Publication statistics

Pub. period:1996-2012
Pub. count:92
Number of co-authors:159



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Hirokazu Kato:16
Ivan Poupyrev:10
Adrian David Cheok:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Mark Billinghurst's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Carl Gutwin:116
Albrecht Schmidt:111
Dieter Schmalstieg:86
 
 
 

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Mark Billinghurst

Ph.D

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Has also published under the name of:
"M. Billinghurst"

Personal Homepage:
http://markbillinghurst.com/

Current place of employment:
University of Canterbury

Mark Billinghurst has a wealth of knowledge and expertise in human computer interface technology, particularly in the area of Augmented Reality (the overlay of three-dimensional images on the real world). In 2002, the former HIT Lab US Research Associate completed his PhD in Electrical Engineering, at the University of Washington, under the supervision of Professor Thomas Furness III and Professor Linda Shapiro. As part of the research for his thesis titled Shared Space: Exploration in Collaborative Augmented Reality, Dr Billinghurst invented the Magic Book - an animated children's book that comes to life when viewed through the lightweight head-mounted display (HMD). Not surprisingly, Dr Billinghurst has achieved several accolades in recent years for his contribution to Human Interface Technology research. He was awarded a Discover Magazine Award in 2001, for Entertainment for creating the Magic Book technology. He was selected as one of eight leading New Zealand innovators and entrepreneurs to be showcased at the Carter Holt Harvey New Zealand Innovation Pavilion at the America's Cup Village from November 2002 until March 2003. In 2004 he was nominated for a prestigious World Technology Network (WTN) World Technology Award in the education category and in 2005 he was appointed to the New Zealand Government's Growth and Innovation Advisory Board. Originally educated in New Zealand, Dr Billinghurst is a two-time graduate of Waikato University where he completed a BCMS (Bachelor of Computing and Mathematical Science)(first class honours) in 1990 and a Master of Philosophy (Applied Mathematics & Physics) in 1992. Research interests: Dr. Billinghurst's research focuses primarily on advanced 3D user interfaces such as: . Wearable Computing - Spatial and collaborative interfaces for small wearable computers. These interfaces address the idea of what is possible when you merge ubiquitous computing and communications on the body. . Shared Space - An interface that demonstrates how augmented reality, the overlaying of virtual objects on the real world, can radically enhance face-face and remote collaboration. Multimodal Input - Combining natural language and artificial intelligence techniques to allow human computer interaction with an intuitive mix of voice, gesture, speech, gaze and body motion.

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Publications by Mark Billinghurst (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Lee, Gun and Billinghurst, Mark (2012): CityViewAR outdoor AR visualization. In: Proceedings of CHINZ12, the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 2012. p. 97.

This demonstration shows CityViewAR, a mobile outdoor Augmented Reality (AR) application for providing AR information visualization on a city scale. The CityViewAR application was developed to provide geographical information about the city of Christchurch, which was hit by several major earthquakes in 2010 and 2011. The application provides information about destroyed buildings and historical sites that were affected by the earthquakes. The geo-located content is provided in a number of formats including 2D map views, AR visualization of 3D models of buildings on-site, immersive panorama photographs, and list views.

© All rights reserved Lee and Billinghurst and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Sharma, Anirudh, Madhvanath, Sriganesh, Shekhawat, Ankit and Billinghurst, Mark (2011): MozArt: a multimodal interface for conceptual 3D modeling. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2011. pp. 307-310.

There is a need for computer aided design tools that support rapid conceptual level design. In this paper we explore and evaluate how intuitive speech and multitouch input can be combined in a multimodal interface for conceptual 3D modeling. Our system, MozArt, is based on a user's innate abilities -- speaking and touching, and has a toolbar/button-less interface for creating and interacting with computer graphics models. We briefly cover the hardware and software technology behind MozArt, and present a pilot study comparing our multimodal system with a conventional multitouch modeling interface with first time CAD users. While a larger study is required to obtain statistically significant comparison regarding efficiency and accuracy of the two interfaces, a majority of the participants preferred the multimodal interface over the multitouch. We summarize lessons learned and discuss directions for future research.

© All rights reserved Sharma et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Clark, Adrian, Dnser, Andreas, Billinghurst, Mark, Piumsomboon, Thammathip and Altimira, David (2011): Seamless interaction in space. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference 2011. pp. 88-97.

As more electronic devices enter the living room, there is a need to explore new ways to provide seamless interaction with them over a range of different distances. In this paper we describe a proximity-based interface that allows users to interact with screen content both within arm's length and at a distance. To support such a wide interaction range we combine speech and gesture input with a secondary display, and have the interface change dynamically depending on the user proximity. We conducted a user evaluation of our prototype system and found that users were impressed with the away from screen interfaces, and believed that changing the interface based on proximity would be useful for larger displays. We present the lessons learned and discuss directions for future research.

© All rights reserved Clark et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Duh, Henry Been-Lirn, Do, Ellen Yi-Luen, Billinghurst, Mark, Quek, Francis and Chen, Vivian Hsueh-hua (2010): Senior-friendly technologies: interaction design for senior users. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4513-4516.

