Publication statistics

Pub. period:1988-2009
Pub. count:65
Number of co-authors:110



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

David R. Millen:17
Werner Geyer:15
Beth Brownholtz:12

 

 

Productive colleagues

Michael J. Muller's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Jakob Nielsen:109
Mary Czerwinski:80
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
91% booked. Starts in 4 days
go to course
Design Thinking: The Beginner's Guide
90% booked. Starts in 5 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
 
 

Michael J. Muller

Has also published under the name of:
"Michael Muller"

Personal Homepage:
domino.research.ibm.com/cambridge/research.nsf/pages/michael_muller.html


Add description
Rename / change spelling
Add publication
 

Publications by Michael J. Muller (bibliography)

 what's this?
2009
 
Edit | Del

Chen, Jilin, Geyer, Werner, Dugan, Casey, Muller, Michael J. and Guy, Ido (2009): Make new friends, but keep the old: recommending people on social networking sites. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 201-210.

This paper studies people recommendations designed to help users find known, offline contacts and discover new friends on social networking sites. We evaluated four recommender algorithms in an enterprise social networking site using a personalized survey of 500 users and a field study of 3,000 users. We found all algorithms effective in expanding users' friend lists. Algorithms based on social network information were able to produce better-received recommendations and find more known contacts for users, while algorithms using similarity of user-created content were stronger in discovering new friends. We also collected qualitative feedback from our survey users and draw several meaningful design implications.

© All rights reserved Chen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Bateman, Scott, Muller, Michael J. and Freyne, Jill (2009): Personalized retrieval in social bookmarking. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2009. pp. 91-94.

Users of social bookmarking systems take advantage of pivot browsing, an interaction technique allowing them to easily refine lists of bookmarks through the selection of filter terms. However, social bookmarking systems use one-size-fits-all ranking metrics to order refined lists. These generic rankings ignore past user interactions that may be useful in determining the relevance of bookmarks. In this work we describe a personalized ordering algorithm that leverages the fact that refinding, rather than discovery (finding a bookmark for the first time), makes up the majority of bookmark accesses. The algorithm examines user-access histories and promotes bookmarks that a user has previously visited. We investigate the potential of our algorithm using interaction logs from an enterprise social bookmarking system, the results show that our personalized algorithm would lead to improved bookmark rankings.

© All rights reserved Bateman et al. and/or their publisher

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Freyne, Jill, Dugan, Casey, Millen, David R. and Thom-Santelli, Jennifer (2009): Return On Contribution (ROC): A Metric for Enterprise Social Software. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2009. pp. 143-150.

The value of enterprise social media applications, components, and users is difficult to quantify in formal economic terms such as Return On Investment. In this work we propose a different approach, based on human service to other humans. We describe a family of metrics, Return On Contribution (ROC), to assist in managing social software systems. ROC focuses on human collaboration, namely the creation and consumption of information and knowledge among employees. We show how ROC can be used to track the performance of several types of social media applications, and how ROC can help to understand the usage patterns of items within those applications, and the performance of employees who use those applications. Design implications include the importance of "lurkers" in organizational knowledge exchange, and specific types of measurements that may be of value to employees, managers, and system administrators.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or their publisher

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Millen, David R. and Feinberg, Jonathan (2009): Information Curators in an Enterprise File-Sharing Service. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2009. pp. 403-412.

We report on a social-software file-sharing service within a large company. User-created collections of files were associated with increased usage of the uploaded files, especially the sharing of files from one employee to another. Employees innovated in the use of the collections features as "information curators," an emergent lead-user role in which one employee creates named, described collections of resource for use by other employees. This role suggests new work practices and new features.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
Edit | Del

Thom-Santelli, Jennifer, Muller, Michael J. and Millen, David R. (2008): Social tagging roles: publishers, evangelists, leaders. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1041-1044.

Social tagging systems provide users with the opportunity to employ tags in a communicative manner. To explore the use of tags for communication in these systems, we report results from 33 user interviews and employ the concept of social roles to describe audience-oriented tagging, including roles of community-seeker, community-builder, evangelist, publisher, and team-leader. These roles contribute to our understanding of the motivations and rationales behind social tagging in an international company, and suggest new features and services to support social software in the enterprise.

© All rights reserved Thom-Santelli et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Geyer, Werner, Dugan, Casey, DiMicco, Joan, Millen, David R., Brownholtz, Beth and Muller, Michael J. (2008): Use and reuse of shared lists as a social content type. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1545-1554.

Social networking sites support a variety of shared content types such as photos, videos, or music. More structured or form-based social content types are not mainstream but we have started seeing sites evolve that support them. This paper describes the design and use of structured lists in an enterprise social networking system. As a major feature of our shared lists, we introduced the ability to reuse someone else's list. We report the results on the use and reuse of shared lists based on three months of usage data from 285 users and interviews with 9 users. Our findings suggest that despite the structured nature of lists, our users socialize more around lists than photos, and use lists as a medium for self-representation.

© All rights reserved Geyer et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Shami, N. Sadat, Hancock, Jeffrey T., Peter, Christian, Muller, Michael J. and Mandryk, Regan (2008): Measuring affect in HCI: going beyond the individual. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3901-3904.

