconsistent systems there were reliable effects due to the position of the direct object of individual command verbs.
© All rights reserved Barnard et al. and/or Academic Press
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