Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2012
Pub. count:80
Number of co-authors:142



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

George G. Robertson:25
Desney S. Tan:16
Greg Smith:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Mary Czerwinski's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Brad A. Myers:154
Steven Pemberton:120
 
 
 

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Mary Czerwinski

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Has also published under the name of:
"Mary P. Czerwinski" and "M. Czerwinski"

Personal Homepage:
research.microsoft.com/users/marycz

Current place of employment:
Microsoft Research

Mary Czerwinski is a Senior Researcher and Manager of the Visualization and Interaction Research group at Microsoft Research. The group is responsible for studying and designing advanced technology and interaction techniques that leverage human capabilities across a wide variety of input and output channels.

Mary's primary research areas include spatial cognition, information visualization and task switching.Mary has been an affiliate assistant professor at the Department of Psychology, University of Washington since 1996. She has also held positions at Compaq Computer Corporation, RiceUniversity, Lockheed Engineering and Sciences Corporation, and Bell Communications Research. She received a Ph.D. in cognitive psychology from Indiana University in Bloomington.

Mary is active in the field of Human-Computer Interaction, publishing and participating in a wide number of conferences, professional venues and journals. More information about Dr. Czerwinski can be found at http://research.microsoft.com/users/marycz.

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Publications by Mary Czerwinski (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Barksdale, Jeremy, Inkpen, Kori, Czerwinski, Mary, Hoff, Aaron, Johns, Paul, Roseway, Asta and Venolia, Gina (2012): Video threads: asynchronous video sharing for temporally distributed teams. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 1101-1104.

Work teams are often geographically distributed, and in some cases, experience large time-zone differences with no overlap in working hours. We explored the use of asynchronous video in temporally distributed teams. We developed VideoThreads, which provides a novel thread-based visualization of video messages. Based on a deployment to four teams, we offer design recommendations and insights about the benefits of asynchronous video sharing.

© All rights reserved Barksdale et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Riche, Nathalie Henry, Inkpen, Kori, Stasko, John, Gross, Tom and Czerwinski, Mary (2012): Supporting asynchronous collaboration in visual analytics systems. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2012. pp. 809-811.

Visual analytics involves complex analytical processes that can often benefit from collaboration. Many researchers have explored co-located synchronous systems to help support collaborative visual analytics; however, the process can often be long and require a series of sessions. Providing support for asynchronous collaboration in visual analytics systems can help divide the problem between several analysts across many sessions to ensure that they can effectively work together toward a solution. Currently, visual analytics systems offer limited support for asynchronous, multi-session work [1]. In this workshop, we seek to bring together researchers from both the CSCW and Visual Analytics communities to discuss avenues for supporting asynchronous collaboration in visual analytics system.

© All rights reserved Riche et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Moraveji, Neema, Morris, Meredith, Morris, Daniel, Czerwinski, Mary and Riche, Nathalie Henry (2011): ClassSearch: facilitating the development of web search skills through social learning. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1797-1806.

We explore the use of social learning -- improving knowledge skills by observing peer behavior -- in the domain of Web search skill acquisition, focusing specifically on co-located classroom scenarios. Through a series of interviews, pilot studies, and classroom deployments, we conclude that a peripheral display of Web search activity within a classroom facilitates both social learning and teacher-led discourse. We present the ClassSearch system for shared awareness of Web search activity, which embodies principles gleaned from our iterative design process, and show results from a ClassSearch deployment in twelve middle-school classroom sessions. Finally, we highlight design suggestions and opportunities for future work while taxonomizing the space of co-located search pedagogies.

© All rights reserved Moraveji et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Millen, David, Randall, Dave, Stevens, Gunnar, Wulf, Volker and Zimmermann, John (2011): Transferability of research findings: context-dependent or model-driven. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 651-654.

In this panel we will explore two distinct approaches to reach transferability currently prevailing in the HCI community. We will discuss epistemological differences and the strengths and criticisms of each approach. Importantly, we will discuss the implications for HCI research practice given this diversity of methodological approaches.

© All rights reserved et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Choudhury, Munmun De, Counts, Scott and Czerwinski, Mary (2011): Identifying relevant social media content: leveraging information diversity and user cognition. In: Proceedings of the 22nd ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2011. pp. 161-170.

As users turn to large scale social media systems like Twitter for topic-based content exploration, they quickly face the issue that there may be hundreds of thousands of items matching any given topic they might query. Given the scale of the potential result sets, how does one identify the 'best' or 'right' set of items? We explore a solution that aligns characteristics of the information space, including specific content attributes and the information diversity of the results set, with measurements of human information processing, including engagement and recognition memory. Using Twitter as a test bed, we propose a greedy iterative clustering technique for selecting a set of items on a given topic that matches a specified level of diversity. In a user study, we show that our proposed method yields sets of items that were, on balance, more engaging, better remembered, and rated as more interesting and informative compared to baseline techniques. Additionally, diversity indeed seemed to be important to participants in the study in the consumption of content. However as a rather surprising result, we also observe that content was perceived to be more relevant when it was highly homogeneous or highly heterogeneous. In this light, implications for the selection and evaluation of topic-centric item sets in social media contexts are discussed.

© All rights reserved Choudhury et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Seuken, Sven, Jain, Kamal, Tan, Desney S. and Czerwinski, Mary (2010): Hidden markets: UI design for a P2P backup application. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 315-324.

The Internet has allowed market-based systems to become increasingly pervasive. In this paper we explore the role of user interface (UI) design for these markets. Different UIs induce different mental models which in turn determine how users understand and interact with a market. Thus, the intersection of UI design and economics is a novel and important research area. We make three contributions at this intersection. First, we present a novel design paradigm which we call hidden markets. The primary goal of hidden markets is to hide as much of the market complexities as possible. Second, we explore this new design paradigm using one particular example: a P2P backup application. We explain the market underlying this system and provide a detailed description of the new UI we developed. Third, we present results from a formative usability study. Our findings indicate that a number of users could benefit from a market-based P2P backup system. Most users intuitively understood the give&take principle as well as the bundle constraints of the market. However, the pricing aspect was difficult to discover/understand for many users and thus needs further investigation. Overall, the results are encouraging and show promise for the hidden market paradigm.

