Publication statistics

Pub. period:1992-1997
Pub. count:10
Number of co-authors:10


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Saul Greenberg:10
John C. Dill:2
Shelli Dubs:2



Productive colleagues

Mark Roseman's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Saul Greenberg:140
Carl Gutwin:116
Lyn Bartram:16

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Mark Roseman


Publications by Mark Roseman (bibliography)

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Roseman, Mark and Greenberg, Saul (1997): Simplifying Component Development in an Integrated Groupware Environment. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 65-72. Available online

This paper describes our experiences implementing a component architecture for TeamWave Workplace, an integrated groupware environment using a rooms metaphor. The problem we faced was how to design the architecture to support rapid development of new embedded components. Our solution, based on Tcl/Tk and GroupKit, uses multiple interpreters and a shared window hierarchy. This proved effective in easing development complexity in TeamWave. We discuss some of the strategies we used, and identify the types of interactions between system components. The lessons learned in developing this component model should be generally applicable to future integrated groupware systems in different environments.

© All rights reserved Roseman and Greenberg and/or ACM Press

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Gutwin, Carl, Roseman, Mark and Greenberg, Saul (1996): A Usability Study of Awareness Widgets in a Shared Workspace Groupware System. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 258-267. Available online

Workspace awareness is knowledge about others' interaction with a shared workspace. Groupware systems provide only limited information about other participants, often compromising workspace awareness. This paper describes a usability study of several widgets designed to help maintain awareness in groupware workspaces. These widgets included a miniature view, a radar view, a multi-user scrollbar, a glance function, and a "what you see is what I do" view. The study examined the widgets' information content, how easily people could interpret them, and whether they were distracting. Observations, questionnaires, and interviews indicate that the miniature and radar views are valuable for spatial manipulation tasks. The results also suggest new design requirements for awareness widgets: they should support both shared and individual work, provide familiar representations, and link perception and action.

© All rights reserved Gutwin et al. and/or ACM Press

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Roseman, Mark and Greenberg, Saul (1996): TeamRooms: Network Places for Collaboration. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 325-333. Available online

Teams whose members are in close physical proximity often rely on team rooms to serve both as meeting places and repositories of the documents and artifacts that support their projects. TeamRooms is a groupware system that fills the role of a team room for groups whose members can work both co-located and at a distance. Facilities in TeamRooms allow team members to collaborate either in real-time or asynchronously, and to customize their shared electronic space with tools to suit their needs. Unlike many groupware systems, all TeamRooms documents and artifacts are fully persistent.

© All rights reserved Roseman and Greenberg and/or ACM Press

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Gutwin, Carl, Greenberg, Saul and Roseman, Mark (1996): Workspace Awareness in Real-Time Distributed Groupware: Framework, Widgets, and Evaluation. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 281-298.

The rich person-to-person interaction afforded by shared physical work-spaces allows people to maintain up-to-the minute knowledge about others' interaction with the task environment. This knowledge is workspace awareness, part of the glue that allows groups to collaborate effectively. In real-time groupware systems that provide a shared virtual space for collaboration, the possibilities for interaction are impoverished when compared with their physical counterparts. In this paper, we present the concept of workspace awareness as one key to supporting the richness evident in face-to-face interaction. We construct a conceptual framework that describes the elements and mechanisms of workspace awareness, and apply the framework to the design of widgets that help people maintain awareness in real-time distributed groupware. Our evaluation of these widgets has shown that several designs improve the usability of groupware applications.

© All rights reserved Gutwin et al. and/or Springer Verlag

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Roseman, Mark and Greenberg, Saul (1996): Building Real-Time Groupware with GroupKit, a Groupware Toolkit. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3 (1) pp. 66-106. Available online

This article presents an overview of GroupKit, a groupware toolkit that lets developers build applications for synchronous and distributed computer-based conferencing. GroupKit was constructed from our belief that programming groupware should be only slightly harder than building functionally similar single-user systems. We have been able to significantly reduce the implementation complexity of groupware through the key features that comprise GroupKit. A runtime infrastructure automatically manages the creation, interconnection, and communications of the distributed processes that comprise conference sessions. A set of groupware programming abstractions allows developers to control the behavior of distributed processes, to take action on state changes, and to share relevant data. Groupware widgets let interface features of value to conference participants to be easily added to groupware applications. Session managers -- interfaces that let people create and manage their meetings -- are decoupled from groupware applications and are built by developers to accommodate the group's working style. Example GroupKit applications in a variety of domains have been implemented with only modest effort.