The measurement of affect in HCI research is a challenging and complex issue. Although a number of techniques for measuring affect have been developed, a systematic discussion of their effectiveness and applicability in different contexts remains lacking, especially in social contexts with multiple users. As computing shifts to increasingly collaborative and ubiquitous models, it is important to discuss affect measurement beyond the individual level. This workshop will provide a forum where designers, practitioners, and researchers can 1) introduce novel methods of affect measurement that go beyond physiological and self-report measures, 2) advance our understanding of existing measurement methods and how they can be expanded, and 3) critically evaluate issues of affect measurement.

© All rights reserved Shami et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Dugan, Casey, Geyer, Werner, Muller, Michael J., DiMicco, Joan, Brownholtz, Beth and Millen, David R. (2008): It's all 'about you': diversity in online profiles. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 703-706.

User profiles on today's social networking sites support only a small set of predefined questions. We report on an alternative way for users to richly describe themselves, by entering not only responses, but their own questions as well. Data from 10 months of usage shows that users of a social networking site created thousands of diverse questions and reused existing questions from other users. Our findings suggest that those with highly diverse user profiles have a higher number of friends.

© All rights reserved Dugan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

DiMicco, Joan, Millen, David R., Geyer, Werner, Dugan, Casey, Brownholtz, Beth and Muller, Michael J. (2008): Motivations for social networking at work. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 711-720.

The introduction of a social networking site inside of a large enterprise enables a new method of communication between colleagues, encouraging both personal and professional sharing inside the protected walls of a company intranet. Our analysis of user behavior and interviews presents the case that professionals use internal social networking to build stronger bonds with their weak ties and to reach out to employees they do not know. Their motivations in doing this include connecting on a personal level with coworkers, advancing their career with the company, and campaigning for their projects.

© All rights reserved DiMicco et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Shen, Jianqiang, Geyer, Werner, Muller, Michael J., Dugan, Casey, Brownholtz, Beth and Millen, David R. (2008): Automatically finding and recommending resources to support knowledge workers' activities. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2008. pp. 207-216.

Knowledge workers perform many different activities daily. Each activity defines a distinct work context with different information needs. In this paper we leverage users' activity representations, stored in an activity management system, to automatically recommend resources to support knowledge workers in their current activity. We developed a collaborative activity predictor to both predict the current work activity and measure a resource's relevance to a specific activity. Relevant resources are then displayed in a contextual side bar on the desktop. We describe the system, our new activity-centric search algorithm, and experimental results based on the data from 50 real users.

© All rights reserved Shen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Vatturi, Pavan Kumar, Geyer, Werner, Dugan, Casey, Muller, Michael J. and Brownholtz, Beth (2008): Tag-based filtering for personalized bookmark recommendations. In: Shanahan, James G., Amer-Yahia, Sihem, Manolescu, Ioana, Zhang, Yi, Evans, David A., Kolcz, Aleksander, Choi, Key-Sun and Chowdhury, Abdur (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2008 October 26-30, 2008, Napa Valley, California, USA. pp. 1395-1396.

2007
 
Edit | Del

Rivadeneira, A. W., Gruen, Daniel M., Muller, Michael J. and Millen, David R. (2007): Getting our head in the clouds: toward evaluation studies of tagclouds. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 995-998.

Tagclouds are visual presentations of a set of words, typically a set of "tags" selected by some rationale, in which attributes of the text such as size, weight, or color are used to represent features, such as frequency, of the associated terms. This note describes two studies to evaluate the effectiveness of differently constructed tagclouds for the various tasks they can be used to support, including searching, browsing, impression formation and recognition. Based on these studies, we propose a paradigm for evaluating tagclouds and ultimately guidelines for tagcloud construction.

© All rights reserved Rivadeneira et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (2007): Collaborative activity management: organizing documents for collective action. In: Proceedings of the 25th annual ACM international conference on Design of communication 2007, El Paso, Texas, USA. p. 234.

Workplace collaborators make use of diverse types of documents and other resources. Traditionally, each type of document has been stored in its own repository, and people have had to manage multiple documents in multiple storage services. Workplace collaborators often have complex, ad hoc working relations that are partially executed through their shared documents. Traditionally, dependencies among documents and other objects have gone unrecorded, or have been stored in a piecemeal manner inside the documents, or have been objectified and rigidified in workflow engines. Workplace collaborators often need to coordinate with one another, both asynchronously and in real-time, and often in the context of their shared documents. Traditionally, people had no idea of the status of their collaborators, or they have had to consult other, unrelated services for awareness or presence information about their colleagues. We aim to change that. I will describe our research, findings, and possible futures of systems and services that are intended to unify the ways that people collaborate with and through shared documents. In our ActivityExplorer project, users innovated new ways of using our software, showing that a service with collections of shared documents, fine-grained access control, persistent communications, and real-time status information could serve diverse needs of a workplace of individuals, teams, and communities. Our Unified Activity Management project explored the harvesting of collective enactments, and their crystallization into work practices templates and rich placeholders for future collaborations. These ideas have led to successful technology transfer, and are making their way into products. In the course of this work, we sometimes found that simple ideas were much more popular than expected, paradoxically creating new challenges for users. I will describe two of those challenges, and our attempts to meet them. This new research has led us into domains of interruption management, machine learning, and very much into social computing, including technology transfer into another generation of collaboration products. People work together through direct communication and through shared documents. At every turn, people surprise us with their ingenuity and their ability to create new human and technological solutions with the systems that we offer them. I will close with a discussion of the concept of reinvention (innovation through usage), and how technology developers and users can learn from one another through cycles of development and usage, with innovative contributions from all parties at each turn of the cycle.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (2007): Comparing tagging vocabularies among four enterprise tag-based services. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007. pp. 341-350.