The elderly represent a valid group of users who can potentially benefit greatly from engaging with technology, such as healthcare systems or playing digital games. Yet, less attention has been given to the significance of senior citizens as technology users, as compared to the common younger population. In an effort to fill in the gap, this workshop aims to investigate the design of technology for senior citizens. To provide for more focused, thus more productive discussion, we will use elderly mobile phone games as a case in point here. The overarching objective is to understand what can help to make for better and more meaningful use of interactive applications and technology by the elderly, for instance, games on the mobile phone.

© All rights reserved Duh et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hagbi, Nate, Grasset, Raphael, Bergig, Oriel, Billinghurst, Mark and El-Sana, Jihad (2010): In-Place Sketching for content authoring in Augmented Reality games. In: Lok, Benjamin, Klinker, Gudrun and Nakatsu, Ryohei (eds.) IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, VR 2010 March 20-24, 2010, Waltham, Massachusetts, USA. pp. 91-94.

2008
 
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Block, Florian, Gutwin, Carl, Haller, Michael, Gellersen, Hans-Werner and Billinghurst, Mark (2008): Pen and paper techniques for physical customisation of tabletop interfaces. In: Third IEEE International Workshop on Tabletops and Interactive Surfaces Tabletop 2008 October 1-3, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 17-24.

 
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Dicke, Christina, Deo, Shaleen, Billinghurst, Mark, Adams, Nathan and Lehikoinen, Juha (2008): Experiments in mobile spatial audio-conferencing: key-based and gesture-based interaction. In: Hofte, G. Henri ter, Mulder, Ingrid and Ruyter, Boris E. R. de (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2008 September 2-5, 2008, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. pp. 91-100.

 
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Gilroy, Stephen W., Cavazza, Marc, Chaignon, Rmi, Mkel, Satu-Marja, Niranen, Markus, Andre, Elisabeth, Vogt, Thurid, Urbain, Jrme, Seichter, Hartmut, Billinghurst, Mark and Benayoun, Maurice (2008): An affective model of user experience for interactive art. In: Inakage, Masa and Cheok, Adrian David (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2008 December 3-5, 2008, Yokohama, Japan. pp. 107-110.

 
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Buchanan, Philip, Seichter, Hartmut, Billinghurst, Mark and Grasset, Raphael (2008): Augmented reality and rigid body simulation for edutainment: the interesting mechanism - an AR puzzle to teach Newton physics. In: Inakage, Masa and Cheok, Adrian David (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2008 December 3-5, 2008, Yokohama, Japan. pp. 17-20.

 
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Grasset, Raphael, Dnser, Andreas and Billinghurst, Mark (2008): Edutainment with a mixed reality book: a visually augmented illustrative childrens' book. In: Inakage, Masa and Cheok, Adrian David (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2008 December 3-5, 2008, Yokohama, Japan. pp. 292-295.

 
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Lee, Minkyung and Billinghurst, Mark (2008): A Wizard of Oz study for an AR multimodal interface. In: Digalakis, Vassilios, Potamianos, Alexandros, Turk, Matthew, Pieraccini, Roberto and Ivanov, Yuri (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2008 October 20-22, 2008, Chania, Crete, Greece. pp. 249-256.

 
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Block, Florian, Haller, Michael, Gellersen, Hans-Werner, Gutwin, Carl and Billinghurst, Mark (2008): VoodooSketch: extending interactive surfaces with adaptable interface palettes. In: Schmidt, Albrecht, Gellersen, Hans-Werner, Hoven, Elise van den, Mazalek, Ali, Holleis, Paul and Villar, Nicolas (eds.) TEI 2008 - Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction February 18-20, 2008, Bonn, Germany. pp. 55-58.

 
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Buchmann, Volkert, Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (2008): Directional interfaces for wearable augmented reality. In: CHINZ08 - the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 2008. pp. 47-54.

Wearable Augmented Reality can be used to overlay information onto the real world. Directional interfaces in wearable Augmented Reality aid users to orient themselves so that previously invisible targets are now inside their field of view. This is relevant when the user tries to find the next waypoint during a navigational task. We surveyed directional interfaces that have been used in Augmented Reality previously and compared their efficiency. We have found that a circular compass is the most efficient way to provide orientation cues.

© All rights reserved Buchmann et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dnser, Andreas, Billinghurst, Mark and Mancero, Gabriela (2008): Evaluating visual search performance with a multi layer display. In: Proceedings of OZCHI08 - the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2008. pp. 307-310.

A Multi Layer Display (MLD) is a novel device which allows content to be shown on different depth planes. Earlier research indicates that stereoscopic depth information can be beneficial in visual search tasks. This has not yet been explored for this new display technology. In this paper we present the results of an experiment to explore how the actual depth information afforded by a two layer MLD affects visual search task performance. We found that placing distracters and targets on different depth layers can significantly improve performance in complex search tasks. We discuss these findings and provide suggestions on how to arrange the stimuli across the two layers in order to get the full benefit of the depth information.

© All rights reserved Dnser et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Sodnik, Jaka, Dicke, Christina, Tomazic, Saso and Billinghurst, Mark (2008): A user study of auditory versus visual interfaces for use while driving. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (5) pp. 318-332.