© All rights reserved Roseman and Greenberg and/or ACM Press

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Schaffer, Doug, Zuo, Zhengping, Greenberg, Saul, Bartram, Lyn, Dill, John C., Dubs, Shelli and Roseman, Mark (1996): Navigating Hierarchically Clustered Networks through Fisheye and Full-Zoom Methods. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 3 (2) pp. 162-188. Available online

Many information structures are represented as two-dimensional networks (connected graphs) of links and nodes. Because these network tend to be large and quite complex, people often prefer to view part or all of the network at varying levels of detail. Hierarchical clustering provides a framework for viewing the network at different levels of detail by superimposing a hierarchy on it. Nodes are grouped into clusters, and clusters are themselves place into other clusters. Users can then navigate these clusters until an appropriate level of detail is reached. This article describes an experiment comparing two methods for viewing hierarchically clustered networks. Traditional full-zoom techniques provide details of only the current level of the hierarchy. In contrast, fisheye views, generated by the "variable-zoom" algorithm described in this article, provide information about higher levels as well. Subjects using both viewing methods were given problem-solving tasks requiring them to navigate a network, in this case, a simulated telephone system, and to reroute links in it. Results suggest that the greater context provided by fisheye views significantly improved user performance. Users were quicker to complete their task and made fewer unnecessary navigational steps through the hierarchy. This validation of fisheye views in important for designers of interfaces to complicated monitoring systems, such as control rooms for supervisory control and data acquisition systems, where efficient human performance is often critical. However, control room operators remained concerned about the size and visibility tradeoffs between the fine room operators remained concerned about the size and visibility tradeoffs between the fine detail provided by full-zoom techniques and the global context supplied by fisheye views. Specific interface features are required to reconcile the differences.

© All rights reserved Schaffer et al. and/or ACM Press

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Roseman, Mark and Greenberg, Saul (1993): Building Flexible Groupware Through Open Protocols. In: Kaplan, Simon M. (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1993 November 1-4, 1993, Milpitas, California, USA. pp. 279-288. Available online

This paper presents a technical approach to building flexible groupware applications. Flexibility provides the promise of personalizable groupware, allowing different groups to work with the system in diverse ways which best suit the group's own needs. An implementation technique called open protocols is described, which is a variation of client/server architectures. Open protocols facilitate the addition of group-specific modules long after the system has been created. Three examples illustrating the use of open protocols are presented: floor control, conference registration, and brainstorming. Finally, a number of issues facing the groupware developer using open protocols are addressed, along with strategies that can help in dealing with these issues.

© All rights reserved Roseman and Greenberg and/or ACM Press

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Schaffer, Doug, Zou, Zhengping, Bartram, Lyn, Dill, John C., Dubs, Shelli, Greenberg, Saul and Roseman, Mark (1993): Comparing fisheye and full--zoom techniques for navigation of hierarchically clustered networks. In: Graphics Interface 93 May 19-21, 1993, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 87-96.

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Roseman, Mark and Greenberg, Saul (1992): GROUPKIT: A Groupware Toolkit for Building Real-Time Conferencing Applications. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 43-50. Available online

This paper presents our approach to the design of groupware toolkits for real-time work, and how the design is instantiated in our toolkit, GROUPKIT. The design is based on both the technical underpinnings necessary for real-time groupware, and on user-centered features identified by existing CSCW human factors work. We also present three strategies for building GROUPKIT's components. First, an extendible, object-oriented run-time architecture supports managing distributed processes and the communication between them. Second, transparent overlays offer a convenient method for adding general components to various groupware applications, for example supporting gestures via multiple cursors and annotation via sketching. Third, open protocols allow the groupware designer to create a wide range of interface and interaction policies, accommodating group differences in areas such as conference registration and floor control.

© All rights reserved Roseman and Greenberg and/or ACM Press

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Greenberg, Saul, Roseman, Mark, Webster, Dave and Bohnet, Ralph (1992): Human and Technical Factors of Distributed Group Drawing Tools. In Interacting with Computers, 4 (3) pp. 364-392.

Groupware designers are now developing multi-user equivalents of popular paint and draw applications. Their job is not an easy one. First, human factors issues peculiar to group interaction appear that, if ignored, seriously limit the usability of the group tool. Second, implementation is fraught with considerable technical hurdles. This paper describes the human and technical factors that have been met and handled by researchers and implementors of group drawing tools. We emphasize our own experiences building four systems supporting remote real time group interaction: GroupSketch and XGroupSketch, both multi-user sketchpads; GroupDraw, a prototype object-based multi-user drawing package, and GroupKit, a groupware toolkit. On the human factors side, we summarize empirically-derived design principles that we believe are critical to building useful and usable collaborative drawing tools. On the implementation side, we describe our experiences with replicated versus centralized architectures, schemes for participant registration, multiple cursors, network requirements, and the structure of the drawing primitives. A brief survey of other approaches to group drawing is also included.

© All rights reserved Greenberg et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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