© All rights reserved Seuken et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Inkpen, Kori, Hegde, Rajesh, Czerwinski, Mary and Zhang, Zhengyou (2010): Exploring spatialized audio & video for distributed conversations. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 95-98.

Previous work has demonstrated the benefits of spatial audio conferencing over monophonic when listening to a group conversation. In this paper we examined three-way distributed conversations while varying the presence of spatial video and audio. Our results demonstrate significant benefits to adding spatialized video to an audio conference. Specifically, users perceived that the conversations were of higher quality, they were more engaged, and they were better able to keep track of the conversation. In contrast, no significant benefits were found when mono audio was replaced by spatialized audio. The results of this work are important in that they provide strong evidence for continued exploration of spatialized video, and also suggest that the benefits of spatialized audio may have less of an impact when video is also spatialized.

© All rights reserved Inkpen et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bernstein, Michael S., Tan, Desney, Smith, Greg, Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric (2010): Personalization via friendsourcing. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (2) p. 6.

When information is known only to friends in a social network, traditional crowdsourcing mechanisms struggle to motivate a large enough user population and to ensure accuracy of the collected information. We thus introduce friendsourcing, a form of crowdsourcing aimed at collecting accurate information available only to a small, socially-connected group of individuals. Our approach to friendsourcing is to design socially enjoyable interactions that produce the desired information as a side effect. We focus our analysis around Collabio, a novel social tagging game that we developed to encourage friends to tag one another within an online social network. Collabio encourages friends, family, and colleagues to generate useful information about each other. We describe the design space of incentives in social tagging games and evaluate our choices by a combination of usage log analysis and survey data. Data acquired via Collabio is typically accurate and augments tags that could have been found on Facebook or the Web. To complete the arc from data collection to application, we produce a trio of prototype applications to demonstrate how Collabio tags could be utilized: an aggregate tag cloud visualization, a personalized RSS feed, and a question and answer system. The social data powering these applications enables them to address needs previously difficult to support, such as question answering for topics comprehensible only to a few of a user's friends.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or ACM Press

2009
 
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Lee, Bongshin, Smith, Greg, Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary and Tan, Desney S. (2009): FacetLens: exposing trends and relationships to support sensemaking within faceted datasets. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1293-1302.

Previous research has shown that faceted browsing is effective and enjoyable in searching and browsing large collections of data. In this work, we explore the efficacy of interactive visualization systems in supporting exploration and sensemaking within faceted datasets. To do this, we developed an interactive visualization system called FacetLens, which exposes trends and relationships within faceted datasets. FacetLens implements linear facets to enable users not only to identify trends but also to easily compare several trends simultaneously. Furthermore, it offers pivot operations to allow users to navigate the faceted dataset using relationships between items. We evaluate the utility of the system through a description of insights gained while experts used the system to explore the CHI publication repository as well as a database of funding grant data, and report a formative user study that identified usability issues.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Filho, Jose Eurico de Vasconcelos, Inkpen, Kori and Czerwinski, Mary (2009): Image, appearance and vanity in the use of media spaces and video conference systems. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2009. pp. 253-262.

Media spaces and videoconference systems are beneficial for connecting separated co-workers and providing rich contextual information. However, image sharing communication tools may also touch on sensitive spots of the human psyche related to personal, perceived image issues (e.g., appearance, self-image, self-presentation and vanity). We conducted two user studies to examine the impact of self-image concerns on the use of media spaces and videoconference systems. Our results suggest that personal, perceived image concerns have a considerable impact on the comfort level of users and may hinder effective communication [8]. We also found that image filtering techniques can help users feel more comfortable. Our results revealed that distortion filters, which are frequently cited to help preserve privacy, do not tend to be the ones preferred by users. Instead, users seemed to favor filters that make subtle changes to their appearance, or, in some instances, they preferred to use a surrogate instead.

© All rights reserved Filho et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Jakobsen, Mikkel R., Fernandez, Roland, Czerwinski, Mary, Inkpen, Kori, Kulyk, Olga and Robertson, George (2009): WIPDash: Work Item and People Dashboard for Software Development Teams. In: Proceedings of INTERACT 2009 12th IFIP TC13 Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2009, Uppsala, Sweden. pp. 791-804.

We present WIPDash, a visualization for software development teams designed to increase group awareness of work items and code base activity. WIPDash was iteratively designed by working with two development teams, using interviews, observations, and focus groups, as well as sketches of the prototype. Based on those observations and feedback, we prototyped WIPDash and deployed it with two software teams for a one week field study. We summarize the lessons learned, and include suggestions for a future version.

© All rights reserved Jakobsen et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bernstein, Michael, Tan, Desney, Smith, Greg, Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric (2009): Collabio: a game for annotating people within social networks. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2009. pp. 97-100.

We present Collabio, a social tagging game within an online social network that encourages friends to tag one another. Collabio's approach of incentivizing members of the social network to generate information about each other produces personalizing information about its users. We report usage log analysis, survey data, and a rating exercise demonstrating that Collabio tags are accurate and augment information that could have been scraped online.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Costabile, Maria Francesca, Catarci, Tiziana, Ruyter, Boris de, Tan, Desney S., Czerwinski, Mary and Lund, Arnold (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, CHI 2008 5-10 April, 2008, Florence, Italy.

 
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Biehl, Jacob T., Baker, William T., Bailey, Brian P., Tan, Desney S., Inkpen, Kori and Czerwinski, Mary (2008): Impromptu: a new interaction framework for supporting collaboration in multiple display environments and its field evaluation for co-located software development. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 939-948.

