Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2014
Pub. count:53
Number of co-authors:56



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

F. Bourgeois:
O. Beaudoux:
C. Appert:

 

 

Productive colleagues

Michel Beaudouin-Lafon's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Scott E. Hudson:113
Ravin Balakrishnan:108
Jonathan Grudin:105
 
 
 

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Michel Beaudouin-Lafon

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Has also published under the name of:
"M. Beaudouin-Lafon"

Personal Homepage:
lri.fr/~mbl/eintroduction.html

Current place of employment:
Universit Paris-Sud

Michel Beaudouin-Lafon is Professor of Computer Science at Universit Paris-Sud (France) and director of LRI, the Laboratory for Computer Science. Michel has worked in Human-Computer Interaction for over 20 years, conducting research in engineering of interactive systems, computer-supported cooperative work and novel interaction techniques. His current research is conducted in the In Situ group, a joint lab between LRI and INRIA. Michel founded AFIHM, the francophone association for human-computer interaction, and is a member of the ACM Council and the ACM Publications Board.

 

Publications by Michel Beaudouin-Lafon (bibliography)

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2014

Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2013): Instrumental Interaction. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/instrumental_interaction.html

2011
 
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Gjerlufsen, Tony, Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted, Eagan, James, Pillias, Clment and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2011): Shared substance: developing flexible multi-surface applications. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3383-3392

This paper presents a novel middleware for developing flexible interactive multi-surface applications. Using a scenario-based approach, we identify the requirements for this type of applications. We then introduce Substance, a data-oriented framework that decouples functionality from data, and Shared Substance, a middleware implemented in Substance that provides powerful sharing abstractions. We describe our implementation of two applications with Shared Substance and discuss the insights gained from these experiments. Our finding is that the combination of a data-oriented programming model with middleware support for sharing data and functionality provides a flexible, robust solution with low viscosity at both design-time and run-time.

© All rights reserved Gjerlufsen et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2011): Lessons learned from the WILD room, a multisurface interactive environment. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2011. p. 18

Creating the next generation of interactive systems requires experimental platforms that let us explore novel forms of interaction in real settings. This article describes WILD, a high-performance environment for exploring multi-surface interaction that includes an ultra-high resolution wall display, a multitouch table, a motion tracking system and various mobile devices. The article describes the integrative research approach of the project and the lessons learned with respect to hardware, participatory design, interaction techniques and software engineering.

© All rights reserved Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

 
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Eagan, James R., Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (2011): Cracking the cocoa nut: user interface programming at runtime. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 225-234

This article introduces runtime toolkit overloading, a novel approach to help third-party developers modify the interaction and behavior of existing software applications without access to their underlying source code. We describe the abstractions provided by this approach as well as the mechanisms for implementing them in existing environments. We describe Scotty, a prototype implementation for Mac OS X Cocoa that enables developers to modify existing applications at runtime, and we demonstrate a collection of interaction and functional transformations on existing off-the-shelf applications. We show how Scotty helps a developer make sense of unfamiliar software, even without access to its source code. We further discuss what features of future environments would facilitate this kind of runtime software development.

© All rights reserved Eagan et al. and/or ACM Press

2009
 
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Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2009): VIGO: instrumental interaction in multi-surface environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 869-878. Available online

This paper addresses interaction in multi-surface environments and questions whether the current application-centric approaches to user interfaces are adequate in this context, and presents an alternative approach based on instrumental interaction. The paper presents the VIGO (Views, Instruments, Governors and Objects) architecture and describes a prototype implementation. It then illustrates how to apply VIGO to support distributed interaction. Finally, it demonstrates how a classical Ubicomp interaction technique, Pick-and-Drop, can be easily implemented using VIGO.

© All rights reserved Klokmose and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Appert, Caroline, Chapuis, Olivier and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2008): Evaluation of Pointing Performance on Screen Edges. In: Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 119-126.

Pointing on screen edges is a frequent task in our everyday use of computers. Screen edges can help stop cursor movements, requiring less precise movements from the user. Thus, pointing at elements located on the edges should be faster than pointing in the central screen area. This article presents two experiments to better understand the foundations of "edge pointing". The first study assesses several factors both on completion time and on users' mouse movements. The results highlight some weaknesses in the current design of desktop environments (such as the cursor shape) and reveal that movement direction plays an important role in users' performance. The second study quantifies the gain of edge pointing by comparing it with other models such as regular pointing and crossing. The results not only show that the gain can be up to 44%, but also reveal that movement angle has an effect on performance for all tested models. This leads to a generalization of the 2D Index of Difficulty of Accot and Zhai that takes movement direction into account to predict pointing time using Fitts' law.