This paper describes a user study on interaction with a mobile device installed in a driving simulator. Two new auditory interfaces were proposed and their effectiveness and efficiency were compared to a standard visual interface. Both auditory interfaces consisted of spatialized auditory cues representing individual items in the hierarchical structure of the menu. In the first auditory interface all items of the current level of the menu were played simultaneously. In the second auditory interface only one item was played at a time. The visual interface was shown on a small in-vehicle LCD screen on the dashboard. In all three cases, a custom-made interaction device (a scrolling wheel and two buttons) attached to the steering wheel was used for controlling the interface. The driving performance, task completion times, perceived workload and overall user satisfaction were evaluated. The experiment proved that both auditory interfaces were effective to use in a mobile environment, but were not faster than the visual interface. In the case of shorter tasks, e.g. changing the active profile or deleting an image, the task completion times were comparable for all interfaces; however, both the driving performance was significantly better and the perceived workload was lower when using the auditory interfaces. The test subjects also reported a high overall satisfaction with the auditory interfaces. The latter were labelled as easier to use, more satisfying and more adequate for performing the required tasks than the visual interface. The results of the survey are not surprising as there is a stronger competition for the visual attention between the visual interface and the primary task (driving the car) than in the case of using the auditory interface. So although both types of interfaces were proven to be effective, the visual interface was less efficient as it strongly distracted the user from performing the primary task.

© All rights reserved Sodnik et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Gilroy, Stephen W., Cavazza, Marc, Chaignon, Rmi, Mkel, Satu-Marja, Niranen, Markus, Andre, Elisabeth, Vogt, Thurid, Urbain, Jrme, Billinghurst, Mark, Seichter, Hartmut and Benayoun, Maurice (2008): E-tree: emotionally driven augmented reality art. In: El-Saddik, Abdulmotaleb, Vuong, Son, Griwodz, Carsten, Bimbo, Alberto Del, Candan, K. Selcuk and Jaimes, Alejandro (eds.) Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Multimedia 2008 October 26-31, 2008, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 945-948.

 
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Lee, Minkyung and Billinghurst, Mark (2008): A Wizard of Oz study for an AR multimodal interface. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2008. pp. 249-256.

In this paper we describe a Wizard of Oz (WOz) user study of an Augmented Reality (AR) interface that uses multimodal input (MMI) with natural hand interaction and speech commands. Our goal is to use a WOz study to help guide the creation of a multimodal AR interface which is most natural to the user. In this study we used three virtual object arranging tasks with two different display types (a head mounted display, and a desktop monitor) to see how users used multimodal commands, and how different AR display conditions affect those commands. The results provided valuable insights into how people naturally interact in a multimodal AR scene assembly task. For example, we discovered the optimal time frame for fusing speech and gesture commands into a single command. We also found that display type did not produce a significant difference in the type of commands used. Using these results, we present design recommendations for multimodal interaction in AR environments.

© All rights reserved Lee and Billinghurst and/or their publisher

 
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Hong, Dongpyo, Hollerer, Tobias, Haller, Michael, Takemura, Haruo, Cheok, Adrian David, Kim, Gerard Jounghyun, Billinghurst, Mark, Woo, Woontack, Hornecker, Eva, Jacob, Robert J. K., Hummels, Caroline, Ullmer, Brygg, Schmidt, Albrecht, Hoven, Elise van den and Mazalek, Ali (2008): Advances in Tangible Interaction and Ubiquitous Virtual Reality. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 7 (2) pp. 90-96.

 
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Sodnik, Jaka, Tomazic, Saso, Dicke, Christina and Billinghurst, Mark (2008): Spatial Auditory Interface for an Embedded Communication Device in a Car. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions 2008. pp. 69-76.

In this paper we evaluate the safety of the driver when using an embedded communication device while driving. As a part of our research, four different tasks were preformed with the device in order to evaluate the efficiency and safety of the drivers under three different conditions: one visual and two different auditory conditions. In the visual condition, various menu items were shown on a small LCD screen attached to the dashboard. In the auditory conditions, the same menu items were presented with spatial sounds distributed on a virtual ring around the user's head. The same custom-made interaction device attached to the steering wheel was used in all three conditions, enabling simple and safe interaction with the device while driving. The auditory interface proved to be as fast as the visual one, while at the same time enabling a significantly safer driving and higher satisfaction of the users. The measured workload also appeared to be lower when using the auditory interfaces.

© All rights reserved Sodnik et al. and/or IEEE

 
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Green, Scott A., Richardson, Scott M., Stiles, Randy J., Billinghurst, Mark and Chase, J. Geoffrey (2008): Multimodal Metric Study for Human-Robot Collaboration. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions 2008. pp. 218-223.