We compare four tagging-based enterprise services, which respectively stored bookmarks to webpages and documents, to people, to blog entries, and to hierarchically-structured activity records. Analysis of user data and tag data showed relatively small overlaps in tags used. Conventional normalization strategies produced only modest improvement. These results suggest difficulties in combining exploratory searches across multiple social-tagging services. We recommend strategies for cross-service tag integration at the points of tag storage and tag search, rather than at the conventional point of tag entry. We close with a research agenda around this strategy.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Dugan, Casey, Muller, Michael J., Millen, David R., Geyer, Werner, Brownholtz, Beth and Moore, Marty (2007): The dogear game: a social bookmark recommender system. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007. pp. 387-390.

We describe the Dogear Game, which works with an enterprise social bookmarking system. The game is designed to accomplish individual, collaborative, and organization goals. Individual players receive entertainment and learn about their colleagues' bookmarks. The player's colleagues receive recommendations of websites and documents of potential interest to them. And the organization benefits from a richer knowledge-base of bookmarks as recommendations are accepted. The Dogear Game builds on von Ahn's "serious games," useful in motivating and distributing game-like entertaining "work" to a large group of game players. This note presents the design and implementation of a working prototype and some initial user feedback.

© All rights reserved Dugan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Farrell, Stephen, Lau, Tessa, Nusser, Stefan, Wilcox, Eric and Muller, Michael J. (2007): Socially augmenting employee profiles with people-tagging. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 91-100.

Employee directories play a valuable role in helping people find others to collaborate with, solve a problem, or provide needed expertise. Serving this role successfully requires accurate and up-to-date user profiles, yet few users take the time to maintain them. In this paper, we present a system that enables users to tag other users with key words that are displayed on their profiles. We discuss how people-tagging is a form of social bookmarking that enables people to organize their contacts into groups, annotate them with terms supporting future recall, and search for people by topic area. In addition, we show that people-tagging has a valuable side benefit: it enables the community to collectively maintain each others' interest and expertise profiles. Our user studies suggest that people tag other people as a form of contact management and that the tags they have been given are accurate descriptions of their interests and expertise. Moreover, none of the people interviewed reported offensive or inappropriate tags. Based on our results, we believe that peopletagging will become an important tool for relationship management in an organization.

© All rights reserved Farrell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Li, Lida, Muller, Michael J., Geyer, Werner, Dugan, Casey, Brownholtz, Beth and Millen, David R. (2007): Predicting individual priorities of shared activities using support vector machines. In: Silva, Mario J., Laender, Alberto H. F., Baeza-Yates, Ricardo A., McGuinness, Deborah L., Olstad, Bjrn, Olsen, ystein Haug and Falco, Andr O. (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2007 November 6-10, 2007, Lisbon, Portugal. pp. 515-524.

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Geyer, Werner, Brownholtz, Beth, Dugan, Casey, Millen, David R. and Wilcox, Eric (2007): Tag-Based Metonymic Search in an Activity-Centric Aggregation Service. In: Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2007. pp. 179-198.

Knowledge workers often need to find, organize, and work with heterogeneous resources from diverse services, information stores, and repositories. This paper analyzes two problems that knowledge workers frequently encounter: difficulty in finding all relevant resources across diverse services, and difficulty in formulating and executing searches for resources related to their current activity-of-interest. The Malibu project explores solutions to these problems through a dynamic peripheral display that aggregates knowledge resources from multiple services to support activity-centric work. Of particular interest is the ability to select a knowledge resource and use it as a metonym (a proxy) for its social-tagging metadata in a tag-based search for related resources among heterogeneous services. We evaluated our solutions to these two problems through convergent analyses of quantitative (data log) and qualitative (interview and discussion data) data. Our partial successes show the strength of these new ideas, and indicate areas for future research.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or Springer

2006
 
Edit | Del

Sen, Shilad, Geyer, Werner, Muller, Michael J., Moore, Marty, Brownholtz, Beth, Wilcox, Eric and Millen, David R. (2006): FeedMe: a collaborative alert filtering system. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 89-98.

As the number of alerts generated by collaborative applications grows, users receive more unwanted alerts. FeedMe is a general alert management system based on XML feed protocols such as RSS and ATOM. In addition to traditional rule-based alert filtering, FeedMe uses techniques from machine-learning to infer alert preferences based on user feedback. In this paper, we present and evaluate a new collaborative naive Bayes filtering algorithm. Using FeedMe, we collected alert ratings from 33 users over 29 days. We used the data to design and verify the accuracy of the filtering algorithm and provide insights into alert prediction.

© All rights reserved Sen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Tang, John C., Liu, Sophia B., Muller, Michael J., Lin, James and Drews, Clemens (2006): Unobtrusive but invasive: using screen recording to collect field data on computer-mediated interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 479-482.

We explored the use of computer screen plus audio recording as a methodological approach for collecting empirical data on how teams use their computers to coordinate work. Screen recording allowed unobtrusive collecting of a rich record of actual computer work activity in its natural work setting. The embedded nature of screen recording on laptops made it easy to follow the user's mobility among various work sites. However, the invasiveness of seeing all of the user's interactions with and through the computer raised privacy concerns that made it difficult to find people to agree to participate in this type of detailed study. We discuss measures needed to develop trust with the researchers to enable access to this rich, empirical data of computer usage in the field.