We present a new interaction framework for collaborating in multiple display environments (MDEs) and report results from a field study investigating its use in an authentic work setting. Our interaction framework, IMPROMPTU, allows users to share task information across displays via off-the-shelf applications, to jointly interact with information for focused problem solving and to place information on shared displays for discussion and reflection. Our framework also includes a lightweight interface for performing these and related actions. A three week field study of our framework was conducted in the domain of face-to-face group software development. Results show that teams utilized almost every feature of the framework in support of a wide range of development-related activities. The framework was used most to facilitate opportunistic collaboration involving task information. Teams reported wanting to continue using the framework as they found value in it overall.

© All rights reserved Biehl et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Gajos, Krzysztof Z., Everitt, Katherine, Tan, Desney S., Czerwinski, Mary and Weld, Daniel S. (2008): Predictability and accuracy in adaptive user interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1271-1274.

While proponents of adaptive user interfaces tout potential performance gains, critics argue that adaptation's unpredictability may disorient users, causing more harm than good. We present a study that examines the relative effects of predictability and accuracy on the usability of adaptive UIs. Our results show that increasing predictability and accuracy led to strongly improved satisfaction. Increasing accuracy also resulted in improved performance and higher utilization of the adaptive interface. Contrary to our expectations, improvement in accuracy had a stronger effect on performance, utilization and some satisfaction ratings than the improvement in predictability.

© All rights reserved Gajos et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Oliver, Nuria, Czerwinski, Mary, Smith, Greg and Roomp, Kristof (2008): RelAltTab: assisting users in switching windows. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2008. pp. 385-388.

We present RelAltTab, an enhanced ALT+TAB prototype that assists users in switching windows. Our approach uses semantic and temporal information to create a list of related windows to the window that the user is currently engaged in. The main assumption is that the user is more likely to switch to a related window than to any other window in the system. We propose two different user interfaces that present the related window list to the user. We describe in detail the techniques and user interfaces of the RelAltTab system, and present the results of one user study comparing our approach to the standard Windows ALT+TAB program.

© All rights reserved Oliver et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tan, Desney S., Gergle, Darren, Mandryk, Regan L., Inkpen, Kori, Kellar, Melanie, Hawkey, Kirstie and Czerwinski, Mary (2008): Using job-shop scheduling tasks for evaluating collocated collaboration. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 12 (3) pp. 255-267.

2007
 
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Brush, A. J. Bernheim, Meyers, Brian R., Tan, Desney S. and Czerwinski, Mary (2007): Understanding memory triggers for task tracking. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 947-950.

Software can now track which computer applications and documents you use. This provides us with the potential to help end-users recall past activities for tasks such as status reporting. We describe findings from field observations of eight participants writing their status reports. We observed interesting trends, including the reliance on memory triggers, which were either retrieved from explicit self-reminders, from implicit breadcrumbs left while performing their tasks or directly from memory. Participants perceived spending relatively short amounts of time composing their status reports, suggesting that any technology solution must offer dramatic improvements over current practice.

© All rights reserved Brush et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Biehl, Jacob T., Czerwinski, Mary, Smith, Greg and Robertson, George G. (2007): FASTDash: a visual dashboard for fostering awareness in software teams. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1313-1322.

Software developers spend significant time gaining and maintaining awareness of fellow developers' activities. FASTDash is a new interactive visualization that seeks to improve team activity awareness using a spatial representation of the shared code base that highlights team members' current activities. With FASTDash, a developer can quickly determine which team members have source files checked out, which files are being viewed, and what methods and classes are currently being changed. The visualization can be annotated, allowing programmers to supplement activity information with additional status details. It provides immediate awareness of potential conflict situations, such as two programmers editing the same source file. FASTDash was developed through user-centered design, including surveys, team interviews, and in situ observation. Results from a field study show that FASTDash improved team awareness, reduced reliance on shared artifacts, and increased project-related communication. Additionally, the team that participated in our field study continues to use FASTDash.

© All rights reserved Biehl et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lee, Bongshin, Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary and Parr, Cynthia Sims (2007): CandidTree: Visualizing Structural Uncertainty in Similar Hierarchies. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 250-263.

 
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Kaptelinin, Victor and Czerwinski, Mary (2007): Beyond the Desktop Metaphor: Designing Integrated Digital Work Environments. The MIT Press

 
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Kaptelinin, Victor and Czerwinski, Mary (2007): Introduction. In: Kaptelinin, Victor and Czerwinski, Mary (eds.). "Beyond the Desktop Metaphor: Designing Integrated Digital Work Environments". The MIT Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
2006
 
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Karlson, Amy K., Robertson, George G., Robbins, Daniel C., Czerwinski, Mary and Smith, Greg R. (2006): FaThumb: a facet-based interface for mobile search. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 711-720.

In this paper we describe a novel approach for searching large data sets from a mobile phone. Existing interfaces for mobile search require keyword text entry and are not suited for browsing. Our alternative uses a hybrid model to de-emphasize tedious keyword entry in favor of iterative data filtering. We propose navigation and selection of hierarchical metadata (facet navigation), with incremental text entry to further narrow the results. We conducted a formative evaluation to understand the relative advantages of keyword entry versus facet navigation for both browse and search tasks on the phone. We found keyword entry to be more powerful when the name of the search target is known, while facet navigation is otherwise more effective and strongly preferred.

© All rights reserved Karlson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Matthews, Tara, Czerwinski, Mary, Robertson, George G. and Tan, Desney S. (2006): Clipping lists and change borders: improving multitasking efficiency with peripheral information design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 989-998.

Information workers often have to balance many tasks and interruptions. In this work, we explore peripheral display techniques that improve multitasking efficiency by helping users maintain task flow, know when to resume tasks, and more easily reacquire tasks. Specifically, we compare two types of abstraction that provide different task information: semantic content extraction, which displays only the most relevant content in a window, and change detection, which signals when a change has occurred in a window (all de-signed as modifications to Scalable Fabric [17]). Results from our user study suggest that semantic content extraction improves multitasking performance more so than either change detection or our base case of scaling. Results also show that semantic content extraction provides significant benefits to task flow, resumption timing, and reacquisition. We discuss the implication of these findings on the design of peripheral interfaces that support multitasking.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Shneiderman, Ben, Fischer, Gerhard, Czerwinski, Mary, Resnick, Mitchel, Myers, Brad A., Candy, Linda, Edmonds, Ernest, Eisenberg, Michael, Giaccardi, Elisa, Hewett, Tom, Jennings, Pamela and Kules, Bill (2006): Creativity Support Tools: Report From a U.S. National Science Foundation Sponsored Workshop. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 20 (2) pp. 61-77.