The aim of our research is to create a system whereby human members of a team can collaborate in a natural way with robots. In this paper we describe a Wizard of Oz (WOZ) study conducted to find the natural speech and gestures people would use when interacting with a mobile robot as a team member. Results of the study show that in the beginning participants used simple speech, but once the users learned that the system understood more complicated speech, they began to use more spatially descriptive language. User responses indicate that gestures aided in spatial communication. The input mode that combined the use of speech and gestures was found to be best. We first discuss previous work and detail how our study contributes to this body of knowledge. Then we describe the design of our WOZ study and discuss the results and issues encountered during the completion of the experiment.

© All rights reserved Green et al. and/or IEEE

2007
 
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Brandl, Peter, Haller, Michael, Hurnaus, Michael, Lugmayr, Verena, Oster, Claudia, Schafleitner, Christian and Billinghurst, Mark (2007): An Adaptable Rear-Projection Screen Using Digital Pens And Hand Gestures. In: Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Artificial Reality and Telexistence November 2007, 2007, Esbjerg . pp. 49-54.

 
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Thomas, Bruce and Billinghurst, Mark (eds.) OZCHI Nov 28-30, 2007, Adelaide, Australia.

 
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Henrysson, Anders and Billinghurst, Mark (2007): Using a mobile phone for 6 DOF mesh editing. In: Proceedings of CHINZ07, the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 1-4 July 2007, 2007, Hamilton, New Zealand. pp. 9-16.

This paper describes how a mobile phone can be used as a six degree of freedom interaction device for 3D mesh editing. Using a video see-through Augmented Reality approach, the mobile phone meets several design guidelines for a natural, easy to learn, 3D human computer interaction device. We have developed a system that allows a user to select one or more vertices in an arbitrary sized polygon mesh and freely translate and rotate them by translating and rotating the device itself. The mesh is registered in 3D and viewed through the device and hence the system provides a unified perception-action space. We present the implementation details and discuss the possible advantages and disadvantages of this approach.

© All rights reserved Henrysson and Billinghurst and/or ACM Press

 
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Jeon, Seokhee, Kim, Gerard Jounghyun and Billinghurst, Mark (2007): Interacting with a Tabletop Display Using a Camera Equipped Mobile Phone. In: Jacko, Julie A. (ed.) HCI International 2007 - 12th International Conference - Part II July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 336-343.

 
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Dicke, Christina, Sodnik, Jaka, Billinghurst, Mark and Tomazic, Saso (2007): Spatial Auditory Interfaces Compared to Visual Interfaces for Mobile Use in a Driving Task. In: Cardoso, Jorge, Cordeiro, Jos and Filipe, Joaquim (eds.) ICEIS 2007 - Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems Volume HCI June 12-16, 2007, Funchal, Portugal. pp. 282-285.

 
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Wagner, Daniel, Barakonyi, Istvan, Billinghurst, Mark and MacIntyre, Blair (2007): Tutorial 5: Handheld Augmented Reality. In: Sherman, William R., Lin, Ming C. and Steed, Anthony (eds.) IEEE Virtual Reality Conference, VR 2007 10-14 March, 2007, Charlotte, NC, USA. p. 321.

2006
 
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Hauber, Jorg, Regenbrecht, Holger, Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (2006): Spatiality in videoconferencing: trade-offs between efficiency and social presence. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 413-422.

In this paper, we explore ways to combine the video of a remote person with a shared tabletop display to best emulate face-to-face collaboration. Using a simple photo application we compare a variety of social and performance measures of collaboration of a standard non-spatial 2D interface with two approaches for adding spatial cues to videoconferencing: one based on simulated immersive 3D, the other based on video streams in a physically fixed arrangement around an interactive table. A face-to-face condition is included as a 'gold-standard' control. As expected, social presence and task measures were superior in the face-to-face condition, but there were also important differences between the 2D and spatial interfaces. In particular, the spatial interfaces positively influenced social presence and copresence measures in comparison to 2D, but the task measures favored the two-dimensional interface.

© All rights reserved Hauber et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sodnik, Jaka, Tomazic, Saso, Grasset, Raphael, Duenser, Andreas and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Spatial sound localization in an augmented reality environment. In: Kjeldskov, Jesper and Paay, Jane (eds.) Proceedings of OZCHI06, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 111-118.

Augmented Reality (AR), the overlay of virtual images onto the real world, is an increasingly popular technique for developing new human-computer interfaces. As human navigation and orientation in different environments depend on both visual and auditory information, sound plays a very important role in AR applications. In this paper we explore users' capability to localize a spatial sound (registered with a virtual object) in an AR environment, under different spatial configurations of the virtual scene. The results not only confirm several previous findings on sound localization, but also point out some important new visual-audio cues which should be taken into consideration for effective localization and orientation in AR environment. Finally, this paper provides tentative guidelines for adding spatial sound to AR environments.

© All rights reserved Sodnik et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Waldner, Manuela, Hauber, Jorg, Zauner, Jrgen, Haller, Michael and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Tangible tiles: design and evaluation of a tangible user interface in a collaborative tabletop setup. In: Kjeldskov, Jesper and Paay, Jane (eds.) Proceedings of OZCHI06, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 151-158.