© All rights reserved Tang et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
Edit | Del

Millen, David R., Muller, Michael J., Geyer, Werner, Wilcox, Eric and Brownholtz, Beth (2005): Patterns of media use in an activity-centric collaborative environment. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 879-888.

This paper describes a new collaboration technology that is based on the support of lightweight, informally structured, opportunistic activities featuring heterogeneous threads of shared items with dynamic membership. We introduce our design concepts, and we provide a detailed analysis of user behavior during a five month field study. We present the patterns of media use that we observed, using a variety of analytical methods including thread clustering and analysis. Major findings include four patterns of media use: communicating, exchanging mixed objects, coordinating, (e.g., of status reports), and semi-archival filing. We observed differential use of various media including highly variable use of chats and surprisingly informal uses of files. We discuss the implications for the design of mixed media collaborative tools to support the work activities of small to medium sized work teams.

© All rights reserved Millen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Kuchinskaya, Olga, Minassian, Suzanne O., Tang, John C., Danis, Catalina, Zhao, Chen, Harrison, Beverly L. and Moran, Thomas P. (2005): Shared landmarks in complex coordination environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1681-1684.

We explore the concept of social landmarks in complex, shared information and coordination environments. Previous research in navigation and shared spaces has tended to emphasize individual navigation, formally inscribed spaces, social filtering, and boundary objects. Based on ethnographic research into complex collaborative work in organizations, we extend the concept of navigational "landmarks" to include not only individually-used documents, but also shared landmarks in the form of persons, roles, and events. This emerging concept of social landmarks may be applied in identifying and representing these coordinating points, to support the work of teams and organizations in complex projects.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Light, Ann, Wild, Peter J., Dearden, Andy and Muller, Michael J. (2005): Quality, value(s) and choice: exploring deeper outcomes for HCI products. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2124-2125.

2004
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Geyer, Werner, Brownholtz, Beth, Wilcox, Eric and Millen, David R. (2004): One-hundred days in an activity-centric collaboration environment based on shared objects. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 375-382.

This paper describes a new collaboration technology that is carefully poised between informal, ad hoc, easy-to-initiate collaborative tools, vs. more formal, structured, and high-overhead collaborative applications. Our approach focuses on the support of lightweight, informally structured, opportunistic activities featuring heterogeneous threads of shared objects with dynamic membership. We introduce our design concepts, and we provide a detailed first look at data from the first 100 days of usage by 20 researchers and 13 interns, who both confirmed our hypotheses and surprised us by reinventing the technology in several ways.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Dave, Kushal, Wattenberg, Martin and Muller, Michael J. (2004): Flash forums and forumReader: navigating a new kind of large-scale online discussion. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 232-241.

We describe a popular kind of large, topic-centered, transient discussion, which we term a flash forum. These occur in settings ranging from web-based bulletin boards to corporate intranets, and they display a conversational style distinct from Usenet and other online discussion. Notably, authorship is more diffuse, and threads are less deep and distinct. To help orient users and guide them to areas of interest within flash forums, we designed ForumReader, a tool combining data visualization with automatic topic extraction. We describe lessons learned from deployment to thousands of users in a real world setting. We also report a laboratory experiment to investigate how interface components affect behavior, comprehension, and information retrieval. The ForumReader interface is well-liked by users, and our results suggest it can lead to new navigation patterns. We also find that, while both visualization and text analytics are helpful individually, combining them may be counterproductive.

© All rights reserved Dave et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Geyer, Werner, Witt, Andrew J., Wilcox, Eric, Muller, Michael J., Kerr, Bernard, Brownholtz, Beth and Millen, David R. (2004): Chat spaces. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 333-336.

Chat Spaces are rich persistent chats that provide light-weight shared workspaces for small to medium-scale group activities. Chat Spaces can accommodate brief, informal interactions (similar to Instant Messaging), and can also support longer-term complex threaded conversations including large numbers of people and shared resources. Our design maps a hierarchical thread representation onto a time-ordered two-column user interface. This mapping allows a user to follow the global dynamics of the entire thread in the chronological column on the left while being able to participate in a selected topical branch in a second column on the right. We also present a dynamic thread map that provides an overview of the entire conversation and supports quick navigation of topical branches in the thread.

© All rights reserved Geyer et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Vogel, Jurgen, Geyer, Werner, Cheng, Li-Te and Muller, Michael J. (2004): Consistency Control for Synchronous and Asynchronous Collaboration Based on Shared Objects and Activities. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13 (5) pp. 573-602.

We describe a new collaborative technology that bridges the gap between ad hoc collaboration in email and more formal collaboration in structured shared workspaces. Our approach is based on the notion of object-centric sharing, where users collaborate in a lightweight manner but aggregate and organize different types of shared artifacts into semi-structured activities with dynamic membership, hierarchical object relationships, as well as real-time and asynchronous collaboration. We present a working prototype that implements object-centric sharing on the basis of a replicated peer-to-peer architecture. In order to keep replicated data consistent in such a dynamic environment with blended synchronous and asynchronous collaboration, we designed appropriate consistency control algorithms, which we describe in detail. The performance of our approach is demonstrated by means of simulation results.