© All rights reserved Appert et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Appert, Caroline, Chapuis, Olivier and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2008): Evaluation of pointing performance on screen edges. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 119-126. Available online

 
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Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA.

2007
 
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Ramos, Gonzalo, Cockburn, Andy, Balakrishnan, Ravin and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2007): Pointing lenses: facilitating stylus input through visual-and motor-space magnification. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 757-766. Available online

Using a stylus on a tablet computer to acquire small targets can be challenging. In this paper we present pointing lenses -- interaction techniques that help users acquire and select targets by presenting them with an enlarged visual and interaction area. We present and study three pointing lenses for pen-based systems and find that our proposed Pressure-Activated Lens is the top overall performer in terms of speed, accuracy and user preference. In addition, our experimental results not only show that participants find all pointing lenses beneficial for targets smaller than 5 pixels, but they also suggest that this benefit may extend to larger targets as well.

© All rights reserved Ramos et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Pietriga, Emmanuel, Appert, Caroline and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2007): Pointing and beyond: an operationalization and preliminary evaluation of multi-scale searching. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1215-1224. Available online

A number of experimental studies based on domain-specific tasks have evaluated the efficiency of navigation techniques for searching multi-scale worlds. The discrepancies among their results call for a more generic framework similar in spirit to Fitts' reciprocal pointing task, but adapted to a task that significantly differs from pure pointing. We introduce such a framework based on an abstract task and evaluate how four multi-scale navigation techniques perform in one particular multi-scale world configuration. Experimental findings indicate that, in this context, pan&zoom combined with an overview is the most efficient technique of all four, and that focus + context techniques perform better than classical pan&zoom. We relate these findings to more realistic situations, discuss their applicability, and how the framework can be used to cover a broad range of situations.

© All rights reserved Pietriga et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mackay, Wendy E., Appert, Caroline, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Chapuis, Olivier, Du, Yangzhou, Fekete, Jean-Daniel and Guiard, Yves (2007): Touchstone: exploratory design of experiments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1425-1434. Available online

Touchstone is an open-source experiment design platform designed to help establish a solid research foundation for HCI in the area of novel interaction techniques. Touchstone includes a design platform for exploring alternative designs of controlled laboratory experiments, a run platform for running subjects and a limited analysis platform for advice and access to on-line statistics packages. Designed for HCI researchers and their students, Touchstone facilitates the process of creating new experiments, as well as replicating and extending experiments in the research literature. We tested Touchstone by designing two controlled experiments. One illustrates how to create a new experiment from scratch. The other replicates and extends a previous study of multiscale pointing interaction techniques: OrthoZoom was fastest, followed by bi-manual Pan&Zoom; SDAZ and traditional Pan&Zoom were consistently slower.

© All rights reserved Mackay et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy (2007): Prototyping Development and Tools. In: Sears, Andrew and Jacko, Julie A. (eds.). "The human-computer interaction handbook: fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications book contents". Mahwah, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associatespp. 1006-1031

2006
 
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Appert, Caroline and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2006): SwingStates: adding state machines to the swing toolkit. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 319-322. Available online

This article describes SwingStates, a library that adds state machines to the Java Swing user interface toolkit. Unlike traditional approaches, which use callbacks or listeners to define interaction, state machines provide a powerful control structure and localize all of the interaction code in one place. SwingStates takes advantage of Java's inner classes, providing programmers with a natural syntax and making it easier to follow and debug the resulting code. SwingStates tightly integrates state machines, the Java language and the Swing toolkit. It reduces the potential for an explosion of states by allowing multiple state machines to work together. We show how to use SwingStates to add new interaction techniques to existing Swing widgets, to program a powerful new Canvas widget and to control high-level dialogues.

© All rights reserved Appert and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

 
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Appert, Caroline and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2006): SMCanvas: augmenter la bote outils Java Swing pour prototyper des techniques d'interaction avances. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2006. pp. 99-106. Available online

This article presents SMCanvas, an extension of the Java Swing toolkit dedicated to prototyping and teaching graphical interaction. SMCanvas uses a simplified scene graph for rendering and state machines for interaction. The use of polymorphism and reification helps combine ease of use and power of expression. We describe our experience of using SMCanvas with Master level students for programming advanced interactions, and propose to evaluate user interface tools with benchmarks.