Creativity support tools is a research topic with high risk but potentially very high payoff. The goal is to develop improved software and user interfaces that empower users to be not only more productive but also more innovative. Potential users include software and other engineers, diverse scientists, product and graphic designers, architects, educators, students, and many others. Enhanced interfaces could enable more effective searching of intellectual resources, improved collaboration among teams, and more rapid discovery processes. These advanced interfaces should also provide potent support in hypothesis formation, speedier evaluation of alternatives, improved understanding through visualization, and better dissemination of results. For creative endeavors that require composition of novel artifacts (e.g., computer programs, scientific papers, engineering diagrams, symphonies, artwork), enhanced interfaces could facilitate exploration of alternatives, prevent unproductive choices, and enable easy backtracking. This U.S. National Science Foundation sponsored workshop brought together 25 research leaders and graduate students to share experiences, identify opportunities, and formulate research challenges. Two key outcomes emerged: (a) encouragement to evaluate creativity support tools through multidimensional in-depth longitudinal case studies and (b) formulation of 12 principles for design of creativity support tools.

© All rights reserved Shneiderman et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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DeLine, Robert, Czerwinski, Mary, Meyers, Brian, Venolia, Gina, Drucker, Steven M. and Robertson, George G. (2006): Code Thumbnails: Using Spatial Memory to Navigate Source Code. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 11-18.

 
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Gajos, Krzysztof Z., Czerwinski, Mary, Tan, Desney S. and Weld, Daniel S. (2006): Exploring the design space for adaptive graphical user interfaces. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 201-208.

 
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Ramos, Gonzalo, Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary, Tan, Desney S., Baudisch, Patrick, Hinckley, Ken and Agrawala, Maneesh (2006): Tumble! Splat! helping users access and manipulate occluded content in 2D drawings. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 428-435.

 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Gage, Douglas W., Gemmell, Jim, Marshall, Catherine C., Perez-Quinones, Manuel A., Skeels, Meredith M. and Catarci, Tiziana (2006): Digital memories in an era of ubiquitous computing and abundant storage. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (1) pp. 44-50.

2005
 
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Hutchings, Dugald Ralph, Stasko, John T. and Czerwinski, Mary (2005): Distributed display environments. In Interactions, 12 (6) pp. 50-53.

 
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Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary and Churchill, John E. (2005): Visualization of mappings between schemas. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 431-439.

In this paper we describe a novel approach to the visualization of the mapping between two schemas. Current approaches to visually defining such a mapping fail when the schemas or maps become large. The new approach uses various information visualization techniques to simplify the view, making it possible for users to effectively deal with much larger schemas and maps. A user study verifies that the new approach is useful, usable, and effective. The primary contribution is a demonstration of novel ways to effectively present highly complex information.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chellapilla, Kumar, Larson, Kevin, Simard, Patrice and Czerwinski, Mary (2005): Designing human friendly human interaction proofs (HIPs). In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 711-720.

HIPs, or Human Interactive Proofs, are challenges meant to be easily solved by humans, while remaining too hard to be economically solved by computers. HIPs are increasingly used to protect services against automatic script attacks. To be effective, a HIP must be difficult enough to discourage script attacks by raising the computation and/or development cost of breaking the HIP to an unprofitable level. At the same time, the HIP must be easy enough to solve in order to not discourage humans from using the service. Early HIP designs have successfully met these criteria [1]. However, the growing sophistication of attackers and correspondingly increasing profit incentives have rendered most of the currently deployed HIPs vulnerable to attack [2,7,12]. Yet, most companies have been reluctant to increase the difficulty of their HIPs for fear of making them too complex or unappealing to humans. The purpose of this study is to find the visual distortions that are most effective at foiling computer attacks without hindering humans. The contribution of this research is that we discovered that 1) automatically generating HIPs by varying particular distortion parameters renders HIPs that are too easy for computer hackers to break, yet humans still have difficulty recognizing them, and 2) it is possible to build segmentation-based HIPs that are extremely difficult and expensive for computers to solve, while remaining relatively easy for humans.

© All rights reserved Chellapilla et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lee, Bongshin, Czerwinski, Mary, Robertson, George G. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2005): Understanding research trends in conferences using paperLens. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1969-1972.

PaperLens is a novel visualization that reveals trends, connections, and activity throughout a conference community. It tightly couples views across papers, authors, and references. PaperLens was developed to visualize 8 years (1995-2002) of InfoVis conference proceedings and was then extended to visualize 23 years (1982-2004) of the CHI conference proceedings. This paper describes how we analyzed the data and designed PaperLens. We also describe a user study to focus our redesign efforts along with the design changes we made to address usability issues. We summarize lessons learned in the process of design and scaling up to the larger set of CHI conference papers.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hutchings, Dugald Ralph, Stasko, John T. and Czerwinski, Mary (2005): Distributed display environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2117-2118.

 
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Tan, Desney S., Keyani, Pedram and Czerwinski, Mary (2005): Spy-resistant keyboard: more secure password entry on public touch screen displays. In: Proceedings of OZCHI05, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 1-10.

Current software interfaces for entering text on touch screen devices mimic existing mechanisms such as keyboard typing or handwriting. These techniques are poor for entering private text such as passwords since they allow observers to decipher what has been typed simply by looking over the typist's shoulder, an activity known as shoulder surfing. In this paper, we outline a general approach for designing security-sensitive onscreen virtual keyboards that allow users to enter private text without revealing it to observers. We present one instantiation, the Spy-Resistant Keyboard, and discuss design decisions leading to the development of this keyboard. We also describe the results of a user study exploring the usability and security of our interface. Results indicate that although users took longer to enter their passwords, using the Spy-Resistant Keyboard rather than a standard soft keyboard resulted in a significant increase in their ability to protect their passwords from a watchful observer.