© All rights reserved Vogel et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (2004): Multiple paradigms in affective computing. In Interacting with Computers, 16 (4) pp. 759-768.

This brief essay considers the three papers of the special issue of Interacting with Computers by Picard and colleagues, from several perspectives. First, I question two aspects of the work: the Computers Are Social Actors (CASA) approach, and the use of psychophysiological measurements of emotion without a stated theory of emotion. Despite these criticisms, the contributions of Picard and colleagues are valuable and powerfully challenging. I suggest three convergent ways to pursue this important research program.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or Elsevier Science

2003
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Raven, Mary Elizabeth, Kogan, Sandra, Millen, David R. and Carey, Kenneth (2003): Introducing chat into business organizations: toward an instant messaging maturity model. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 50-57.

We provide the first study of instant messaging (IM) based on large samples of users' self reports. Previous studies have relied on ethnographic methods or analysis of server logs. Our self-report approach has its own strengths (large-sample; focus on attitudes, beliefs, and value attributions), as well as weaknesses (self-selection by respondents). We describe the introduction of Lotus Sametime, an IM product, into three business organizations. Across the three organizations, we found substantially similar patterns in savings (reduced use of other communications channels), attitudes, and social networks. In one organization, we made a detailed study of the maturation of IM over a 24-month period, showing early and stable savings accompanied by much more gradual developments in chat behaviors, control of visibility and awareness, social networks, and attitudes. We conclude with a methodological self-critique, and an outline of an Instant Messaging Maturity Model.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Geyer, Werner, Vogel, Jurgen, Cheng, Li-Te and Muller, Michael J. (2003): Supporting activity-centric collaboration through peer-to-peer shared objects. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 115-124.

We describe a new collaborative technology that is mid-way between the informality of email and the formality of shared workspaces. Email and other ad hoc collaboration systems are typically lightweight and flexible, but build up an unmanageable clutter of copied objects. At the other extreme, shared workspaces provide formal, structured collaboration, but are too heavyweight for users to set up. To bridge this gap between the ad hoc and formal, this paper introduces the notion of "object-centric sharing", where users collaborate in a lightweight manner but aggregate and organize different types of shared artifacts into semi-structured activities with dynamic membership, hierarchical object relationships, as well as real-time and asynchronous collaboration. We present a working prototype implemented with a replicated peer-to-peer architecture, which we describe in detail, and demonstrate its performance in synchronous and asynchronous modes.

© All rights reserved Geyer et al. and/or ACM Press

2002
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. and Carey, Kenneth (2002): Design as a minority discipline in a software company: toward requirements for a community of practice. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 383-390.

 
Edit | Del

Millen, David R., Fontaine, Michael A. and Muller, Michael J. (2002): Understanding the benefit and costs of communities of practice. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (4) pp. 69-73.

2001
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (2001): Layered Participatory Analysis: New Developments in the CARD Technique. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 90-97.

CARD (Collaborative Analysis of Requirements and Design) is an influential technique for participatory design and participatory analysis that is in use on three continents. This paper reviews three case studies that document the development of a layered CARD approach, which distinguishes among the following: (1) observable, formal components, (2) skill and craft, and (3) interpretative description. The layered approach simplifies the CARD materials, and moves the deliberately informal technique toward a more principled analysis.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Christiansen, Ellen, Nardi, Bonnie A. and Dray, Susan M. (2001): Spiritual life and information technology. In Communications of the ACM, 44 (3) pp. 82-83.

2000
 
Edit | Del

Kahler, Helge, Kensing, Finn and Muller, Michael J. (2000): Methods tools: constructive interaction and collaborative work: introducing a method for testing collaborative systems. In Interactions, 7 (3) pp. 27-34.

 
Edit | Del

Cohen, Andrew L., Cash, Debra and Muller, Michael J. (2000): Designing to Support Adversarial Collaboration. In: Kellogg, Wendy A. and Whittaker, Steve (eds.) Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work 2000, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 31-39.

We investigate the phenomenon of adversarial collaboration, through field studies of a legal firm. Adversarial collaboration requires that people with opposing goals (adversaries) come to agreement, usually producing a shared product that reflects the interests of the adversarial parties. Adversarial collaboration is characterized by secrecy, advocacy and discovery. To support this activity, software should provide flexible, selective sharing of awareness and access. These requirements contrast with conventional shared resource and awareness systems, which tend to assume cooperative collaboration, characterized by open processes and static membership lists. We illustrate these ideas in a redesign of our PeopleFlow research prototype.

© All rights reserved Cohen et al. and/or ACM Press

1999
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (1999): Invisible Work of Telephone Operators: An Ethnocritical Analysis. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 8 (1) pp. 31-61.

This paper applies principles derived from ethnocriticism to help explain differential outcomes with different methods used to analyze the work of Directory Assistance telephone operators in a large US telecommunications company. The work of Directory Assistance operators provides a subtle case of computer-supported cooperative work. Collaborative work between operator and customer is supported and shaped by digitized-voice and database technologies. Our work also involved the introduction of additional voice-recognition technologies to this human-to-human collaboration. In a previous paper, we used methods from participatory design to show that knowledge work is a major component of the operators' conversations with customers. By contrast, other research using formal cognitive task analyses had described operators' work as routine and as involving no active problem solving. How had evidence that we had found so compelling been invisible to other analysts? I analyze the concept of "invisible work" as an attribute not of the work, but rather of the perspectives from which that work appeared to be invisible. Ethnocritical heuristics help us to contrast the analytical methods and their outcomes.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
Edit | Del

Scholtz, Jean, Muller, Michael J., Novick, David G., Olsen, Jr. Dan R., Shneiderman, Ben and Wharton, Cathleen (1999): A Research Agenda for Highly Effective Human-Computer Interaction: Useful, Usable, and Universal. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (4) pp. 13-16.

