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Mark Shirley

 

Publications by Mark Shirley (bibliography)

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1998
 
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O'Day, Vicky L., Bobrow, Daniel G., Bobrow, Kimberly, Shirley, Mark, Hughes, Billie and Walters, Jim (1998): Moving Practice: From Classrooms to MOO Rooms. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 7 (1) pp. 9-45.

We discuss design considerations in moving practice through the boundary from physical to virtual places. Although the examples are grounded in a school environment, we believe that the design tradeoffs apply to any networked collaborative space. The context for discussion is Pueblo, a MOO-based, cross-generation network learning community centered around a K-6 elementary school. The development of practice in Pueblo draws upon teachers' and students' experience with semi-structured classroom participation frameworks -- informal structures of social interaction which foster certain ways of thinking, doing, and learning through guided activities and conversations. We have translated several familiar frameworks into the Pueblo setting, using the classroom versions as models to be adapted and transformed as they are aligned with the affordances of the MOO. We identify four design dimensions that have emerged as particularly interesting and important in this process: audience, asynchrony and synchrony, attention and awareness, and prompts for reflection. We illustrate design choices in each dimension using several of the participation frameworks that have been translated into Pueblo. We discuss the relation between MOO affordances and design choices and provide examples of successful and unsuccessful alignment between them.

© All rights reserved O'Day et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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O'Day, Vicky L., Bobrow, Daniel G. and Shirley, Mark (1998): Network Community Design: A Social-Technical Design Circle. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 7 (3) pp. 315-337.

Network communities are especially interesting and useful settings in which to look closely at the co-evolution of technology and social practice, to begin to understand how to explore the full space of design options and implications. In a network community we have a magnified view of the interactions between social practice and technical mechanisms, since boundaries between designers and users are blurred and co-evolution here is unusually responsive to user experience. This paper is a reflection on how we have worked with social and technical design elements in Pueblo, a school-centered network community supported by a MOO (an Internet-accessible, text-based virtual world). Four examples from Pueblo illustrate different ways of exploring the design space. The examples show how designers can rely on social practice to simplify a technical implementation, how they can design technical mechanisms to work toward a desirable social goal, how similar technical implementations can have different social effects, and how social and technical mechanisms co-evolve. We point to complexities of the design process and emphasize the contributions of mediators in addressing communication breakdowns among a diverse group of designers.

© All rights reserved O'Day et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

1996
 
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O'Day, Vicky L., Bobrow, Daniel G. and Shirley, Mark (1996): The Social-Technical Design Circle. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 160-169.

Computer systems developed for groups of people often have built-in social imperatives, either explicitly or implicitly brought to bear during technology design and use. Even when users are active, ongoing participants in design, conflicts can arise between the social assumptions inscribed in technical mechanisms and those in existing or proposed social practices, resulting in changes to both. This paper describes the joint evolution of tools and social practices in Pueblo, a school-centered learning community supported by a MOO (an Internet-accessible virtual world). Examples illustrate how one can design and use a social practice to simplify a technical implementation, and how one can make a choice in technical implementation to work towards a desirable social goal. Social and technical practices in a network community co-evolve as social values and policies become clearer and as growth in the community pushes it toward changes in the distribution of authority and power.

© All rights reserved O'Day et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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