© All rights reserved Tan et al. and/or their publisher

 
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DeLine, Robert, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2005): Easing Program Comprehension by Sharing Navigation Data. In: VL-HCC 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 21-24 September, 2005, Dallas, TX, USA. pp. 241-248.

 
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DeLine, Robert, Khella, Amir, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George (2005): Towards understanding programs through wear-based filtering. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Software Visualization 2005. pp. 183-192.

Large software projects often require a programmer to make changes to unfamiliar source code. This paper presents the results of a formative observational study of seven professional programmers who use a conventional development environment to update an unfamiliar implementation of a commonly known video game. We describe several usability problems they experience, including keeping oriented in the program's source text, maintaining the number and layout of open text documents and relying heavily on textual search for navigation. To reduce the cost of transferring knowledge about the program among developers, we propose the idea of wear-based filtering, a combination of computational wear and social filtering. The development environment collects interaction information, as with computational wear, and uses that information to direct the attention of subsequent users, as with social filtering. We present sketches of new visualizations that use wear-based filtering and demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with data drawn from our study.

© All rights reserved DeLine et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary, Baudisch, Patrick, Meyers, Brian, Robbins, Daniel C., Smith, Greg and Tan, Desney S. (2005): The Large-Display User Experience. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25 (4) pp. 44-51.

2004
 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Horvitz, Eric and Wilhite, Susan (2004): A diary study of task switching and interruptions. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 175-182.

We report on a diary study of the activities of information workers aimed at characterizing how people interleave multiple tasks amidst interruptions. The week-long study revealed the type and complexity of activities performed, the nature of the interruptions experienced, and the difficulty of shifting among numerous tasks. We present key findings from the diary study and discuss implications of the findings. Finally, we describe promising directions in the design of software tools for task management, motivated by the findings.

© All rights reserved Czerwinski et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Czerwinski, Mary (2004): Bridging the gap from theory to practice: the path toward innovation in human-computer interaction. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. p. 1.

How do we break away from existing tools and techniques in HCI and truly innovate in a way that benefits the next generation of computer users? Today, too many of our technological designs and inventions are \"one off\" point designs, not building on or contributing to a theoretical foundation of understanding around human perception, cognition, social behavior and physical movement. Of course, these point designs can be successful in and of themselves, so why bother with theory and models? In order to mature as a field in a way that benefits users, it can be argued that we need to work more closely together and with an awareness of multiple disciplines, including not just the computer science and engineering arenas, but also psychology, sociology, and any field of human behavior. Of course, this could be a daunting task-how do we know that important improvements in user interface design can be obtained? I will present a series of examples of what I consider to be significant contributions to the field of HCI, each based on a multidisciplinarian, theory-driven approach. I hope to challenge the audience to creatively consider ways that their own work could be more theoretically motivated, and what it might take for more of us to move forward in that direction.

© All rights reserved Czerwinski and/or ACM Press

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Clamage, Aaron, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2004): DateLens: a fisheye calendar interface for PDAs. In Interactions, 11 (4) pp. 9-10.

 
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Bederson, Benjamin B., Clamage, Aaron, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2004): DateLens: A fisheye calendar interface for PDAs. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11 (1) pp. 90-119.

Calendar applications for small handheld devices are growing in popularity. This led us to develop DateLens, a novel calendar interface for PDAs designed to support complex tasks. It uses a fisheye representation coupled with compact overviews to give the big picture in a small space. The interface also gives users control over the visible time period, as well as supporting integrated search to discover patterns and outliers. Designed with device scalability in mind, DateLens currently runs on desktop computers as well as PDAs. Two user studies were conducted to examine the viability of DateLens as a replacement for traditional calendar visualizations. In the first study, non-PDA users performed complex tasks significantly faster with DateLens than with the Microsoft Pocket PC 2002TM calendar (using a PDA emulator). In addition, they rated DateLens as being easier to use than the default calendar application for a majority of the tasks. In the second study, the participants were expert Pocket PC users and the software was run on their own devices. Again, DateLens performed significantly faster for the complex tasks, and there were satisfaction differences favoring each calendar for different kinds of tasks. From these studies, it is clear that DateLens is superior for more complex tasks such as those associated with longer time periods. For daily event tracking, users familiar with the default Pocket PC calendar strongly preferred its daily view and behaviors.

© All rights reserved Bederson et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Hutchings, Dugald Ralph, Smith, Greg, Meyers, Brian, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2004): Display space usage and window management operation comparisons between single monitor and multiple monitor users. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 32-39.

 
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Robertson, George G., Horvitz, Eric, Czerwinski, Mary, Baudisch, Patrick, Hutchings, Dugald Ralph, Meyers, Brian, Robbins, Daniel C. and Smith, Greg (2004): Scalable Fabric: flexible task management. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 85-89.

 
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Lee, Bongshin, Czerwinski, Mary, Robertson, George G. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2004): Understanding Eight Years of InfoVis Conferences Using PaperLens. In: InfoVis 2004 - 10th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 10-12 October, 2004, Austin, TX, USA. .

2003
 
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Tan, Desney S., Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2003): Women go with the (optical) flow. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 209-215.

 
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McCrickard, D. Scott, Czerwinski, Mary and Bartram, Lyn (2003): Introduction: design and evaluation of notification user interfaces. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 58 (5) pp. 509-514.

Notification systems attempt to deliver current, important information to the computer screen in an efficient and effective manner. All notification systems require that the user attends to them to at least some degree if they are to succeed. Examples of notification systems include instant messaging systems, system and user status updates, email alerts and news and stock tickers. The benefits of notification systems are numerous, including rapid availability of important information, access to nearly instantaneous communication and heightened awareness of the availability of personal contacts. While the popularity of these systems has skyrocketed in recent years, the effects of incoming notifications on ongoing computing tasks have been relatively unexplored. The investigation of the costs, benefits and the optimal display of instant messages and all notifications in the context of desktop or mobile computing tasks falls in the general arena of psychological research on alerting and disruptions, but also requires research contributions from design, computer science and information visualization. To date, much of the psychological research on interruption leverages theoretical task constructions. In this special issue, we focus on the nature of interruptions such as messaging while computing and how to optimize the user experience.