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. and Czerwinski, Mary (1999): Organizing Usability Work to Fit the Full Product Range. In Communications of the ACM, 42 (5) pp. 87-90.

1998
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Matheson, Lisa, Page, Colleen and Gallup, Robert (1998): Methods & Tools: Participatory Heuristic Evaluation. In Interactions, 5 (5) pp. 13-18.

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. and Wharton, Cathleen (1998): Toward an HCI Research and Practice Agenda based on Human Needs and Social Responsibility. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 30 (2) pp. 27-29.

1997
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Wharton, Cathleen, McIver Jr, William J. and Laux, Lila (1997): Toward an HCI Research and Practice Agenda Based on Human Needs and Social Responsibility. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 155-161.

We outline several promising areas for improvements in research and practice in the field of Human Computer Interaction (HCI). These topics show the richness and potential value of HCI work motivated by a combination of a desire to improve practice and research, and a desire to meet human needs in a responsible manner.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (1997): Translation in HCI: Formal Representations for Work Analysis and Collaboration. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 544-545.

In a previous paper, I provided a foundation argument for translation as a pivotal activity in analysis work in the fields of HCI, with profound epistemological and ethical consequences. This technical note extends the argument with a formal notation for translation work in HCI, with application to work analysis and collaboration.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Haslwanter, Jean Hallewell and Dayton, Tom (1997): Participatory Practices in the Software Lifecycle. In: Helander, Martin G., Prabhu, Prasad and Landauer, Thomas K. (eds.). "Handbook of Human-Computer Interaction (2nd Ed.)". Amsterdam: North-Hollandpp. 255-297

Descriptions of over 60 approaches to Participatory ANalysis, Design, and Assessment (PANDA).

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or North-Holland

1995
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Carr, Rebecca, Ashworth, Catherine, Diekmann, Barbara, Wharton, Cathleen, Eickstaedt, Cherie and Clonts, Joan (1995): Telephone Operators as Knowledge Workers: Consultants Who Meet Customer Needs. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 130-137.

We present two large studies and one case study that make a strong case for considering telephone operators as knowledge workers. We describe a quantitative analysis of the diversity of operators' knowledge work, and of how their knowledge work coordinates with the subtle resources contained within customers' requests. Operators engage in collaborative query refinement with customers, exhibiting a rich set of skilled performances. Earlier reports characterized the operators' role as an intermediary between customer and database. In contrast, we focus on operator's consultative work in which they use computer systems as one type of support for their primarily cognitive activities. Our results suggest that knowledge work may be a subtle feature of many jobs, not only those that are labeled as such. Our methodology may be useful for the analysis of other domains involving skilled workers.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (1995): Ethnocritical Questions for Working with Translations, Interpretations, and their Stakeholders. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (9) pp. 64-65.

1994
 
Edit | Del

Haslwanter, Jean D. Hallewell, Muller, Michael J. and Dayton, Tom (1994): Participatory Design Methods: A Classification. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1994. pp. 319-320.

Participatory design is a type of system development that involves the users in such a way that they have some direct influence on the outcome. Participatory design methods differ greatly from traditional methods, as they involve not only the developers learning about the users, their tasks, and their environments but also the users learning about the developers and their work. Methods used in participatory design must be appropriate to the needs of the specific circumstances. As more and more methods get used, it is often difficult for developers to choose an appropriate method. This poster helps to give an overview of participatory design practices, which may help developers choosing a method appropriate to their needs.

© All rights reserved Haslwanter et al. and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia

 
Edit | Del

Hefley, William E., Buie, Elizabeth, Lynch, Gene F., Muller, Michael J., Hoecker, Douglas G., Carter, Jim and Roth, J. Thomas (1994): Integrating Human Factors with Software Engineering Practices. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 315-319.

Engineering processes and methodologies used in building tomorrow's systems must place a greater emphasis on designing usable systems that meet the needs of the systems' users and their tasks. This paper identifies the need for defining human factors and human-computer interaction (HCI) engineering activities that contribute to the design, development, and evaluation of usable and useful interactive systems, and presents a rationale for integrating these activities with software engineering and incorporating them into the system life cycle.

© All rights reserved Hefley et al. and/or Human Factors Society

1993
 
Edit | Del

Spool, Jared M., Allen, C. Dennis, Ballman, Don, Begg, Vivienne, Miller-Jacobs, Harold H., Muller, Michael J. and Nielsen, Jakob (1993): User Involvement in the Design Process: Why, When and How?. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 251-254.