© All rights reserved Appert and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

 
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Du, Yangzhou, Guiard, Yves, Chapuis, Olivier and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2006): Assisting Target Acquisition in Perspective Views. In: People and Computers XX - Proceedings of HCI 2006. pp. 135-150. Available online

This article introduces an interaction technique designed to assist target acquisition in flat documents that are visualized in perspective. One reason to allow camera tilts in graphical interfaces is that perspective views provide users with a gradual variation of scale, allowing them to see local detail in the context of a general overview. Our analysis, however, shows that the non-linearity of scale variation in a perspective view jeopardizes the acquisition of very remotely located objects. We introduce and experimentally evaluate a solution in which: 1. viewing angle is automatically coupled with tilt angle; and 2. the tilt is constrained so that the virtual camera stays at a constant altitude and remains pointed to a fixed spot on the document. Our results show that with our enhanced perspective navigation technique targets are easy to reach even for extremely high levels of difficulty. Target acquisition time obeys Fitts' Law and performance becomes as rapid as with the familiar pan and zoom technique.

© All rights reserved Du et al. and/or Springer

 
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Guiard, Yves, Chapuis, Olivier, Du, Yangzhou and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2006): Allowing camera tilts for document navigation in the standard GUI: a discussion and an experiment. In: Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 241-244. Available online

The current GUI is like a flight simulator whose camera points fixedly at right angle to the document, thus preventing users from looking ahead while navigating. We argue that perspective viewing of usual planar documents can help navigation. We analyze the scale implosion problem that arises with tilted cameras and we report the data of a formal experiment on document navigation with perspective views.

© All rights reserved Guiard et al. and/or ACM Press, New York, NY

 
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Du, Y., Chapuis, O., Guiard, Yves and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2006): Assisting Target Acquisition in Perspective Views. In: Proceedings of the HCI06 Conference on People and Computers XX 2006. pp. 135-150.

 
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Blanch, Renaud and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2006): Programming rich interactions using the hierarchical state machine toolkit. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 51-58. Available online

 
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Guiard, Yves, Chapuis, Olivier, Du, Yangzhou and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2006): Allowing camera tilts for document navigation in the standard GUI: a discussion and an experiment. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 241-244. Available online

 
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Guiard, Yves, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Du, Yangzhou, Appert, Caroline, Fekete, Jean-Daniel and Chapuis, Olivier (2006): Shakespeare's complete works as a benchmark for evaluating multiscale document navigation techniques. In: Bertini, Enrico, Plaisant, Catherine and Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) BELIV 2006 - Proceedings of the 2006 AVI Workshop on BEyond time and errors novel evaluation methods for information visualization May 23, 2006, Venice, Italy. pp. 1-6. Available online

2005
 
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Foley, James D., Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Grudin, Jonathan, Hollan, James D., Hudson, Scott E., Olson, Judy and Verplank, Bill (2005): Graduate education in human-computer interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2113-2114. Available online

HCI, course outlines, curricula, degree programs, digital library, graduate education, teaching materials

© All rights reserved Foley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Blanch, Renaud, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Conversy, Stephane, Jestin, Yannick, Baudel, Thomas and Zhao, Yun Peng (2005): INDIGO: une architecture pour la conception d'applications graphiques interactives distribues. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2005. pp. 139-146. Available online

The INDIGO project develops a new generation of tools for distributed interactive applications. The proposed architecture is composed of object servers that manage the applications's data and interaction and rendering servers that manage display and interaction. Such separation of the core application logic from the interaction makes it possible to optimize graphical rendering and interaction according to the current setup and context. This approach was validated through examples that illustrate various types of presentation and interaction devices.

© All rights reserved Blanch et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Beaudoux, Olivier and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2005): OPENDPI: A Toolkit for Developing Document-Centered Environments. In: Chen, Chin-Sheng, Filipe, Joaquim, Seruca, Isabel and Cordeiro, Jos (eds.) ICEIS 2005 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems May 25-28, 2005, Miami, USA. pp. 39-47.

 
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Gellersen, Hans-Werner, Schmidt, Kjeld, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 18-22 September , 2005, Paris, France.