© All rights reserved McCrickard et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Smith, Greg, Regan, Tim, Meyers, Brian, Robertson, George G. and Starkweather, Gary (2003): Toward Characterizing the Productivity Benefits of Very Large Displays. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 9.

 
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Baudisch, Patrick, Cutrell, Edward, Robbins, Dan, Czerwinski, Mary, Tandler, Peter, Bederson, Benjamin B. and Zierlinger, Alex (2003): Drag-and-Pop and Drag-and-Pick: Techniques for Accessing Remote Screen Content on Touch- and Pen-Operated Systems. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 65.

 
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Tan, Desney S. and Czerwinski, Mary (2003): Effects of Visual Separation and Physical Discontinuities when Distributing Information across Multiple Displays. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 252.

 
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Czerwinski, Mary (2003): Human-computer interaction for large display surfaces. In: HCC 2003 - IEEE Symposium on Human Centric Computing Languages and Environments 28-31 October, 2003, Auckland, New Zealand. p. 3.

2002
 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Tan, Desney S. and Robertson, George G. (2002): Women take a wider view. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 195-202.

 
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Robertson, George G., Cameron, Kim, Czerwinski, Mary and Robbins, Daniel (2002): Polyarchy visualization: visualizing multiple intersecting hierarchies. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 423-430.

 
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Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric (2002): An Investigation of Memory for Daily Computing Events. In: Faulkner, Xristine, Finlay, Janet and Détienne, Françoise (eds.) Proceedings of the HCI02 Conference on People and Computers XVI September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 229-246.

2001
 
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Tan, Desney S., Robertson, George G. and Czerwinski, Mary (2001): Exploring 3D Navigation: Combining Speed-COupled Flying with Orbiting. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 418-425.

We present a task-based taxonomy of navigation techniques for 3D virtual environments, used to categorize existing techniques, drive exploration of the design space, and inspire new techniques. We briefly discuss several new techniques, and describe in detail one new techniques, Speed-coupled Flying with Orbiting. This technique couples control of movement speed to camera height and tilt, allowing users to seamlessly transition between local environment-views and global overviews. Users can also orbit specific objects for inspection. Results from two competitive user studies suggest users performed better with Speed-coupled Flying with Orbiting over alternatives, with performance also enhanced by a large display.

© All rights reserved Tan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dumais, Susan and Czerwinski, Mary (2001): Building Bridges from Theory to Practice. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 1358-1362.

 
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Cutrell, Edward, Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric (2001): Notification, Disruption, and Memory: Effects of Messaging Interruptions on Memory and Performance. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 263-269.

 
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Wenyin, L., Dumais, Susan, Sun, Y., Zhang, H., Czerwinski, Mary and Field, B. (2001): Semi-Automatic Image Annotation. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 326-333.

 
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LeeTiernan, S., Cutrell, Edward, Czerwinski, Mary and Hoffman, H. (2001): Effective Notification Systems Depend on User Trust. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 684-685.

2000
 
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Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands.

 
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Robertson, George G., Dantzich, Maarten van, Robbins, Daniel, Czerwinski, Mary, Hinckley, Ken, Risden, Kirsten, Thiel, David and Gorokhovsky, Vadim (2000): The Task Gallery: A 3D Window Manager. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 494-501.

The Task Gallery is a window manager that uses interactive 3D graphics to provide direct support for task management and document comparison, lacking from many systems implementing the desktop metaphor. User tasks appear as artwork hung on the walls of a virtual art gallery, with the selected task on a stage. Multiple documents can be selected and displayed side-by-side using 3D space to provide uniform and intuitive scaling. The Task Gallery hosts any Windows application, using a novel redirection mechanism that routes input and output between the 3D environment and unmodified 2D Windows applications. User studies suggest that the Task Gallery helps with task management, is enjoyable to use, and that the 3D metaphor evokes spatial memory and cognition.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chen, Chaomei and Czerwinski, Mary (2000): Empirical Evaluation of Information Visualizations: An Introduction. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53 (5) pp. 631-635.

 
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Risden, Kirsten, Czerwinski, Mary, Munzner, Tamara and Cook, Daniel B. (2000): An Initial Examination of Ease of Use for 2D and 3D Information Visualizations of Web Content. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 53 (5) pp. 695-714.

We present a discussion and initial empirical investigation of user-interface designs for a set of three Web browsers. The target end-user population we identified were experienced software engineers who maintained large Web sites or portals. The user study demonstrated the strengths and weaknesses of two conventional 2D browsers for this target user, as well as that of XML3D, a novel browser that integrates an interactive 3D hyperbolic graph view with a more traditional 2D list view of the data. A standard collapse/expand tree browser and a Web-based hierarchical categorization similar to Yahoo!, were competitively evaluated against XML3D. No reliable difference between the two 2D browsers was observed. However, the results showed clear differences between XML3D and the 2D user interfaces combined. With XML3D, participants performed search tasks within existing categories reliably faster with no decline in the quality of their responses. It was informally observed that integrating the ability to view the overall structure of the information space with the ability to easily assess local and global relationships was key to successful search performance. XML3D was the only tool of the three that efficiently showed the overall structure within one visualization. The XML3D browser accomplished this by combining a 3D graph layout view as well as an accompanying 2D list view. Users did opt to use the 2D user-interface components of XML3D during new category search tasks, and the XML3D performance advantage was no longer obtained in those conditions. In addition, there were no reliable differences in overall user satisfaction across the three user-interface designs. Since we observed subjects using the XML3D features differently depending on the kind of search task, future studies should explore optimal ways of integrating the use of novel focus+context visualizations and 2D lists for effective information retrieval. The contribution of this paper is that it includes empirical data to demonstrate where novel focus+context views might benefit experienced users over and above more conventional user-interface techniques, in addition to where design improvements are warranted.