For years the CHI community has championed the importance of the user in system development. As many of us develop systems, we find that the concept of user involvement is not so easy to implement. Does one always strive to involve the user in the design process? Are there situations when the users should not be involved? What if the user is reluctant to change? How is user involvement handled when the user claims to know all the answers and wants to design the entire interface his or her way? What if the users, or even potential users are not available? How can user involvement be accomplished under these developmental restrictions? User Involvement, therefore, may be a goal -- not a given, and how to effect user involvement is not as straight forward as the text books convey! To assist the process of user interface development, many techniques have been developed such as Heuristic Evaluation, Participatory Design, Cognitive Walk Throughs, Task Analysis and Rapid Prototyping. These techniques vary considerably in the extent of user involvement that they require. This panel will attempt to match the technique with the degree of user involvement that the developer is faced with or can achieve. The issues discussed in this session are important to the entire user interface community. Developers will be happy to hear that they are not alone; others have similar problems with users. They will learn which of the techniques are best suited for each development situation. Methodologists will gain greater insight into the breadth and depth of working with, and attempting to satisfy various types of users. They may be able to better refine the technologies we now have available to meet the needs of user interface developers.

© All rights reserved Spool et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Tudor, Leslie Gayle, Muller, Michael J., Dayton, Tom and Root, Robert W. (1993): A Participatory Design Technique for High-Level Task Analysis, Critique, and Redesign: The CARD Method. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 37th Annual Meeting 1993. pp. 295-299.

CARD (Collaborative Analysis of Requirements and Design) is a participatory technique for analyzing task flows and for redesigning task flows, in software systems. It provides a macroscopic complement to the more microscopic design activities that are supported by the PICTIVE technique. CARD uses the metaphor of a card game as the vehicle for communication and collaboration among users, developers, and designers. We describe the technique, and provide illustrative session protocols and assessment data. The paper closes with a comparison to other relevant participatory practices, and a discussion of CARD's shortcomings.

© All rights reserved Tudor et al. and/or Human Factors Society

 
Edit | Del

Kuhn, Sarah and Muller, Michael J. (1993): Participatory Design - Introduction to the Special Section. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (6) pp. 24-28.

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Wildman, Daniel M. and White, Ellen A. (1993): Taxonomy of PD Practices: A Brief Practitioner's Guide. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (6) pp. 26-28.

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Wildman, Daniel M. and White, Ellen A. (1993): 'Equal Opportunity; PD Using PICTIVE. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (6) pp. 64-66.

1992
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (1992): Retrospective on a Year of Participatory Design using the PICTIVE Technique. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 455-462.

PICTIVE is a participatory design technique for increasing the direct and effective involvement of users and other stakeholders in the design of software. This paper reviews a year of the use of PICTIVE on products and research prototypes at Bellcore. What we have learned is illustrated through five brief case studies. The paper concludes with a summary of our current PICTIVE practice, expressed as three developing, interrelated models: an object model, a process model, and a participation model.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Nielsen, Jakob, Bush, Rita M., Dayton, Tom, Mond, Nancy E., Muller, Michael J. and Root, Robert W. (1992): Teaching Experienced Developers to Design Graphical User Interfaces. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 557-564.

Five groups of developers with experience in the design of character-based user interfaces were taught graphical user interface design through a short workshop with a focus on practical design exercises using low-tech tools derived from the PICTIVE method. Several usability problems were found in the designs by applying the heuristic evaluation method, and feedback on these problems constituted a way to make the otherwise abstract usability principles concrete for the designers at the workshop. Based on these usability problems and on observations of the design process, we conclude that object-oriented interactions are especially hard to design and that the developers were influenced by the graphical interfaces of personal computers with which they had interacted as regular users.

© All rights reserved Nielsen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Miller, David S., Smith, John G. and Muller, Michael J. (1992): TelePICTIVE: Computer-Supported Collaborative GUI Design for Designers with Diverse Expertise. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 151-160.

It is generally accepted that it is important to involve the end users of a Graphical User Interface (GUI) in all stages of its design and development. However, traditional GUI development tools typically do not support collaborative design. TelePICTIVE is an experimental software prototype designed to allow computer-naive users to collaborate with experts at possibly remote locations in designing GUIs. TelePICTIVE is based on the PICTIVE participatory design methodology and has been prototyped using the RENDEZVOUS system. In this paper we describe TelePICTIVE, and show how it is designed to support collaboration among a group of GUI designers with diverse levels of expertise. We also explore some of the issues that have come up during development and initial usability testing, such as how to coordinate simultaneous access to a shared design surface, and how to engage in the participatory design of GUIs using a Computer-Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) system.

© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or ACM Press

1991
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (1991): PICTIVE - An Exploration in Participatory Design. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 225-231.

This paper describes PICTIVE, an experimental participatory design technique that is intended to enhance user participation in the design process. PICTIVE combines low-tech objects with high(er)-tech video recording. The low-tech objects -- i.e., non-computer representations of system functionality -- are intended to insure that all participants have equal opportunity to contribute their ideas. The video recording makes record-keeping easy, reduces social distance during the design session, and may give rise to informal video "design documents." The session proceeds by a kind of brainstorming, with the low-tech objects used to express each participant's ideas to the others. This paper describes our initial experiences with the PICTIVE technique, informal analyses about why the technique works, and several Bellcore projects and products to which it has been applied.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Blomberg, Jeanette L., Carter, Kathleen, Dykstra, Elizabeth A., Madsen, Kim Halskov and Greenbaum, Joan (1991): Participatory Design in Britain and North America: Responses to the. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 389-392.

This panel will focus on participatory design work conducted outside Scandinavia. Each panelist will focus on what accommodations were required in participatory design techniques to meet the needs of British and North American environments. Panelists will also discuss accommodations that occurred in these environments in response to experiences with participatory design.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J., Smith, John G., Shoher, J. Zachary and Goldberg, Harry (1991): Privacy, Anonymity and Interpersonal Competition Issues Identified During Participatory Design of Project Management Groupware. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (1) pp. 82-87.