2004
 
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Blanch, Renaud, Guiard, Yves and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2004): Semantic pointing: improving target acquisition with control-display ratio adaptation. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 519-526. Available online

We introduce semantic pointing, a novel interaction technique that improves target acquisition in graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Semantic pointing uses two independent sizes for each potential target presented to the user: one size in motor space adapted to its importance for the manipulation, and one size in visual space adapted to the amount of information it conveys. This decoupling between visual and motor size is achieved by changing the control-to-display ratio according to cursor distance to nearby targets. We present a controlled experiment supporting our hypothesis that the performance of semantic pointing is given by Fitts' index of difficulty in motor rather than visual space. We apply semantic pointing to the redesign of traditional GUI widgets by taking advantage of the independent manipulation of motor and visual widget sizes.

© All rights reserved Blanch et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Guiard, Yves, Blanch, Renaud and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2004): Object pointing: a complement to bitmap pointing in GUIs. In: Graphics Interface 2004 May 17-19, 2004, London, Ontario, Canada. pp. 9-16. Available online

Pointing has been conceptualized and implemented so far as the act of selecting pixels in bitmap displays. We show that the current technique, which we call bitmap pointing (BMP), is often sub-optimal as it requires continuous information from the mouse while the system often just needs the discrete specification of objects. The paper introduces object pointing (OP), a novel interaction technique based on a special screen cursor that skips empty spaces, thus drastically reducing the waste of input information. We report data from 1D and 2D Fitts' law experiments showing that OP outperforms BMP and that the performance facilitation increases with the task's index of difficulty. We discuss the implementation of OP in current interfaces.

© All rights reserved Guiard et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Guiard, Yves and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2004): Target acquisition in multiscale electronic worlds. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 61 (6) pp. 875-905. Available online

Since the advent of graphical user interfaces, electronic information has grown exponentially, whereas the size of screen displays has stayed almost the same. Multiscale interfaces were designed to address this mismatch, allowing users to adjust the scale at which they interact with information objects. The technology has progressed quickly and the theory has lagged behind. Multiscale interfaces pose a stimulating theoretical challenge: reformulating the classic target-acquisition problem from the physical world into an infinitely rescalable electronic world. We address this challenge by extending Fitts' original pointing paradigm: we introduce the scale variable, thus defining a multiscale pointing paradigm. This article reports on our theoretical and empirical results. We show that target-acquisition performance in a zooming interface must obey Fitts' law and, more specifically, that target-acquisition time must be proportional to the index of difficulty. Moreover, we complement Fitts' law by accounting for the effect of view size on pointing performance, showing that performance bandwidth is proportional to view size, up to a ceiling effect. Our first empirical study shows that Fitts' law does apply to a zoomable interface for indices of difficulty up to and beyond 30 bits, whereas classical Fitts' law studies have been confined in the 2-10 bit range. Our second study demonstrates a strong interaction between view size and task difficulty for multiscale pointing, and shows a surprisingly low ceiling. We conclude with implications of these findings for the design of multiscale user interfaces.

© All rights reserved Guiard and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or Academic Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

: [Not yet published]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

: [Not yet published]


 
 
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Appert, C., Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (2004): Context matters: Evaluating Interaction Techniques with the CIS Model. In: Proceedings of the HCI04 Conference on People and Computers XVIII 2004. pp. 279-296.

 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2004): Designing interaction, not interfaces. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 15-22. Available online

 
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Guiard, Yves, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Bastin, Julien, Pasveer, Dennis and Zhai, Shumin (2004): View size and pointing difficulty in multi-scale navigation. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 117-124. Available online

2003
 
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Zhai, Shumin, Conversy, Stephane, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Guiard, Yves (2003): Human on-line response to target expansion. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 177-184.

 
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Hutchinson, Hilary, Mackay, Wendy E., Westerlund, Bosse, Bederson, Benjamin B., Druin, Allison, Plaisant, Catherine, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Conversy, Stephane and Eiderback, Bjorn (2003): Technology probes: inspiring design for and with families. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 17-24.

 
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Conversy, Stephane, Roussel, Nicolas, Hansen, Heiko, Evans, Helen, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (2003): Sharing daily-life images with videoProbe. In: Proceedings of the 2003 Conference of the Association Francophone dInteraction Homme-Machine 2003. pp. 228-231. Available online

videoProbe is a device that takes pictures of everyday family life and shares them among multiple households. By providing family members with a new means of lightweight and informal communication, videoProbe allows unusual picture sharing and is likely to modify interactions within families. From a research perspective, videoProbe is an instance of a new class of device built to inspire ideas for the design of new communication technologies and to gather data about life in family.