© All rights reserved Risden et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Chen, Chaomei, Czerwinski, Mary and Macredie, Robert D. (2000): Individual differences in virtual environments - Introduction and overview. In JASIST - Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology, 51 (6) pp. 499-507.

1999
 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Dumais, Susan, Robertson, George G., Dziadosz, Susan, Tiernan, Scott Lee and Dantzich, Maarten van (1999): Visualizing Implicit Queries for Information Management and Retrieval. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 560-567.

In this paper, we describe the use of similarity metrics in a novel visual environment for storing and retrieving favorite web pages. The similarity metrics, called Implicit Queries, are used to automatically highlight stored web pages that are related to the currently selected web page. Two experiments explored how users manage their personal web information space with and without the Implicit Query highlighting and later retrieve their stored web pages. When storing and organizing web pages, users with Implicit Query highlighting generated slightly more categories. Implicit Queries also led to faster web page retrieval time, although the results were not statistically significant.

© All rights reserved Czerwinski et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Czerwinski, Mary (1999): Research Methods for Next Generation HCI. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jrg (ed.) HCI International 1999 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 22-26, 1999, Munich, Germany. pp. 1103-1107.

 
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Czerwinski, Mary (1999): Trends in Future Web Designs. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jrg (ed.) HCI International 1999 - Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 22-26, 1999, Munich, Germany. pp. 1223-1226.

 
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Muller, Michael J. and Czerwinski, Mary (1999): Organizing Usability Work to Fit the Full Product Range. In Communications of the ACM, 42 (5) pp. 87-90.

1998
 
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Czerwinski, Mary and Larson, Kevin (1998): Business: Trends in Future Web Designs: What's Next for the HCI Professional?. In Interactions, 5 (6) p. 9.

 
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Larson, Kevin and Czerwinski, Mary (1998): Web Page Design: Implications of Memory, Structure and Scent for Information Retrieval. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 25-32.

Much is known about depth and breadth tradeoff issues in graphical user interface menu design. We describe an experiment to see if large breadth and decreased depth is preferable, both subjectively and via performance data, while attempting to design for optimal scent throughout different structures of a website. A study is reported which modified previous procedures for investigating depth/breadth tradeoffs in content design for the web. Results showed that, while increased depth did harm search performance on the web, a medium condition of depth and breadth outperformed the broadest, shallow web structure overall.

© All rights reserved Larson and Czerwinski and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 
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Risden, Kirsten, Czerwinski, Mary, Worley, Stephanie, Hamilton, Lynda, Kubiniec, Joe, Hoffman, Hunter, Mickel, Nancy and Loftus, Elizabeth (1998): Interactive Advertising: Patterns of Use and Effectiveness. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 219-224.

The number of people exploring the World Wide Web is growing dramatically. Many companies are interested in the potential of advertising on the web, but there is little research to guide their decision. The present study demonstrates the concept of a corporate sponsored website as a promising direction for web advertisers. Advertisements for products targeting 10-14 year-olds were presented as web games and inserted into a prototype website. For example, in one ad, players scored points by actively steering toward the advertised product with their web video-game car, while dodging undesirable obstacles on the road (sound effects included). For comparison, subjects also watched a TV ad for the same product embedded in a TV program. One day later, tests showed that web ads positively influenced how easily the advertised brand came to mind compared to TV ads and compared to no-ad controls. The effectiveness of interactive web ads for influencing consumers' memory in this preliminary study suggests that it merits more attention as a potentially viable medium for advertising. Factors that could contribute to the advantage for web ads are discussed.

© All rights reserved Risden et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hinckley, Ken, Czerwinski, Mary and Sinclair, Mike (1998): Interaction and Modeling Techniques for Desktop Two-Handed Input. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 49-58.

We describe input devices and two-handed interaction techniques to support map navigation tasks. We discuss several design variations and user testing of two-handed navigation techniques, including puck and stylus input on a Wacom tablet, as well as a novel design incorporating a touchpad (for the nonpreferred hand) and a mouse (for the preferred hand). To support the latter technique, we introduce a new input device, the TouchMouse, which is a standard mouse augmented with a pair of one-bit touch sensors, one for the palm and one for the index finger. Finally, we propose several enhancements to Buxton's three-state model of graphical input and extend this model to encompass two-handed input transactions as well.

© All rights reserved Hinckley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary, Larson, Kevin, Robbins, Daniel, Thiel, David and Dantzich, Maarten van (1998): Data Mountain: Using Spatial Memory for Document Management. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 153-162.

Effective management of documents on computers has been a central user interface problem for many years. One common approach involves using 2D spatial layouts of icons representing the documents, particularly for information workspace tasks. This approach takes advantage of human 2D spatial cognition. More recently, several 3D spatial layouts have engaged 3D spatial cognition capabilities. Some have attempted to use spatial memory in 3D virtual environments. However, there has been no proof to date that spatial memory works the same way in 3D virtual environments as it does in the real world. We describe a new technique for document management called the Data Mountain, which allows users to place documents at arbitrary positions on an inclined plane in a 3D desktop virtual environment using a simple 2D interaction technique. We discuss how the design evolved in response to user feedback. We also describe a user study that shows that the Data Mountain does take advantage of spatial memory. Our study shows that the Data Mountain has statistically reliable advantages over the Microsoft Internet Explorer Favorites mechanism for managing documents of interest in an information workspace.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chen, Chaomei and Czerwinski, Mary (1998): From Latent Semantics to Spatial Hypertext -- An Integrated Approach. In: Hypertext 98 - Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 20-24, 1998, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 77-86.