In this paper we describe a tangible user interface "Tangible Tiles", which uses optically tracked transparent plexiglass tiles for interaction and display of projected imagery on a table or whiteboard. We designed and implemented a number of interaction techniques based on two sets of different tiles, which either directly represent digital objects or function as tools for data manipulation. To discover the strengths and weaknesses of our current prototype, we conducted a user study that compared simple interaction with digital imagery in three conditions: 1) our Tangible Tiles system, 2) a commercial touch screen, and 3) a control condition using real paper prints. Although we discovered some conceptual problems, the results show potential benefits of Tangible Tiles for supporting collaboration and natural interaction.

© All rights reserved Waldner et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hampshire, Alastair, Seichter, Hartmut, Grasset, Raphael and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Augmented reality authoring: generic context from programmer to designer. In: Kjeldskov, Jesper and Paay, Jane (eds.) Proceedings of OZCHI06, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 409-412.

Developing an Augmented Reality (AR) application is usually a long and non-intuitive task. Few methodologies address this problem and tools implementing these are limited or non-existent. To date there is no efficient and easy development tool tailored to the needs of Mixed Reality (MR). We are presenting an initial taxonomy of MR applications, addressing the different levels of abstraction for defining the relation between real and virtual world. We then demonstrate some development approaches and describe tools and libraries that we implemented in order to illustrate aspects of our authoring taxonomy. Finally, we provide a definition addressing the requirements for new generation of AR rapid application development (RAD) tools based on actual implementations.

© All rights reserved Hampshire et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Jurgens, Volkert, Cockburn, Andy and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Depth cues for augmented reality stakeout. In: Proceedings of CHINZ06, the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 2006. pp. 117-124.

We present the results of a study that compares a range of depth cues for an augmented reality (AR) stakeout application. AR stakeout is the process of placing a real pole on a virtual marker on the ground. Such an application is for example relevant for construction work or surveying. In AR stakeout, interaction takes place at a distance of about 2m from the eye; a distance that has been neglected by AR depth perception research. We compared the performance of six different AR depth cue conditions at two different accuracy requirements. Subjective preferences were strongly in favour of "cast circle", a depth cue introduced in this paper, while there was no significant difference in performance between the conditions. An analysis of the movement patterns indicated that the participants' targeting strategy relied on kinesthetic rather than visual feedback. These movement patterns provide a vantage point for future strategies of targeting support.

© All rights reserved Jurgens et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Gough, Christiaan A. D'H, Green, Richard and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Accounting for user familiarity in user interfaces. In: Proceedings of CHINZ06, the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 2006. pp. 137-138.

Previous work discussed a model of cognitive distance with the novel concepts of "tech bias", "velocity" and "inertia". This paper presents a revised version of the model of human factors involved, and describes a pilot study that suggests the model presented allows for a very high degree of confidence in predicting the effect a user's familiarity with a problem domain and specific implementation will have on their perception of the directness of the user interface.

© All rights reserved Gough et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grasset, Raphael, Looser, Julian and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Transitional interface: concept, issues and framework. In: Fifth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality - ISMAR 2006 October 22-25, 2006, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. pp. 231-232.

 
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Irawati, Sylvia, Green, Scott, Billinghurst, Mark, Dnser, Andreas and Ko, Heedong (2006): "Move the couch where?" : developing an augmented reality multimodal interface. In: Fifth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality - ISMAR 2006 October 22-25, 2006, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. pp. 183-186.

 
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Wagner, Daniel, Billinghurst, Mark and Schmalstieg, Dieter (2006): How real should virtual characters be?. In: Ishii, Hiroshi, Lee, Newton, Natkin, Stphane and Tsushima, Katsuhide (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2006 June 14-16, 2006, Hollywood, California, USA. p. 57.

 
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Jeon, Seokhee, Hwang, Jane, Kim, Gerard Jounghyun and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Interaction techniques in large display environments using hand-held devices. In: Slater, Mel, Kitamura, Yoshifumi, Tal, Ayellet, Amditis, Angelos and Chrysanthou, Yiorgos (eds.) VRST 2006 - Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Virtual Reality Software and Technology November 1-3, 2006, Limassol, Cyprus. pp. 100-103.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark and Henrysson, Anders (2006): Research Directions in Handheld AR. In IJVR, 5 (2) pp. 51-58.

 
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Regenbrecht, Holger, Haller, Michael, Hauber, Jorg and Billinghurst, Mark (2006): Carpeno: interfacing remote collaborative virtual environments with table-top interaction. In Virtual Reality, 10 (2) pp. 95-107.

2005
 
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Bucolo, Sam, Billinghurst, Mark and Sickinger, David (2005): Mobile maze: a comparison of camera based mobile game human interfaces. In: Proceedings of 7th conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2005. pp. 329-330.

This paper presents the findings of a comparative study investigating different input interfaces for a mobile phone games application. A standard mobile phone joystick interface is compared with a phone camera interface to detect the phone translation and tilt to control a ball's movement within various levels of difficulty of a virtual maze game. Results indicate that the joystick control provided the fastest completion times for each game, but with the lowest levels of user engagement. The Tilt interface, although perceived as challenging by the participants, provided the greatest level of user involvement, independent of game complexity. The design of appropriate human interfaces which go beyond the standard phone keypad is suggested.