© All rights reserved Conversy et al. and/or ACM Press

2002
 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France.

2001
 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA.

 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2001): Novel interaction techniques for overlapping windows. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 153-154. Available online

This note presents several techniques to improve window management with overlapping windows: tabbed windows, turning and peeling back windows, and snapping and zipping windows.

© All rights reserved Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

 
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Beaudoux, O. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2001): DPI: A Conceptual Model Based on Documents and Interaction Instruments. In: Proceedings of the HCI01 Conference on People and Computers XV 2001. pp. 247-264.

 
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Guiard, Yves, Bourgeois, F., Mottet, Deni and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2001): Beyond the 10-bit Barrier: Fitts' Law in Multi-Scale Electronic Worlds. In: Proceedings of the HCI01 Conference on People and Computers XV 2001. pp. 573-588.

2000
 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (2000): Instrumental Interaction: An Interaction Model for Designing Post-WIMP User Interfaces. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 446-453.

 Cited in the following chapter:

: [Not yet published]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

: [Not yet published]


 
 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Lassen, Henry Michael (2000): The Architecture and Implementation of CPN2000, A Post-WIMP Graphical Application. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 181-190. Available online

 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mackay, Wendy E. (2000): Reification, Polymorphism and Reuse: Three Principles for Designing Visual Interfaces. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 102-109.

1999
 
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Guiard, Yves, Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Mottet, Deni (1999): Navigation as Multiscale Pointing: Extending Fitts' Model to Very High Precision Tasks. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 450-457. Available online

Fitts' pointing model has proven extremely useful for understanding basic selection in WIMP user interfaces. Yet today's interfaces involve more complex navigation within electronic environments. As navigation amounts to a form of multi-scale pointing, Fitts' model can be applied to these more complex tasks. We report the results of a preliminary pointing experiment that shows that users can handle higher levels of task difficulty with two-scale rather than traditional one-scale pointing control. Also, in tasks with very high-precision hand movements, performance is higher with a stylus than with a mouse.

© All rights reserved Guiard et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) (1999): Computer Supported Co-operative Work. John Wiley and Sons

1998
 
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Mackay, Wendy E. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (1998): DIVA: Exploratory Data Analysis with Multimedia Streams. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 416-423. Available online

DIVA supports exploratory data analysis of multimedia streams, enabling users to visualize, explore and evaluate patterns in data that change over time. The underlying stream algebra provides the mathematical basis for operating on diverse kinds of streams. The streamer visualization technique provides a smooth transition between spatial and temporal views of the data. Mapping source and presentation streams into a two-dimensional space provides users with a direct manipulation, nontemporal interface for viewing and editing streams. DIVA was developed to help us analyze both qualitative and quantitative data collected in our research with French air traffic controllers, including video of controllers at work, audio records of telephone, radio and other conversations, output from tools such as RADAR, and coded logs based on our observations. Although our emphasis is on exploratory data analysis, DIVA's stream architecture should prove useful for a wide variety of multimedia applications.

© All rights reserved Mackay and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Fekete, Jean-Daniel and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (1996): Using the Multi-Layer Model for Building Interactive Graphical Applications. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 109-118. Available online

This article introduces the Multi-Layer Model, which uses several graphical layers to separate the graphical entities involved in visualization from those involved in feedback and interaction management. We describe its implementation and show how it can take advantage of software and hardware graphic extensions to provide good performance. We also show how it supports multiple input devices and simplifies the description of a wide variety of interaction styles. Finally, we describe our experience in using this model to implement a set of editors for a professional animation system.

© All rights reserved Fekete and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Zizi, Mountaz and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (1995): Hypermedia Exploration with Interactive Dynamic Maps. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 43 (3) pp. 441-464.

Interactive dynamic maps (IDMs) help users interactively explore webs of hypermedia documents. IDMs provide automatically-generated abstract graphical views at different levels of granularity. Visual cues give users a better understanding of the content of the web, which results in better navigation control and more accurate and effective expressions of queries. IDMs consist of: topic maps, which provide visual abstractions of the semantic content of a web of documents and document maps, which provide visual abstractions of subsets of documents. The major contributions of this work include (1) automatic techniques for building maps directly from a web of documents, including extraction of semantic content and use of a spatial metaphor for generating layout and filling space, (2) a direct manipulation interaction paradigm for exploring webs of documents, using maps and an integrated graphical query language, and (3) the ability to use the maps themselves as documents that can be customized, stored in a library and shared among users.