In this paper, we introduce an integrated approach to the development of spatial hypertext. This approach brings together several theories and techniques concerning semantic structures, and streamlines the transformation from implicit semantic structures to a semantic space rendered in virtual reality. Browsing and querying become natural, inherent, and compatible activities within the same semantic space. The overall design principle is based on the theory of cognitive maps. Techniques such as latent semantic indexing, Pathfinder network scaling, and virtual reality modelling are used in harmony. The value of this integrated approach is discussed based on initial results of a recent empirical study, which suggests that the spatial metaphor is intuitive and particularly useful when dealing with implicit information structures, or when a highly flexible and extensible virtual environment is required. Search strategies in association with the spatial hypertext and further work are also discussed.

© All rights reserved Chen and Czerwinski and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary and Dantzich, Maarten van (1997): Immersion in Desktop Virtual Reality. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 11-19.

This paper explores techniques for evaluating and improving immersion in Desktop Virtual Reality (VR). Three experiments are reported which extend findings on immersion in VR reported by Pausch et al. [9]. In the current experiments, a visual search paradigm was used to examine navigation in Desktop VR both with and without navigational aids. Pausch et al. found that non-head tracked users took significantly longer than predicted when the search target was absent, which was interpreted as indicative of a loss of sense of immersion. Our first experiment extended the Pausch et al. experiment to a desktop display. Our findings differ in that search times matched prediction when the target was absent, indicating that the Pausch et al. study does not transfer to Desktop VR. In the second and third experiments, our visual search task was performed while navigating a set of 3D hallways. We introduce a new navigation aid called Peripheral Lenses, intended to provide simulated peripheral vision. Informal studies suggested that Peripheral Lenses decrease search time, indicating an enhanced sense of immersion in Desktop VR. However, formal studies contradict that, demonstrating the importance of formal usability studies in the development of user interface software. We also gained evidence that visual attention findings transfer to Desktop VR.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chen, Chaomei and Czerwinski, Mary (1997): Spatial ability and visual navigation: an Empirical Study. In New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 3 pp. 67-89.

In this paper, we describe an empirical study of individuals' spatial navigation strategies and a number of performance and preference measures with regard to the design of a novel 3D visualisation. The underlying semantic space of the user interface consists of a collection of papers from the three most recent ACM SIGCHI conference proceedings, visualised as a virtual reality network. This network was automatically constructed based on semantic similarities derived from latent semantic analysis. We studied the search strategies and general preferences of eleven subjects who used this system to find papers on various topics. The study has led to a number of interesting findings, which should be valuable for designers and evaluators of 3D user interfaces. The results highlight the importance of structural elements in the design of a semantically based user interface, because search strategies of users relied heavily on these mechanisms in the design. The results of this study also demonstrate that we are able to characterise and learn from users' search strategies in a visual environment strongly shaped by semantic relationships of the information content. Implications for user interface design based on users' psychological models of a semantic space are described.

© All rights reserved Chen and Czerwinski and/or Taylor and Francis

1996
 
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Sears, Andrew, Czerwinski, Mary, Dringus, Laurie P. and Thomas, Barbara Bernal (1996): Educating HCI Practitioners: Evaluating What Industry Needs and Academia. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (4) pp. 26-28.

1994
 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Feldman, Evan M. and Cutrell, Edward (1994): The Influence of Stimulus Dimensions and Training on Visual Search Performance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 38th Annual Meeting 1994. pp. 1266-1270.

Traditional studies of attention, training and visual search have focused on the use of separable dimensions (usually alphanumeric stimuli), and equating the number of items in consistent versus varied mapping training paradigms. However, the design of visual displays requires a heavy reliance upon configural and integral dimensions (stimuli that group). This set of studies examines the effects of configural dimensions (also using alphanumeric stimuli), as well as equating the number of training trials on specific targets between consistent versus varied mapping conditions. Predictions from extant theories of attention and visual search will be discussed where relevant. Results show that both factors have a large influence on the effects of training in visual search tasks. The influence of these variables needs to be incorporated into current theories of attention and visual search, especially as they are applied to the design of graphical user interfaces and visual displays.

© All rights reserved Czerwinski et al. and/or Human Factors Society

1991
 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Schumacher, R. and Duba, B. (1991): KARMA: Knowledge Acquisition, Retention and Maintenance Analysis. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (1) pp. 75-77.

 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Chrisman, Steve and Schumacher, Bob (1991): The Effects of Warnings and Display Similarity on Interruption in Multitasking Environments. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 38-39.

 
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User-contributed publications

Here is a list of publications that have been submitted by the author himself/herself or a website visitor:

Patrick Baudisch, Mary Czerwinski, Dan R. Olsen: Proceedings of the 18th Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology, Seattle, WA, USA, October 23-26, 2005 ACM 2005

George G. Robertson, Mary Czerwinski, John E. Churchill: Visualization of mappings between schemas. CHI 2005: 431-439

Kumar Chellapilla, Kevin Larson, Patrice Y. Simard, Mary Czerwinski: Designing human friendly human interaction proofs (HIPs). CHI 2005: 711-720

Bongshin Lee, Mary Czerwinski, George G. Robertson, Benjamin B. Bederson: Understanding research trends in conferences using paperLens. CHI Extended Abstracts 2005: 1969-1972

Dugald Ralph Hutchings, John T. Stasko, Mary Czerwinski: Distributed display environments. CHI Extended Abstracts 2005: 2117-2118

Kumar Chellapilla, Kevin Larson, Patrice Y. Simard, Mary Czerwinski: Building Segmentation Based Human-Friendly Human Interaction Proofs (HIPs). HIP 2005: 1-26

Robert DeLine, Amir Khella, Mary Czerwinski, George G. Robertson: Towards understanding programs through wear-based filtering. SOFTVIS 2005: 183-192

Robert DeLine, Mary Czerwinski, George G. Robertson: Easing Program Comprehension by Sharing Navigation Data. VL/HCC 2005: 241-248

 

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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/mary_czerwinski.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1991-2012
Pub. count:80
Number of co-authors:142



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

George G. Robertson:25
Desney S. Tan:16
Greg Smith:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Mary Czerwinski's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Brad A. Myers:154
Steven Pemberton:120
 
 
 

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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
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The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
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