© All rights reserved Bucolo et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Farbiz, Farzam, Cheok, Adrian David, Wei, Liu, Ying, Zhou Zhi, Ke, Xu, Prince, Simon, Billinghurst, Mark and Kato, Hirokazu (2005): Live 3-dimensional content for augmented reality. In IEEE Transaction of Multimedia, 7 (3) .

 
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Grasset, Raphael, Lamb, Philip and Billinghurst, Mark (2005): Evaluation of Mixed-Space Collaboration. In: Fourth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2005 5-8 October, 2005, Vienna, Austria. pp. 90-99.

 
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Grasset, Raphael, Looser, Julian and Billinghurst, Mark (2005): A Step Towards a Multimodal AR Interface: A New Handheld Device for 3D Interaction. In: Fourth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2005 5-8 October, 2005, Vienna, Austria. pp. 206-207.

 
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Henrysson, Anders, Billinghurst, Mark and Ollila, Mark (2005): Face to Face Collaborative AR on Mobile Phones. In: Fourth IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2005 5-8 October, 2005, Vienna, Austria. pp. 80-89.

 
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Bucolo, Sam, Billinghurst, Mark and Sickinger, David (2005): Mobile maze: a comparison of camera based mobile game human interfaces. In: Tscheligi, Manfred, Bernhaupt, Regina and Mihalic, Kristijan (eds.) Proceedings of the 7th Conference on Human-Computer Interaction with Mobile Devices and Services - Mobile HCI 2005 September 19-22, 2005, Salzburg, Austria. pp. 329-330.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark (ed.) MUM 2005 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia December 8-10, 2005, Christchurch, New Zealand.

 
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Bucolo, Sam, Billinghurst, Mark and Sickinger, David (2005): User experiences with mobile phone camera game interfaces. In: Billinghurst, Mark (ed.) MUM 2005 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia December 8-10, 2005, Christchurch, New Zealand. pp. 87-94.

 
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Henrysson, Anders, Ollila, Mark and Billinghurst, Mark (2005): Mobile phone based AR scene assembly. In: Billinghurst, Mark (ed.) MUM 2005 - Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Mobile and Ubiquitous Multimedia December 8-10, 2005, Christchurch, New Zealand. pp. 95-102.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (eds.) AUIC 2005 - User Interfaces 2005 - Sixth Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2005, Newcastle, NSW, Australia.

 
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Buchmann, Volkert, Nilsen, Trond and Billinghurst, Mark (2005): Interaction With Partially Transparent Hands And Objects. In: Billinghurst, Mark and Cockburn, Andy (eds.) AUIC 2005 - User Interfaces 2005 - Sixth Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2005, Newcastle, NSW, Australia. pp. 17-20.

 
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Lee, Gun A., Kim, Gerard Jounghyun and Billinghurst, Mark (2005): Immersive authoring: What You eXperience Is What You Get (WYXIWYG). In Communications of the ACM, 48 (7) pp. 76-81.

2004
 
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Schmidt, Albrecht, Gross, Tom and Billinghurst, Mark (2004): Introduction to Special Issue on Context-Aware Computing in CSCW. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 13 (3) pp. 221-222.

 
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Kato, Hirokazu and Billinghurst, Mark (2004): Developing AR Applications with ARToolKit. In: 3rd IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2004 2-5 November, 2004, Arlington, VA, USA. p. 305.

 
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Lee, Gun A., Nelles, Claudia, Billinghurst, Mark and Kim, Gerard Jounghyun (2004): Immersive Authoring of Tangible Augmented Reality Applications. In: 3rd IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2004 2-5 November, 2004, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 172-181.

 
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Hauber, Jorg, Billinghurst, Mark and Regenbrecht, Holger (2004): Tangible Teleconferencing. In: Masoodian, Masood, Jones, Steve and Rogers, Bill (eds.) Computer Human Interaction 6th Asia Pacific Conference - APCHI 2004 June 29 - July 2, 2004, Rotorua, New Zealand. pp. 143-152.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark (2004): Introduction to Augmented Reality. In: IEEE Virtual Reality Conference 2004 VR 2004 27-31 March, 2004, Chicago, IL, USA. p. 266.

2003
 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Belcher, Daniel, Gupta, Arnab and Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi (2003): Communication Behaviors in Colocated Collaborative AR Interfaces. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 16 (3) pp. 395-423.

The authors present an analysis of communication behavior in face-to-face collaboration using a multi-user augmented reality (AR) interface. 2 experiments were conducted. In the 1st experiment, collaboration with AR technology was compared with more traditional unmediated and screen-based collaboration. In the 2nd experiment, the authors compared collaboration with 3 different AR displays. Several measures were used to analyze communication behavior, and the authors found that users exhibited many of the same behaviors in a collaborative AR interface as in face-to-face unmediated collaboration. However, user communication behavior changed with the type of AR display used. The authors describe implications of these results for the design of collaborative AR interfaces and directions for future research.

© All rights reserved Billinghurst et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Belcher, Daniel, Billinghurst, Mark, Hayes, Sean and Stiles, Randy (2003): Using Augmented Reality for Visualizing Complex Graphs in Three Dimensions. In: 2003 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2003 7-10 October, 2003, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 84-92.

 
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Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi, Billinghurst, Mark, Campbell, Bruce and Woods, Eric (2003): An Occlusion-Capable Optical See-through Head Mount Display for Supporting Co-located Collaboration. In: 2003 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2003 7-10 October, 2003, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 133-141.

 
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Reitmayr, Gerhard, Billinghurst, Mark and Schmalstieg, Dieter (2003): WireAR-Legacy Applications in Augmented Reality. In: 2003 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2003 7-10 October, 2003, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 331-332.

2002
 
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Prince, Simon, Cheok, Adrian David, Farbiz, Farzam, Williamson, Todd, Johnson, Nik, Billinghurst, Mark and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): 3-D live: real time interaction for mixed reality. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 364-371.

We describe a real-time 3-D augmented reality video-conferencing system. With this technology, an observer sees the real world from his viewpoint, but modified so that the image of a remote collaborator is rendered into the scene. We register the image of the collaborator with the world by estimating the 3-D transformation between the camera and a fiducial marker. We describe a novel shape-from-silhouette algorithm, which generates the appropriate view of the collaborator and the associated depth map at 30 fps. When this view is superimposed upon the real world, it gives the strong impression that the collaborator is a real part of the scene. We also demonstrate interaction in virtual environments with a "live" fully 3-D collaborator. Finally, we consider interaction between users in the real world and collaborators in a virtual space, using a "tangible" AR interface.

© All rights reserved Prince et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Gordon, Gaile G., Billinghurst, Mark, Bell, Melanie, Woodfill, John, Kowalik, Bill, Erendi, Alex and Tilander, Janet (2002): The Use of Dense Stereo Range Data in Augmented Reality. In: 2002 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2002 30 September-1 October, 2002, Darmstadt, Germany. pp. 14-.

 
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Cheok, Adrian David, Weihua, Wang, Yang, Xubo, Prince, Simon, Wan, Fong Siew, Billinghurst, Mark and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): Interactive Theatre Experience in Embodied + Wearable Mixed Reality Space. In: 2002 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2002 30 September-1 October, 2002, Darmstadt, Germany. pp. 59-68.

 
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Cheok, Adrian David, Weihua, Wang, Yang, Xubo, Prince, Simon, Wan, Fong Siew, Billinghurst, Mark and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): Interactive Theatre Experience in Embodied + Wearable Mixed Reality Space. In: 2002 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2002 30 September-1 October, 2002, Darmstadt, Germany. p. 317.

 
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Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi, Billinghurst, Mark, Hayes, Sean, Gupta, Anoop, Sannohe, Yuki and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): Communication Behaviors of Co-Located Users in Collaborative AR Interfaces. In: 2002 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2002 30 September-1 October, 2002, Darmstadt, Germany. pp. 139-148.

 
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Prince, Simon, Cheok, Adrian David, Farbiz, Farzam, Williamson, Todd, Johnson, Nikolas, Billinghurst, Mark and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): 3D Live: Real Time Captured Content for Mixed Reality. In: 2002 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2002 30 September-1 October, 2002, Darmstadt, Germany. pp. 7-13.

 
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Prince, Simon, Cheok, Adrian David, Farbiz, Farzam, Williamson, Todd, Johnson, Nikolas, Billinghurst, Mark and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): 3D Live: Real Time Captured Content for Mixed Reality. In: 2002 IEEE and ACM International Symposium on Mixed and Augmented Reality ISMAR 2002 30 September-1 October, 2002, Darmstadt, Germany. p. 317.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark (2002): editorial: Special Issue on Wearable Computing. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6 (1) pp. 1-2.

 
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Cheok, Adrian David, Yang, Xubo, Zhou, ZhiYing, Billinghurst, Mark and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): Touch-Space: Mixed Reality Game Space Based on Ubiquitous, Tangible, and Social Computing. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 6 (5) pp. 430-442.

 
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Poupyrev, Ivan, Tan, Desney S., Billinghurst, Mark, Kato, Hirokazu, Regenbrecht, Holger and Tetsutani, Nobuji (2002): Developing a Generic Augmented-Reality Interface. In IEEE Computer, 35 (3) pp. 44-50.

 
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Hedley, Nicholas R., Billinghurst, Mark, Postner, Lori, May, Richard and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): Explorations in the Use of Augmented Reality for Geographic Visualization. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11 (2) pp. 119-133.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): Collaborative augmented reality. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (7) pp. 64-70.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Kato, Hirokazu, Kiyokawa, Kiyoshi, Belcher, Daniel and Poupyrev, Ivan (2002): Experiments with Face-To-Face Collaborative AR Interfaces. In Virtual Reality, 6 (3) pp. 107-121.

 
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Bowman, Doug A. and Billinghurst, Mark (2002): Introduction. In Virtual Reality, 6 (3) pp. 105-106.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark and Schmalstieg, Dieter (2002): Tutorial 2: Developing Augmented Reality Applications. In: VR 2002 2002. pp. 300-.

 
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Mania, Katerina, Ellis, Stephen R., Billinghurst, Mark and Steed, Anthony (2002): Tutorial 1: Usability Evaluation Techniques for Virtual Reality Technologies. In: VR 2002 2002. pp. 299-.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Cheok, Adrian David, Prince, Simon and Kato, Hirokazu (2002): Real World Teleconferencing. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 22 (6) pp. 11-13.

2001
 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Kato, H. and Poupyrev, Ivan (2001): Collaboration With Tangible Augmented Reality Interfaces. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 797-801.

 
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Poupyrev, Ivan, Berry, R., Billinghurst, Mark, Kato, H., Nakao, K., Baldwin, L. and Kurumisawa, J. (2001): Augmented Reality Interface for Electronic Music Performance. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 805-808.

 
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Kato, H., Billinghurst, Mark, Morinaga, K. and Tachibana, K. (2001): The Effect of Spatial Cues in Augmented Reality Video Conferencing. In: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2001. pp. 478-481.

 
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Poupyrev, Ivan, Tan, Desney S., Billinghurst, Mark, Kato, H., Regenbrecht, H. and Tetsutani, N. (2001): Tiles: A Mixed Reality Authoring Interface. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 334-341.

 
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Ellis, Stephen R., Mania, Katerina, Chalmers, Alan, Billinghurst, Mark and Steed, Anthony (2001): Tutorial 4: Usability Evaluation Techniques for Virtual Reality Technologies. In: VR 2001 2001. p. 310.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Kato, Hirokazu and Poupyrev, Ivan (2001): The MagicBook?Moving Seamlessly between Reality and Virtuality. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 21 (3) pp. 6-8.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Kato, Hirokazu and Poupyrev, Ivan (2001): The MagicBook: a transitional AR interface. In Computers & Graphics, 25 (5) pp. 745-753.

1999
 
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Cassell, Justine, Bickmore, Timothy, Billinghurst, Mark, Campbell, L., Chang, K., Vilhjlmsson, Hannes and Yan, H. (1999): Embodiment in Conversational Interfaces: Rea. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 520-527.

In this paper, we argue for embodied conversational characters as the logical extension of the metaphor of human-computer interaction as a conversation. We argue that the only way to fully model the richness of human face-to-face communication is to rely on conversational analysis that describes sets of conversational behaviors as fulfilling conversational functions, both interactional and propositional. We demonstrate how to implement this approach in Rea, an embodied conversational agent that is capable of both multimodal input understanding and output generation in a limited application domain. Rea supports both social and task-oriented dialogue. We discuss issues that need to be addressed in creating embodied conversational agents, and describe the architecture of the Rea interface.

© All rights reserved Cassell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Bowskill, J., Jessop, M. and Morphett, Jason (1999): Spatial Conferencing Using a Wearable Computer. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 3 (1) .

 
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Billinghurst, Mark and Starner, Thad (1999): Wearable Devices: New Ways to Manage Information. In IEEE Computer, 32 (1) pp. 57-64.

1998
 
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Poupyrev, Ivan, Weghorst, Suzanne, Billinghurst, Mark and Ichikawa, Tadao (1998): Egocentric Object Manipulation in Virtual Environments: Evaluation of Interaction Techniques. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 17 (3) pp. 41-52.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Bowskill, Jerry, Dyer, Nick and Morphett, Jason (1998): Spatial Information Displays on a Wearable Computer. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 18 (6) pp. 24-31.

1997
 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Baldis, Sisinio, Miller, Edward and Weghorst, Suzanne (1997): Shared Space: Collaborative Information Spaces. In: Salvendy, Gavriel, Smith, Michael J. and Koubek, Richard J. (eds.) HCI International 1997 - Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 1 August 24-29, 1997, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 7-10.

 
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Billinghurst, Mark, Baldis, Sisinio, Matheson, Lydia and Philips, Mark (1997): 3D palette: a virtual reality content creation tool. In: VRST 1997 1997. pp. 155-156.

 
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Poupyrev, Ivan, Weghorst, Suzanne, Billinghurst, Mark and Ichikawa, Tadao (1997): A framework and testbed for studying manipulation techniques for immersive VR. In: VRST 1997 1997. pp. 21-28.

1996
 
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Poupyrev, Ivan, Billinghurst, Mark, Weghorst, Suzanne and Ichikawa, Tadao (1996): The Go-Go Interaction Technique: Non-Linear Mapping for Direct Manipulation in VR. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 79-80.

The Go-Go immersive interaction technique uses the metaphor of interactively growing the user's arm and non-linear mapping for reaching and manipulating distant objects. Unlike others, our technique allows for seamless direct manipulation of both nearby objects and those at a distance.

© All rights reserved Poupyrev et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

3D User Interfaces: [/encyclopedia/3d_user_interfaces.html]


 
 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/mark_billinghurst.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1996-2012
Pub. count:92
Number of co-authors:159



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Hirokazu Kato:16
Ivan Poupyrev:10
Adrian David Cheok:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Mark Billinghurst's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Carl Gutwin:116
Albrecht Schmidt:111
Dieter Schmalstieg:86
 
 
 

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