© All rights reserved Zizi and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or Academic Press

 
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Brun, Philippe and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (1995): A Taxonomy and Evaluation of Formalisms for the Specification of Interactive Systems. In: Kirby, M. A. R., Dix, Alan J. and Finlay, Janet E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers X August, 1995, Huddersfield, UK. pp. 197-212.

This paper presents a taxonomy and an evaluation of formalisms for HCI. The taxonomy derives from the origins of the formalisms and is based on three main categories: Cognitive Science, Calculus Theory, and the Theory of Categories. The evaluation is based on an evaluation grid of twelve criteria structured into three groups: Expressive Power, Generative Capabilities, and Extensibility and Usability. Seventeen formalisms are evaluated with this method. The results of the evaluation are discussed with respect to the taxonomy leading to preliminary guidelines for the design of formalisms that better cover the needs of HCI.

© All rights reserved Brun and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or Cambridge University Press

1994
 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Gaver, William W. (1994): ENO: Synthesizing Structured Sound Spaces. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 49-57. Available online

ENO is an audio server designed to make it easy for applications in the Unix environment to incorporate non-speech audio cues. At the physical level, ENO manages a shared resource, namely the audio hardware. At the logical level, it manages a sound space that is shared by various client applications. Instead of dealing with sound in terms of its physical description (i.e., sampled sounds), ENO allows sounds to be represented and controlled in terms of higher-level descriptions of sources, interactions, attributes, and sound space. Using this structure, ENO can facilitate the creation of consistent, rich systems of audio cues. In this paper, we discuss the justification, design, and implementation of ENO.

© All rights reserved Beaudouin-Lafon and Gaver and/or ACM Press

 
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Zizi, Mountaz and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (1994): Accessing Hyperdocuments through Interactive Dynamic Maps. In: Proceedings of ECHT 94 the ACM European Conference on Hypermedia Technology Sept 18-23, 1994, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 126-135. Available online

We propose a new navigation paradigm based on a spatial metaphor to help users access and navigate within large sets of documents. This metaphor is implemented by a computer artifact called an Interactive Dynamic Map (IDM). An IDM plays a role similar to the role of a real map with respect to physical space. Two types of IDMs are computed from the documents: Topic IDMs represent the semantic contents of a set of documents while Document IDMs visualize a subset of documents such as those resulting from a query. IDMs can be used for navigating, browsing, and querying. They can be made active, they can be customized and they can be shared among users. The article presents the SHADOCS document retrieval system and describes the role, use and generation of IDMs in SHADOCS.

© All rights reserved Zizi and Beaudouin-Lafon and/or ACM Press

 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (1994): Beyond the Workstation: Mediaspaces and Augmented Reality. In: Cockton, Gilbert, Draper, Steven and Weir, George R. S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IX August 23-26, 1994, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. pp. 9-18.

The embodiment of computers in desktop workstations has had a tremendous impact on the field of HCI. Now that mice and graphics displays are everywhere, the workstation defines the frontier between the computer world and the real world. We spend a lot of time and energy transferring information between those two worlds. This could be reduced by better integrating the real world with the computer world. This article describes two approaches to this integration: Mediaspaces, which allow people to communicate through an audio, video and computer environment, and Augmented Reality, which adds computational power to real world objects. The argument is made that the success of these approaches lies in their ability to build on fundamental human skills, namely the ability to communicate with other people and the ability to interact with objects in the real world.

© All rights reserved Beaudouin-Lafon and/or Cambridge University Press

1993
 
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Baudel, Thomas and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (1993): CHARADE: Remote Control of Objects Using Free-Hand Gestures. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (7) pp. 28-35.

1992
 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Karsenty, Alain (1992): Transparency and Awareness in a Real-Time Groupware System. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 171-180. Available online

This article explores real-time groupware systems from the perspective of both the users and the designer. This exploration is carried out through the description of GroupDesign, a real-time multi-user drawing tool that we have developed. From the perspective of the users, we present a number of functionalities that we feel necessary in any real-time groupware system: Graphic&Audio Echo, Localization, Identification, Age, and History. From the perspective of the designer, we demonstrate the possibility of creating a multi-user application from a single-user one, and we introduce the notion of purely replicated architecture.

© All rights reserved Beaudouin-Lafon and Karsenty and/or ACM Press

1991
 
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Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Thiellement, Michel (1991): A Tour through the Avis UIMS. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 49-50.

 
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