Publication statistics

Pub. period:1981-2014
Pub. count:39
Number of co-authors:51



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Robert Spence:9
Ying K. Leung:4
Masood Masoodian:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Mark Apperley's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ian H. Witten:82
Ernest Edmonds:63
John C. Grundy:44
 
 
 

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Mark Apperley

Picture of Mark Apperley.
Update pic
Has also published under the name of:
"Mark D. Apperley"

Personal Homepage:
cs.waikato.ac.nz/genquery.php?linklevel=4&linklist=CS&linkname=A_to_I&linktype=report&listby=Name&foldername=A_to_I&reportdb=People&report=People&where=Department%20=%20'Computer%20Science'%20&&%20Type%20!=%20'Postgraduate'%20&&%20(Last_Name%20


Current place of employment:
University of Waikato

Mark Apperley has been working in the field of HCI for more than 30 years. In the 1970's he worked on the MINNIE interactive CACD system with Bob Spence, pioneering a range of interaction and information visualisation techniques, including dynamic exploration and percent done indicators. Also with Bob Spence he devised the bifocal display (1980) and the Lean Cuisine notation for menu description (1988). He has also carried out research on systems supporting collaborative work, and on techniques for large screen interaction. More recently his attention has focussed on energy management, including visualisation, human interaction, and system modelling. Mark is Professor of Computer Science at the University of Waikato, Hamilton, New Zealand.

 

Publications by Mark Apperley (bibliography)

 what's this?
2014

Spence, Robert and Apperley, Mark (2013): Bifocal Display. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html

 Cited in the following chapter:

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
2010
 
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Monigatti, Paul, Apperley, Mark and Rogers, Bill (2010): Power and energy visualization for the micro-management of household electricity consumption. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 325-328

The paper describes a pilot system for the detailed management of domestic electricity consumption aimed at minimizing demand peaks and consumer cost. Management decisions are made both interactively by consumers themselves, and where practical, automatically by computer. These decisions are based on realtime pricing and availability information, as well as current and historic usage data. The benefits of the energy strategies implied by such a system are elaborated, showing the potential for significant peak demand reduction and slowing of the need for growth in generation capacity. An overview is provided of the component technologies and interaction methods we have designed, but the paper focuses on the communication of real-time information to the consumer through a combination of specific and ambient visualizations. There is a need for both overview information (eg how much power is being used right now; how much energy have we used so far today; what does it cost?) and information at the point-of-use (is it OK to turn this dryer on now, or should I wait until later?). To assist the design of these visualizations, a survey is underway aimed at establishing people's understanding of power and energy concepts.

© All rights reserved Monigatti et al. and/or their publisher

2007
 
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Plimmer, Beryl and Apperley, Mark (2007): Making paperless work. In: Proceedings of CHINZ07, the ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapters International Conference on Computer-Human Interaction 1-4 July 2007, 2007, Hamilton, New Zealand. pp. 1-8. Available online

Despite well documented advantages, attempts to go truly "paperless" seldom succeed. This is principally because computer-based paperless systems typically do not support all of the affordances of paper, nor the work process that have evolved with paper-based systems. We suggest that attention to users' work environments, activities and practices are critical to the success of paperless systems. This paper describes the development and effective utilization of a software tool for the paperless marking of student assignments which does not require users to compromise on established best practice. It includes a significant advance in the task management support.

© All rights reserved Plimmer and Apperley and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Plimmer, Beryl and Apperley, Mark (2003): Software to Sketch Interface Designs. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 73.

 
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Apperley, Mark, Carter, P., Churcher, C., Cockburn, A., Jones, M., Lobb, B., Novins, K., Phillips, C. and Wong, W. (2003): State of the Art: HCI in New Zealand. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 1079.

 
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Apperley, Mark, McLeod, Laurie and Masoodian, Masood (2003): Use of Video Shadow for Small Group Interaction Awareness on a Large Interactive Display Surface. In: Biddle, Robert and Thomas, Bruce H. (eds.) AUIC2003 - User Interfaces 2003 - Fourth Australasian User Interface Conference February , 2003, Adelaide, South Australia. pp. 81-90. Available online

2002
 
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Apperley, Mark, Fletcher, Dale and Rogers, Bill (2002): The stretchable selection tool: an alternative to copy and paste. In Interacting with Computers, 14 (3) pp. 195-209.

Copy and paste, or cut and paste, using a clipboard or paste buffer is the principal facility provided to users for transferring data between and within application software. This mechanism is clumsy to use where several pieces of information must be moved systematically, for example, when filling a form or building a table. We present an alternative, more natural user interface facility to make the task less onerous, and to provide improved visual feedback. Our mechanism -- the stretchable selection tool (SST) -- is a semi-transparent overlay augmenting the mouse pointer to automate paste operations and provide information to prompt the user. Two prototype implementations are described, one of which functions in a collaborative software environment allowing users to cooperate on multiple copy/paste operations. We also present the results of an informal user evaluation contrasting the SST with traditional cut and paste, and with another multiple copy/paste system.

© All rights reserved Apperley et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Apperley, Mark and Plimmer, Beryl (2002): Computer-Aided Sketching to Capture Preliminary Design. In: Grundy, John C. and Calder, Paul R. (eds.) AUIC2002 - User Interfaces 2002 - Third Australasian User Interface Conference January-February, 2002, Melbourne, Victoria. pp. 9-12. Available online

2001
 
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Apperley, Mark, Spence, Robert and Wittenburg, Kent (2001): Selecting One from Many: The Development of a Scalable Visualization Tool. In: HCC 2001 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments September 5-7, 2001, Stresa, Italy. pp. 366-372. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Apperley, Mark, Cunningham, Sally Jo, Keegan, Te Taka and Witten, Ian H. (2001): NIUPEPA: a historical newspaper collection. In Communications of the ACM, 44 (5) pp. 86-87. Available online

2000
 
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Apperley, Mark, Fletcher, Dale, Rogers, Bill and Thomson, Kirsten (2000): Interactive Visualisation of a Travel Itinerary. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 221-226.

 
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Apperley, Mark, Fletcher, Dale and Rogers, William J. (2000): Breaking the Copy/Paste Cycle: The Stretchable Selection Tool. In: AUIC 2000 - 1st Australasian User Interface Conference 31 January - 3 February, 2000, Canberra, Australia. pp. 3-10. Available online

1999
 
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Witten, Ian H., McNab, Rodger J., Jones, Steve, Apperley, Mark, Bainbridge, David and Cunningham, Sally Jo (1999): Managing Complexity in a Distributed Digital Library. In IEEE Computer, 32 (2) pp. 74-79.

1998
 
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Grundy, John C., Apperley, Mark, Hosking, John G. and Mugridge, Warwick B. (1998): A Decentralized Architecture for Software Process Modeling and Enactment. In IEEE Internet Computing, 2 (5) pp. 53-62.

1995
 
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Leung, Ying K., Spence, Robert and Apperley, Mark (1995): Applying Bifocal Displays to Topological Maps. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (1) pp. 79-98.

Presentation techniques for topological networks can be broadly classified as distortion-oriented and nondistortion-oriented. Although there has been a growing interest in applying various distortion-oriented techniques, the application of an earlier example, the bifocal display, has so far been underexploited. This article describes a number of human-computer interface techniques potentially relevant to the presentation and navigation of topological networks associated with transport systems, and describes a preliminary experimental study of a number of techniques for presenting the London Underground map as part of a real-time information system for travelers.

© All rights reserved Leung et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Masoodian, Masood, Apperley, Mark and Frederickson, Lesley (1995): Video Support for Shared Work-Space Interaction: An Empirical Study. In Interacting with Computers, 7 (3) pp. 237-253.

A study has been carried out to identify the effects of different human-to-human communication modes on dyadic computer supported group work. A pilot study evaluated an available shared work-space software system, supplemented by face-to-face, telephone-based, and text-based communication modes between the two users. The findings from this study were then used to design an extensive experiment to explore the relative impact of face-to-face, full-motion video, slow-motion video, and audio-only communication modes when used in conjunction with this type of CSCW system. This paper describes the experiments, and examines the findings of this empirical study with the aim of establishing the importance of co-presence in CSCW, and the effectiveness of these various communication modes in achieving it.

© All rights reserved Masoodian et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Grundy, John, Mugridge, Warwicj, Hosking, John and Apperley, Mark (1995): Coordinating, Capturing and Presenting Work Contexts in CSCW Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI95, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1995. pp. 146-151.

Large Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) systems require both high level work coordination mechanisms and low level asynchronous and synchronous editing capabilities. We describe an architecture supporting flexible, user-defined work coordination mechanisms, fully integrated with work artefacts. Users define and work within task contexts. When artefacts change, descriptions of the changes are automatically annotated with task context-dependent information. This contextual information is presented (at a suitable level of abstraction) to interested users facilitating coordination between collaborative workers. We illustrate the use of this architecture in a collaborative software engineering environment.

© All rights reserved Grundy et al. and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia

1994
 
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Leung, Y. W. and Apperley, Mark (1994): A Review and Taxonomy of Distortion-Oriented Presentation Techniques. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1 (2) pp. 126-160. Available online

One of the common problems associated with large computer-based information systems is the relatively small window through which an information space can be viewed. Increasing interest in recent years has been focused on the development of distortion-oriented presentation techniques to address this problem. However, the growing number of new terminologies and techniques developed have caused considerable confusion to the graphical user interface designer, consequently making the comparison of these presentation techniques and generalization of empirical results of experiments with them very difficult, if not impossible. This article provides a taxonomy of distortion-oriented techniques which demonstrates clearly their underlying relationships. A unified theory is presented to reveal their roots and origins. Issues relating to the implementation and performance of these techniques are also discussed.

© All rights reserved Leung and Apperley and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Lyons, P. J., Apperley, Mark, Bishop, A. G. and Moretii, G. S. (1994): Active Templates: Manipulating Pointers with Pictures. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1994. pp. 93-98.

Active templates are a semi-automatic visual mechanism for generating algorithms for manipulating pointer-based data structures. The programmer creates a picture showing the affected part of a data structure before and after a general-case manipulation. Code for the operation is compiled directly from the picture, which also provides the development environment with enough information to generate, automatically, a series of templates for other similar pictures, each describing a different configuration which the data structure may possess. The programmer completes the algorithm by creating matching after-pictures for each of these cases. At every stage, most of the picture-generation is automatic. Much of the tedious detail of conventional pointer-based data-structure manipulation, such as maintenance of current pointers, is unnecessary in a system based on active templates.

© All rights reserved Lyons et al. and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia

 
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Duncan, Stephen and Apperley, Mark (1994): A Graphical Methodology for the Design and Implementation of Hypertext Based Information Systems. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1994. pp. 161-166.

The hypertext author is concerned with the conceptualisation, visualisation, and validation of the structure encapsulated within a hypertext based information resource. There is a need for software tools to aid in the development of hypertext information systems because of a continuing trend for authors of corporate and educational information resources to be unfamiliar with traditional software engineering practices. This paper introduces a graphical notation and methodology that aids in the creation of modern information resources, with benefits for both the hyperdocument creator and reader in terms of structural clarity, ease of navigation, and management of the design and implementation task.

© All rights reserved Duncan and Apperley and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia

 
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Masoodian, Masood, Apperley, Mark and Frederikson, Lesley (1994): The Impact of Human-to-Human Communication Modes in CSCW Environments. In: Proceedings of OZCHI94, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1994. pp. 193-199.

A study has been carried out to identify the effects of different human-to-human communication modes on dyadic computer supported group work. A pilot study evaluated an available shared work-space software system, supplemented by face-to-face, telephone-based, and text-based communication modes between the two users. The findings from this study have then been used to design an extensive experiment to explore the relative impact of face-to-face, full motion video, slow motion video, and audio only communication modes when used in conjunction with this type of CSCW system. This paper describes the experiments, and examines the findings of this empirical study with the aim of establishing the importance of co-presence in CSCW, and the effectiveness of these various communication modes in achieving it.

© All rights reserved Masoodian et al. and/or Ergonomics Society of Australia

1993
 
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Apperley, Mark and Phillips, Chris (1993): Human-Computer Interaction Research at Massey University, New Zealand. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 244-245. Available online

 
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Leung, Ying K. and Apperley, Mark (1993): Extending the Perspective Wall. In: Proceedings of OZCHI93, the CHISIG Annual Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 110-120.

A visualisation tool for data with a linear hierarchical structure, known as the Perspective Wall, was proposed by a group of researchers at Xerox PARC at the CHI '91 conference. This paper explains the concept of the Perspective Wall and contrasts it with an earlier approach, the Bifocal Display. It then highlights the problems associated with the implementation of the Perspective Wall and suggests two directions for improvement. One proposal, which can be adequately implemented using currently available technology, is to extend the Bifocal Display; for systems with more computational resources, Trifocal and Quadfocal Displays are also practical. Another proposal, the Perspective Space, which is proposed as an extension of the Perspective Wall, would provide the user with a realistic 3D feel in visualising very large data spaces.

© All rights reserved Leung and Apperley and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Leung, Ying K. and Apperley, Mark (1993): A Taxonomy of Distortion-Oriented Techniques for Graphical Data Presentation. In: Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1993. pp. 104-109.

In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the development of distortion-oriented presentation techniques for large scale information systems. Conflicting terminologies and principles in this area have given rise to confusion amongst interface designers. This paper presents a taxonomy of these graphical techniques. It highlights their differences and similarities, enabling sensible comparisons and selections to be made.

© All rights reserved Leung and Apperley and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Leung, Ying K. and Apperley, Mark (1993): E{cubed}: Towards the Metrication of Graphical Presentation Techniques for Large Data Sets. In: East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Proceedings of the EWHCI93 1993. pp. 9-26.

Rapid advances in communications and computer technologies in recent years have provided users with greater access to large volumes of data from computer-based information systems. Whilst researchers have developed many novel techniques to overcome the problems associated with the presentation and navigation of large data sets on a limited display surface, the choice of a technique in a particular application remains very subjective. This paper proposes an evaluation framework E{cubed} which aims to provide a basis for the comparison of different presentation techniques, given the nature and characteristics of the data to be presented, and the interpretation required. E{cubed} focuses on three aspects of graphical data presentation: expressiveness, efficiency, and effectiveness. This framework lays the foundation for the development of a set of metrics to facilitate an objective assessment of presentation techniques.

© All rights reserved Leung and Apperley and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Apperley, Mark and Leung, Y. K. (1993). A Unified Theory of Distortion-Oriented Presentation Techniques. Massey University

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Apperley, Mark and Leung, Y. K. (1993): A taxonomy of distortion-oriented techniques for data presentation. In: Salvendy, Gavriel and Smith, M. J. (eds.). "Advances in Human Factors/Ergonomics Vol 19B, Human-Computer Interaction: Software and Hardware Interfaces". Amsterdam, Holland: Elsevier Science Publisherspp. 105-109

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
1991
 
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Phillips, C. H. E. and Apperley, Mark (1991): Direct Manipulation Interaction Tasks: A Macintosh-Based Analysis. In Interacting with Computers, 3 (1) pp. 9-26.

Direct manipulation interfaces cover a range of interactions involving a variety of styles. An important first step in developing techniques for describing and implementing asynchronous interactive dialogues of the type found in direct manipulation environments is an understanding of the underlying interaction tasks viewed from a user perspective. This paper reviews previous attempts to classify interaction tasks, examines them in the context of the Macintosh environment and proposes a taxonomy of tasks. Particular attention is devoted to tasks involving repeated actions. It is shown that all tasks reduce to selection sub-tasks, which has implications for the types of tools and techniques needed to describe and implement direct manipulation interfaces. In particular it is suggested that the meneme model of Lean Cuisine (Apperley and Spence, 1989) which was developed in the context of menu systems, and is based on selectable representations of objects, could be extended to handle the other interactions of a direct manipulation interface.

© All rights reserved Phillips and Apperley and/or Elsevier Science

1990
 
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Spence, Robert, Apperley, Mark, Brouwer-Janse, Maddy D., Edmonds, Ernest, Kasik, David J. and Rankin, Paul (1990): Practical Interfaces to Complex Worlds. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 257-260.

 
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Field, G. E. and Apperley, Mark (1990): Context and Selective Retreat in Hierarchical Menu Structures. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 9 (2) pp. 133-146.

This paper describes an experiment to compare the use of two different forms of menu dialogue to solve a relatively complex problem. The problem involves multiple queries from a videotex database accessed by a potentially deep hierarchical set of menus. The dialogue forms compared are a standard videotex menu system and an enhanced menu system. The latter provides both additional contextual information and a means of selective, rather than incremental, retreat. Although no significant time advantage was measured, the results do demonstrate a significant improvement in navigation for the enhanced menu system and show the value of using realistic problems for this type of evaluation.

© All rights reserved Field and Apperley and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Anderson, P. S. and Apperley, Mark (1990): An Interface Prototyping System Based on Lean Cuisine. In Interacting with Computers, 2 (2) pp. 217-226.

Lean Cuisine, an interface design notation derived from a study of the behaviour of menu systems is examined as the basis for a prototyping environment for direct manipulation interfaces. By using the Seeheim model for user interface management systems to categorize the model information that can be extracted from a Lean Cuisine specification, it is shown that a description of both the action and control layers can be derived. The direct implementation of these layers from a Lean Cuisine specification is described.

© All rights reserved Anderson and Apperley and/or Elsevier Science

1989
 
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Apperley, Mark and Spence, R. (1989): Lean Cuisine: A Low-Fat Notation for Menus. In Interacting with Computers, 1 (1) pp. 43-68.

The specification, design, implementation and control of highly interactive direct manipulation dialogues is of increasing interest. However, existing techniques fall well short of the goal of isolating the design of the dialogue from the detail of its implementation. This paper closely analyses the structural characteristics of menu systems, a major component of such dialogues, and arising from this analysis proposes a new diagrammatic approach to their description. This approach is shown to be able to completely specify the details and behaviour of a system of menus from an external point of view. The parallels between this notation and the recently defined class of automata, Event-Response Systems, are discussed, demonstrating the potential for a direct implementation of an interface from this description. Further, it is suggested that the notation could be extended to cover all aspects of direct manipulation interaction.

© All rights reserved Apperley and Spence and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Colgan, L., Spence, R., Rankin, P. and Apperley, Mark (1989): Designing the "Cockpit": The Application of a Human-Centered Design Philosophy to Made Optimization Systems Accessible. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (1) pp. 92-95.

The Cockpit is an interactive graphical display of results from analogue circuit optimization. It aims to overcome circuit designers' reluctance to use optimization systems by providing them with an interface that is easy and natural to use. The Cockpit presents the user with a 3D display which can be used both as a way of navigating the complex optimization data and as an overview of optimization progress. The Cockpit development process includes user interviews and rapid simulation of the user interface on a hypermedia system.

© All rights reserved Colgan et al. and/or ACM Press

1984
 
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Apperley, Mark and Field, G. E. (1984): A Comparative Evaluation of Menu-Based Interactive Human-Computer Dialogue Techniques. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 323-328.

Menu selection is an often used type of human-computer dialogue. However, there is little data on the effectiveness, efficiency or merits of this technique. This paper describes an experiment designed to compare the utility of recently published intuitively derived techniques relating to the syntax of menu interaction with more conventional menu techniques. This experiment is a complex problem solving task which involves retrieving a number of related items from a data-base using a menu dialogue. Subjects will be presented with a task for which they must access, interpret and relate information from several different pages of a Viewdata-like database. Traversal paths and time taken to achieve the goal, are monitored, to provide data with which to assess the effectiveness of the menu syntax. It is anticipated that these results will be of significant interest to the designers of Viewdata systems, and to all people interested in human-computer interaction.

© All rights reserved Apperley and Field and/or North-Holland

1982
 
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Spence, Robert and Apperley, Mark (1982): Data Base Navigation: An Office Environment for the Professional. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 1 (1) pp. 43-54.

The potential of the computer to assist in the everyday information handling activities of professional people has received little attention. This paper proposes a number of novel facilities to produce, for his purpose, an office environment in which needed item of information can rapidly be sought and identified. It involves a new display technique which overcomes the classical "windowing" problem, and the use of natural dialogues utilizing simple actions such as pointing, gesturing, touching and spoken commands. The simple dialogue makes the scheme well suited to the professional person, who is most likely unwilling to learn complex command languages. Little disturbances to the appearance of the office need be involved.

© All rights reserved Spence and Apperley and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Apperley, Mark, Tzavaras, I. and Spence, Robert (1982): A Bifocal Display Technique for Data Presentation. In: Eurographics 82 Proceedings 1982, Amsterdam. pp. 27-43

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
1981
 
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Apperley, Mark and Spence, Robert (1981): A Professional's Interface Using the Bifocal Display. In: Proceedings of the 1981 Office Automation Conference 1981. pp. 313-315

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Apperley, Mark and Spence, Robert (1981): Database Navigation in the Office of the Future. In IEE Colloquium on Technological Developments for the Office of the Future, Digest No. 1981/55B,

 
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Apperley, Mark and Spence, Robert (1981). Focus on Information: the Office of the Professional (videotape), Imperial College Television Studio Production No. 1009. Retrieved 9 November 2010 from Imperial College Television Studio: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IaTIMhCbhFo

 
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