Project Management Groupware (PMG) presents complex design challenges because the resulting system can act as both (a) a community for interpersonal collaboration and (b) an arena for interpersonal competition. This paper describes an application of the participatory design paradigm to explore these issues, and to track the contingent evolution of computing systems and social systems around the PMG. We describe work in progress on the design of an experimental prototype that appears to have novel attributes in the areas of interpersonal collaboration and competition, information filtration, privacy, and elective anonymity in interpersonal communications.

© All rights reserved Muller et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Cebulka, Kathleen D., Muller, Michael J. and Ruston, Lillian (1991): Technology Transfer of User Centered Architecture in a Large U.S. Corporation. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 34-35.

1990
 
Edit | Del

Brothers, L., Sembugamoorthy, V. and Muller, Michael J. (1990): ICICLE: Groupware for Code Inspection. In: Halasz, Frank (ed.) Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work October 07 - 10, 1990, Los Angeles, California, United States. pp. 169-181.

ICICLE ("Intelligent Code Inspection Environment in a C Language Environment") is a multifarious software system intended to augment the process of formal code inspection. It offers assistance in a number of activities, including knowledge-based analysis and annotations of source code, and computer supported cooperative discussion and finalization of inspectors' comments during inspection meetings. This paper reports the implementation of ICICLE and groupware issues encountered during testing; it is directed towards an audience interested in the implementation of groupware as well as those concerned with usability of software systems for computer-supported cooperative work (CSCW).

© All rights reserved Brothers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. and Daniel, Jane E. (1990): Toward a Definition of Voice Documents. In: Lochovsky, Frederick H. and Allen, Robert (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference on Office Information Systems 1990 April 25-27, 1990, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 174-183.

This paper develops a definition of a voice document as a combination of information, structure, and affordances (or user-executable actions or utterances) for use in a voice-I/O hypermedia system. Voice documents in our experimental prototype environment, HyperPhone, are finely-grained hypermedia objects with rich interconnections of literal and virtual links, and with certain well-defined local structures. We explore issues related to navigating, managing, and authoring such documents, and outline a set of questions for further work.

© All rights reserved Muller and Daniel and/or ACM Press

1989
 
Edit | Del

Clitherow, Peter, Riecken, Doug and Muller, Michael J. (1989): VISAR: A System for Inference and Navigation in Hypertext. In: Halasz, Frank and Meyrowitz, Norman (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 89 Conference November 5-8, 1989, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 293-304.

Hypertext systems have traditionally been constructed by hand. This process can stand improvement in several aspects: it is laborious; requires a human to understand the text and infer all the relationships between the concepts/topics; and while the resulting hypertext may be traversed by a reader in an arbitrary fashion, s/he may still find it difficult to understand the concepts as expressed by the builder of the hypertext. We present a knowledge-intensive assistant for building hypertext fragments from a knowledge base customised both explicitly and implicitly by a user. Such a presentation may clarify relationships between concepts that were present implicitly in multiple sources of information. In the domain of an intelligent information retrieval system, we show how such an assistant may render customised views of knowledge extracted in manageable form. While the presentation medium of the original system is graphic, we also speculate that presentation of the information in alternative hypermedia appears to be straightforward.

© All rights reserved Clitherow et al. and/or ACM Press

1988
 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (1988): Multifunctional Cursor for Direct Manipulation User Interfaces. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 89-94.

The multifunctional cursor (MC) is a technique for representing multiple operations in direct manipulation user interfaces. Icons for each of several simultaneously-available operations are overlaid into the cursor image. The MC improves user interface practice by removing syntactic inconsistencies, by reducing cognitive load, and by providing support for repeated operations.

© All rights reserved Muller and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Muller, Michael J. (1988): Decoupling pointer and image functions of cursors in space time and availability. In: Graphics Interface 88 June 6-10, 1988, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. pp. 198-202.

 
Add publication
Show list on your website
 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
Join our community!
 
 
 

Changes to this page (author)

03 Nov 2010: Modified
03 Nov 2010: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
05 Jun 2009: Modified
02 Jun 2009: Modified
30 May 2009: Modified
29 May 2009: Modified
09 May 2009: Modified
08 Apr 2009: Modified
07 Apr 2009: Added
07 Apr 2009: Modified
11 Jul 2008: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
09 Dec 2007: Added
29 Jun 2007: Modified
29 Jun 2007: Modified
29 Jun 2007: Modified
27 Jun 2007: Modified
26 Jun 2007: Modified
26 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
23 Jun 2007: Modified
23 Jun 2007: Modified
23 Jun 2007: Modified
22 Jun 2007: Modified
22 Jun 2007: Modified
22 Jun 2007: Modified
22 Jun 2007: Modified
22 Jun 2007: Added
19 Jun 2007: Modified
28 Apr 2003: Added

Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/michael_j__muller.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1988-2009
Pub. count:65
Number of co-authors:110



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

David R. Millen:17
Werner Geyer:15
Beth Brownholtz:12

 

 

Productive colleagues

Michael J. Muller's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Jakob Nielsen:109
Mary Czerwinski:80
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 2
91% booked. Starts in 4 days
go to course
Design Thinking: The Beginner's Guide
90% booked. Starts in 5 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading