Publication statistics

Pub. period:1989-2011
Pub. count:103
Number of co-authors:137



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Laura Beckwith:16
Curtis R. Cook:13
Susan Wiedenbeck:12

 

 

Productive colleagues

Margaret M. Burnett's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
Mary Beth Rosson:142
Mary Czerwinski:80
 
 
 

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Margaret M. Burnett

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Has also published under the name of:
"Margaret Burnett"

Personal Homepage:
web.engr.oregonstate.edu/~burnett/

Current place of employment:
Oregon State University

Margaret Burnett is a Professor of Computer Science at the School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at Oregon State University. Her current research focuses on end-user programming, end-user software engineering, information foraging theory as applied to programming, and gender issues in those contexts. She has a long history of research in these issues and others relating to human issues of programming. She is also the principal architect of the Forms/3 and the FAR visual programming languages and, together with Gregg Rothermel, of the WYSIWYT testing methodology for end-user programmers. She was the founding project director of the EUSES Consortium, a multi-institution collaboration among Oregon State University and Carnegie Mellon, Drexel University, Pennsylvania State, University of Nebraska, University of Washington, University of Cambridge (U.K.), and IBM to help End Users Shape Effective Software.

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Publications by Margaret M. Burnett (bibliography)

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2011

Burnett, Margaret M. and Scaffidi, Christopher (2013): End-User Development. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html

 
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Gilbert, Juan E., Burnett, Margaret M., Ladner, Richard E., Rosson, Mary Beth and Davis, Janet (2011): Applying the NSF broader impacts criteria to HCI research. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 459-462

Broader impacts emerged as a major concern in a recent evaluation of the Division of Computer and Network Systems (CNS) at the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF). Evaluators found that the intellectual merit contributions from the CNS investigators were strong, but broader impacts could (and should) be improved [10]. As a result, a summit was held in Washington, D.C., to clarify and strengthen the broader impacts criteria for computing research [4]. In this SIG meeting, we will discuss the outcomes of this summit, with particular attention to broader impacts in human-computer interaction research.

© All rights reserved Gilbert et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Ko, Andrew J., Abraham, Robin, Beckwith, Laura, Blackwell, Alan, Burnett, Margaret M., Erwig, Martin, Scaffidi, Christopher, Lawrance, Joseph, Lieberman, Henry, Myers, Brad A., Rosson, Mary Beth, Rothermel, Gregg, Shaw, Mary and Wiedenbeck, Susan (2011): The State of the Art in End-User Software Engineering. In ACM Computing Surveys, 43 (3) pp. 1-44

Most programs today are written not by professional software developers, but by people with expertise in other domains working towards goals for which they need computational support. For example, a teacher might write a grading spreadsheet to save time grading, or an interaction designer might use an interface builder to test some user interface design ideas. Although these end-user programmers may not have the same goals as professional developers, they do face many of the same software engineering challenges, including understanding their requirements, as well as making decisions about design, reuse, integration, testing, and debugging. This article summarizes and classifies research on these activities, defining the area of End-User Software Engineering (EUSE) and related terminology. The article then discusses empirical research about end-user software engineering activities and the technologies designed to support them. The article also addresses several crosscutting issues in the design of EUSE tools, including the roles of risk, reward, and domain complexity, and self-efficacy in the design of EUSE tools and the potential of educating users about software engineering principles.

© All rights reserved Ko et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
2010
 
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Lawrance, Joseph, Burnett, Margaret M., Bellamy, Rachel, Bogart, Christopher and Swart, Calvin (2010): Reactive information foraging for evolving goals. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 25-34

Information foraging models have predicted the navigation paths of people browsing the web and (more recently) of programmers while debugging, but these models do not explicitly model users' goals evolving over time. We present a new information foraging model called PFIS2 that does model information seeking with potentially evolving goals. We then evaluated variants of this model in a field study that analyzed programmers' daily navigations over a seven-month period. Our results were that PFIS2 predicted users' navigation remarkably well, even though the goals of navigation, and even the information landscape itself, were changing markedly during the pursuit of information.

© All rights reserved Lawrance et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Grigoreanu, Valentina I., Burnett, Margaret M. and Robertson, George G. (2010): A strategy-centric approach to the design of end-user debugging tools. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 713-722

End-user programmers' code is notoriously buggy. This problem is amplified by the increasing complexity of end users' programs. To help end users catch errors early and reliably, we employ a novel approach for the design of end-user debugging tools: a focus on supporting end users' effective debugging strategies. This paper makes two contributions. We first demonstrate the potential of a strategy-centric approach to tool design by presenting StratCel, an add-in for Excel. Second, we show the benefits of this design approach: participants using StratCel found twice as many bugs as participants using standard Excel, they fixed four times as many bugs, and all this in only a small fraction of the time. Other contributions included: a boost in novices' debugging performance near experienced participants' improved levels, validated design guidelines, a discussion of the generalizability of this approach, and several opportunities for future research.

© All rights reserved Grigoreanu et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Cao, Jill, Riche, Yann, Wiedenbeck, Susan, Burnett, Margaret M. and Grigoreanu, Valentina (2010): End-user mashup programming: through the design lens. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1009-1018

Programming has recently become more common among ordinary end users of computer systems. We believe that these end-user programmers are not just coders but also designers, in that they interlace making design decisions with coding rather than treating them as two separate phases. To better understand and provide support for the programming and design needs of end users, we propose a design theory-based approach to look at end-user programming. Toward this end, we conducted a think-aloud study with ten end users creating a web mashup. By analyzing users' verbal and behavioral data using Schn's reflection-in-action design model and the notion of ideations from creativity literature, we discovered insights into end-user programmers' problem-solving attempts, successes, and obstacles, with accompanying implications for the design of end-user programming environments for mashups. The contribution of our work is three-fold: 1) the methodology of using a design lens to view programming, 2) evidence, through insights gained, of the usefulness of this approach, and 3) the implications themselves.

© All rights reserved Cao et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M., Ko, Andrew J., Rosson, Mary Beth, Scaffidi, Christopher and Wiedenbeck, Susan (2010): End user software engineering: CHI 2010 special interest group meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3189-3192

End users create software whenever they create, for instance, interactive web pages, games, educational simulations, or spreadsheets. Researchers are working to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to these end users to try to make their software more reliable. Unfortunately, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers who are addressing this topic with the companies that are creating and using end-user programming tools.

© All rights reserved Myers et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. (2010): Gender HCI: what about the software?. In: ACM 28th International Conference on Design of Communication 2010. p. 251

Although there has been recent investigation into how to understand and ameliorate the low representation of females in computing, there has been little research into how software itself fits into the picture. Our focus is on how supposedly gender-neutral software interacts with gender differences. Specifically, we have concentrated on software aimed at supporting users doing problem solving. For example, what if females' problem-solving effectiveness, using software such as Excel, would accelerate if the software were changed to take gender differences into account? This talk reports the investigations my students and I have conducted into whether and how software and its features affect females' and males' performance differently, and describes the beginnings of work on promising interventions that help both males and females.

© All rights reserved Burnett and/or ACM Press

 
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Fern, Xiaoli, Komireddy, Chaitanya, Grigoreanu, Valentina and Burnett, Margaret M. (2010): Mining problem-solving strategies from HCI data. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (1) p. 3

Can we learn about users' problem-solving strategies by observing their actions? This article introduces a data mining system that extracts complex behavioral patterns from logged user actions to discover users' high-level strategies. Our application domain is an HCI study aimed at revealing users' strategies in an end-user debugging task and understanding how the strategies relate to gender and to success. We cast this problem as a sequential pattern discovery problem, where user strategies are manifested as sequential behavior patterns. Problematically, we found that the patterns discovered by standard data mining algorithms were difficult to interpret and provided limited information about high-level strategies. To help interpret the patterns as strategies, we examined multiple ways of clustering the patterns into meaningful groups. This collectively led to interesting findings about users' behavior in terms of both gender differences and debugging success. These common behavioral patterns were novel HCI findings about differences in males' and females' behavior with software, and were verified by a parallel study with an independent data set on strategies. As a research endeavor into the interpretability issues faced by data mining techniques, our work also highlights important research directions for making data mining more accessible to non-data-mining experts.

© All rights reserved Fern et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. (2010): End-User Software Engineering and Why it Matters. In JOEUC, 22 (1) pp. 1-22

End-user programming has become ubiquitous, so much so that there are more end-user programmers today than there are professional programmers. End-user programming empowersbut to do what? Make really bad decisions based on really bad programs? Enter software engineerings focus on quality. Considering software quality is necessary, because there is ample evidence that the programs end users create are filled with expensive errors. In this paper, I consider what happens when we add to end-user programming environments considerations of software quality, going beyond the create a program aspect of end-user programming. I describe a philosophy to software engineering for end users, and then survey several projects in this area. A basic premise is that end-user software engineering can only succeed to the extent that it respects the fact that the user probably has little expertise or even interest in software engineering.

© All rights reserved Burnett and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Bogart, Christopher, Burnett, Margaret M., Cypher, Allen, Myers, Brad A. and Shaw, Mary (2010): Using traits of web macro scripts to predict reuse. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 21 (5) pp. 277-291

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Bogart, Christopher, Burnett, Margaret M., Douglass, Scott, Piorkowski, David and Shinsel, Amber (2010): Does My Model Work? Evaluation Abstractions of Cognitive Modelers. In: Hundhausen, Christopher D., Pietriga, Emmanuel, Diaz, Paloma and Rosson, Mary Beth (eds.) IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, VL/HCC 2010 21-25 September 2010, 2010, Legans-Madrid, Spain. pp. 49-56

 
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Kulesza, Todd, Stumpf, Simone, Burnett, Margaret M., Wong, Weng-Keen, Riche, Yann, Moore, Travis, Oberst, Ian, Shinsel, Amber and McIntosh, Kevin (2010): Explanatory Debugging: Supporting End-User Debugging of Machine-Learned Programs. In: Hundhausen, Christopher D., Pietriga, Emmanuel, Diaz, Paloma and Rosson, Mary Beth (eds.) IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, VL/HCC 2010 21-25 September 2010, 2010, Legans-Madrid, Spain. pp. 41-48

 
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Cao, Jill, Rector, Kyle, Park, Thomas H., Fleming, Scott D., Burnett, Margaret M. and Wiedenbeck, Susan (2010): A Debugging Perspective on End-User Mashup Programming. In: Hundhausen, Christopher D., Pietriga, Emmanuel, Diaz, Paloma and Rosson, Mary Beth (eds.) IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing, VL/HCC 2010 21-25 September 2010, 2010, Legans-Madrid, Spain. pp. 149-156

2009
 
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Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M., Wiedenbeck, Susan, Ko, Andrew J. and Rosson, Mary Beth (2009): End user software engineering: CHI: 2009 special interest group meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2731-2734.

End users create software whenever they write, for instance, educational simulations, spreadsheets, or dynamic e-business web applications. Researchers are working to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to these end users to try to make their software more reliable. Unfortunately, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers who are addressing this topic with the companies that are creating and using end-user programming tools.

© All rights reserved Myers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kulesza, Todd, Wong, Weng-Keen, Stumpf, Simone, Perona, Stephen, White, Rachel, Burnett, Margaret M., Oberst, Ian and Ko, Andrew J. (2009): Fixing the program my computer learned: barriers for end users, challenges for the machine. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2009. pp. 187-196.

The results of a machine learning from user behavior can be thought of as a program, and like all programs, it may need to be debugged. Providing ways for the user to debug it matters, because without the ability to fix errors users may find that the learned program's errors are too damaging for them to be able to trust such programs. We present a new approach to enable end users to debug a learned program. We then use an early prototype of our new approach to conduct a formative study to determine where and when debugging issues arise, both in general and also separately for males and females. The results suggest opportunities to make machine-learned programs more effective tools.

© All rights reserved Kulesza et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Stumpf, Simone, Rajaram, Vidya, Li, Lida, Wong, Weng-Keen, Burnett, Margaret M., Dietterich, Thomas, Sullivan, Erin and Herlocker, Jonathan (2009): Interacting meaningfully with machine learning systems: Three experiments. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (8) pp. 639-662

Although machine learning is becoming commonly used in today's software, there has been little research into how end users might interact with machine learning systems, beyond communicating simple "right/wrong" judgments. If the users themselves could work hand-in-hand with machine learning systems, the users' understanding and trust of the system could improve and the accuracy of learning systems could be improved as well. We conducted three experiments to understand the potential for rich interactions between users and machine learning systems. The first experiment was a think-aloud study that investigated users' willingness to interact with machine learning reasoning, and what kinds of feedback users might give to machine learning systems. We then investigated the viability of introducing such feedback into machine learning systems, specifically, how to incorporate some of these types of user feedback into machine learning systems, and what their impact was on the accuracy of the system. Taken together, the results of our experiments show that supporting rich interactions between users and machine learning systems is feasible for both user and machine. This shows the potential of rich human-computer collaboration via on-the-spot interactions as a promising direction for machine learning systems and users to collaboratively share intelligence.

© All rights reserved Stumpf et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. (2009): What Is End-User Software Engineering and Why Does It Matter?. In: Pipek, Volkmar, Rosson, Mary Beth, Ruyter, Boris E. R. de and Wulf, Volker (eds.) End-User Development - 2nd International Symposium - IS-EUD 2009 March 2-4, 2009, Siegen, Germany. pp. 15-28

 
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Grigoreanu, Valentina, Brundage, James, Bahna, Eric, Burnett, Margaret M., ElRif, Paul and Snover, Jeffrey (2009): Males' and Females' Script Debugging Strategies. In: Pipek, Volkmar, Rosson, Mary Beth, Ruyter, Boris E. R. de and Wulf, Volker (eds.) End-User Development - 2nd International Symposium - IS-EUD 2009 March 2-4, 2009, Siegen, Germany. pp. 205-224

 
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Neumann, Christoph, Metoyer, Ronald A. and Burnett, Margaret M. (2009): End-user strategy programming. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 20 (1) pp. 16-29

 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Bogart, Christopher, Burnett, Margaret M., Cypher, Allen, Myers, Brad A. and Shaw, Mary (2009): Predicting reuse of end-user web macro scripts. In: IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing - VL/HCC 2009 20-24 September, 2009, Corvallis, OR, USA. pp. 93-100

2008
 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Costabile, Maria Francesca, Catarci, Tiziana, Ruyter, Boris de, Tan, Desney S., Czerwinski, Mary and Lund, Arnold (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems, CHI 2008 5-10 April, 2008, Florence, Italy.

 
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Subrahmaniyan, Neeraja, Beckwith, Laura, Grigoreanu, Valentina, Burnett, Margaret M., Wiedenbeck, Susan, Narayanan, Vaishnavi, Bucht, Karin, Drummond, Russell and Fern, Xiaoli (2008): Testing vs. code inspection vs. what else?: male and female end users' debugging strategies. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 617-626.

Little is known about the strategies end-user programmers use in debugging their programs, and even less is known about gender differences that may exist in these strategies. Without this type of information, designers of end-user programming systems cannot know the "target" at which to aim, if they are to support male and female end-user programmers. We present a study investigating this issue. We asked end-user programmers to debug spreadsheets and to describe their debugging strategies. Using mixed methods, we analyzed their strategies and looked for relationships among participants' strategy choices, gender, and debugging success. Our results indicate that males and females debug in quite different ways, that opportunities for improving support for end-user debugging strategies for both genders are abundant, and that tools currently available to end-user debuggers may be especially deficient in supporting debugging strategies used by females.

© All rights reserved Subrahmaniyan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lawrance, Joseph, Bellamy, Rachel, Burnett, Margaret M. and Rector, Kyle (2008): Using information scent to model the dynamic foraging behavior of programmers in maintenance tasks. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1323-1332.

In recent years, the software engineering community has begun to study program navigation and tools to support it. Some of these navigation tools are very useful, but they lack a theoretical basis that could reduce the need for ad hoc tool building approaches by explaining what is fundamentally necessary in such tools. In this paper, we present PFIS (Programmer Flow by Information Scent), a model and algorithm of programmer navigation during software maintenance. We also describe an experimental study of expert programmers debugging real bugs described in real bug reports for a real Java application. We found that PFIS' performance was close to aggregated human decisions as to where to navigate, and was significantly better than individual programmers' decisions.

© All rights reserved Lawrance et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M., Rosson, Mary Beth, Ko, Andrew J. and Blackwell, Alan (2008): End user software engineering: chi'2008 special interest group meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2371-2374.

End users create software whenever they write, for instance, educational simulations, spreadsheets, or dynamic e-business web applications. Researchers are working to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to these end users to try to make their software more reliable. Unfortunately, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. This special interest group meeting has two purposes: to incorporate attendees' and feedback into an emerging survey of the state of this interesting new sub-area, and generally to bring together the community of researchers who are addressing this topic, with the companies that are creating end-user programming tools.

© All rights reserved Myers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Stumpf, Simone, Sullivan, Erin, Fitzhenry, Erin, Oberst, Ian, Wong, Weng-Keen and Burnett, Margaret M. (2008): Integrating rich user feedback into intelligent user interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2008. pp. 50-59.

The potential for machine learning systems to improve via a mutually beneficial exchange of information with users has yet to be explored in much detail. Previously, we found that users were willing to provide a generous amount of rich feedback to machine learning systems, and that the types of some of this rich feedback seem promising for assimilation by machine learning algorithms. Following up on those findings, we ran an experiment to assess the viability of incorporating real-time keyword-based feedback in initial training phases when data is limited. We found that rich feedback improved accuracy but an initial unstable period often caused large fluctuations in classifier behavior. Participants were able to give feedback by relying heavily on system communication in order to respond to changes. The results show that in order to benefit from the user's knowledge, machine learning systems must be able to absorb keyword-based rich feedback in a graceful manner and provide clear explanations of their predictions.

© All rights reserved Stumpf et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grigoreanu, Valentina, Cao, Jill, Kulesza, Todd, Bogart, Christopher, Rector, Kyle, Burnett, Margaret M. and Wiedenbeck, Susan (2008): Can feature design reduce the gender gap in end-user software development environments?. In: VL-HCC 2008 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 15-19 September, 2008, Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany. pp. 149-156.

 
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Bogart, Christopher, Burnett, Margaret M., Cypher, Allen and Scaffidi, Christopher (2008): End-user programming in the wild: A field study of CoScripter scripts. In: VL-HCC 2008 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 15-19 September, 2008, Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany. pp. 39-46.

 
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Subrahmaniyan, Neeraja, Burnett, Margaret M. and Bogart, Christopher (2008): Software visualization for end-user programmers: trial period obstacles. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Software Visualization 2008. pp. 135-144.

Software visualization for end-user programmers is a relatively unexplored opportunity area. There are advances in software visualization research pertinent to this, but the adoption stage has been entirely ignored. In this paper, we focus on a popular facilitator of adoption decisions: the free trial period. We conducted a case study of an end-user programmer (an accountant) in this situation, as she tried out a commercial spreadsheet visualization tool to make an adoption decision. The results have implications for both theory and design, revealing open questions, design opportunities, and strengths and weaknesses of theoretical foundations.

© All rights reserved Subrahmaniyan et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Stumpf, Simone, Rajaram, Vidya, Li, Lida, Burnett, Margaret M., Dietterich, Thomas G., Sullivan, Erin, Drummond, Russell and Herlocker, Jonathan (2007): Toward harnessing user feedback for machine learning. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2007. pp. 82-91.

There has been little research into how end users might be able to communicate advice to machine learning systems. If this resource -- the users themselves -- could somehow work hand-in-hand with machine learning systems, the accuracy of learning systems could be improved and the users' understanding and trust of the system could improve as well. We conducted a think-aloud study to see how willing users were to provide feedback and to understand what kinds of feedback users could give. Users were shown explanations of machine learning predictions and asked to provide feedback to improve the predictions. We found that users had no difficulty providing generous amounts of feedback. The kinds of feedback ranged from suggestions for reweighting of features to proposals for new features, feature combinations, relational features, and wholesale changes to the learning algorithm. The results show that user feedback has the potential to significantly improve machine learning systems, but that learning algorithms need to be extended in several ways to be able to assimilate this feedback.

© All rights reserved Stumpf et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lawrance, Joseph, Bellamy, Rachel K. E. and Burnett, Margaret M. (2007): Scents in Programs: Does Information Foraging Theory Apply to Program Maintenance?. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. pp. 15-22.

 
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Beckwith, Laura, Inman, Derek, Rector, Kyle and Burnett, Margaret M. (2007): On to the Real World: Gender and Self-Efficacy in Excel. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. pp. 119-126.

 
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Subrahmaniyan, Neeraja, Kissinger, Cory, Rector, Kyle, Inman, Derek, Kaplan, Jared, Beckwith, Laura and Burnett, Margaret M. (2007): Explaining Debugging Strategies to End-User Programmers. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. pp. 127-136.

2006
 
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Beckwith, Laura, Kissinger, Cory, Burnett, Margaret M., Wiedenbeck, Susan, Lawrance, Joseph, Blackwell, Alan and Cook, Curtis (2006): Tinkering and gender in end-user programmers' debugging. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 231-240.

Earlier research on gender effects with software features intended to help problem-solvers in end-user debugging environments has shown that females are less likely to use unfamiliar software features. This poses a serious problem because these features may be key to helping them with debugging problems. Contrasting this with research documenting males' inclination for tinkering in unfamiliar environments, the question arises as to whether encouraging tinkering with new features would help females overcome the factors, such as low self-efficacy, that led to the earlier results. In this paper, we present an experiment with males and females in an end-user debugging setting, and investigate how tinkering behavior impacts several measures of their debugging success. Our results show that the factors of tinkering, reflection, and self-efficacy, can combine in multiple ways to impact debugging effectiveness differently for males than for females.

© All rights reserved Beckwith et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Beckwith, Laura, Burnett, Margaret M., Grigoreanu, Valentina and Wiedenbeck, Susan (2006): Gender HCI: What About the Software?. In IEEE Computer, 39 (11) pp. 97-101.

 
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Lawrance, Joseph, Abraham, Robin, Burnett, Margaret M. and Erwig, Martin (2006): Sharing reasoning about faults in spreadsheets: An empirical study. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 35-42.

 
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Chintakovid, Thippaya, Wiedenbeck, Susan, Burnett, Margaret M. and Grigoreanu, Valentina (2006): Pair Collaboration in End-User Debugging. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 3-10.

 
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Grigoreanu, Valentina, Beckwith, Laura, Fern, Xiaoli Z., Yang, Sherry, Komireddy, Chaitanya, Narayanan, Vaishnavi, Cook, Curtis R. and Burnett, Margaret M. (2006): Gender Differences in End-User Debugging, Revisited: What the Miners Found. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 19-26.

 
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Kissinger, Cory, Burnett, Margaret M., Stumpf, Simone, Subrahmaniyan, Neeraja, Beckwith, Laura, Yang, Sherry and Rosson, Mary Beth (2006): Supporting end-user debugging: what do users want to know?. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 135-142.

 
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Fisher, Marc, Rothermel, Gregg, Brown, Darren, Cao, Mingming, Cook, Curtis R. and Burnett, Margaret M. (2006): Integrating automated test generation into the WYSIWYT spreadsheet testing methodology. In ACM Trans. Softw. Eng. Methodol., 15 (2) pp. 150-194

Spreadsheet languages, which include commercial spreadsheets and various research systems, have had a substantial impact on end-user computing. Research shows, however, that spreadsheets often contain faults. Thus, in previous work we presented a methodology that helps spreadsheet users test their spreadsheet formulas. Our empirical studies have shown that end users can use this methodology to test spreadsheets more adequately and efficiently; however, the process of generating test cases can still present a significant impediment. To address this problem, we have been investigating how to incorporate automated test case generation into our testing methodology in ways that support incremental testing and provide immediate visual feedback. We have used two techniques for generating test cases, one involving random selection and one involving a goal-oriented approach. We describe these techniques and their integration into our testing environment, and report results of an experiment examining their effectiveness and efficiency.

© All rights reserved Fisher et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Robertson, T. J., Lawrance, Joseph and Burnett, Margaret M. (2006): Impact of high-intensity negotiated-style interruptions on end-user debugging. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 17 (2) pp. 187-202

 
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Dagit, Jason, Lawrance, Joseph, Neumann, Christoph, Burnett, Margaret M., Metoyer, Ronald A. and Adams, Sam (2006): Using cognitive dimensions: Advice from the trenches. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 17 (4) pp. 302-327

2005
 
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Beckwith, Laura, Burnett, Margaret M., Wiedenbeck, Susan, Cook, Curtis, Sorte, Shraddha and Hastings, Michelle (2005): Effectiveness of end-user debugging software features: are there gender issues?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 869-878.

Although gender differences in a technological world are receiving significant research attention, much of the research and practice has aimed at how society and education can impact the successes and retention of female computer science professionals-but the possibility of gender issues within software has received almost no attention. If gender issues exist with some types of software features, it is possible that accommodating them by changing these features can increase effectiveness, but only if we know what these issues are. In this paper, we empirically investigate gender differences for end users in the context of debugging spreadsheets. Our results uncover significant gender differences in self-efficacy and feature acceptance, with females exhibiting lower self-efficacy and lower feature acceptance. The results also show that these differences can significantly reduce females' effectiveness.

© All rights reserved Beckwith et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M. and Rosson, Mary Beth (2005): End users creating effective software. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2047-2048.

Is it possible to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to end users? End users create software when they use spreadsheet systems, web authoring tools and graphical languages, when they write educational simulations, spreadsheets, and dynamic e-business web applications. Unfortunately, however, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. A growing number of researchers and developers are working on ways to make the software created by end users more reliable. This special interest group meeting will help support the community of researchers who are addressing this topic.

© All rights reserved Myers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Beckwith, Laura, Sorte, Shraddha, Burnett, Margaret M., Wiedenbeck, Susan, Chintakovid, Thippaya and Cook, Curtis R. (2005): Designing Features for Both Genders in End-User Programming Environments. In: VL-HCC 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 21-24 September, 2005, Dallas, TX, USA. pp. 153-160.

 
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Lawrance, Joseph, Clarke, Steven, Burnett, Margaret M. and Rothermel, Gregg (2005): How Well Do Professional Developers Test with Code Coverage Visualizations? An Empirical Study. In: VL-HCC 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 21-24 September, 2005, Dallas, TX, USA. pp. 53-60.

 
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Phalgune, Amit, Kissinger, Cory, Burnett, Margaret M., Cook, Curtis R., Beckwith, Laura and Ruthruff, Joseph R. (2005): Garbage in, Garbage out? An Empirical Look at Oracle Mistakes by End-User Programmers. In: VL-HCC 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 21-24 September, 2005, Dallas, TX, USA. pp. 45-52.

 
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Ruthruff, Joseph R., Prabhakararao, Shrinu, Reichwein, James, Cook, Curtis R., Creswick, Eugene and Burnett, Margaret M. (2005): Interactive, visual fault localization support for end-user programmers. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 16 (1) pp. 3-40

2004
 
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Robertson, T. J., Prabhakararao, Shrinu, Burnett, Margaret M., Cook, Curtis, Ruthruff, Joseph R., Beckwith, Laura and Phalgune, Amit (2004): Impact of interruption style on end-user debugging. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 287-294.

Although researchers have begun to explicitly support end-user programmers' debugging by providing information to help them find bugs, there is little research addressing the proper mechanism to alert the user to this information. The choice of alerting mechanism can be important, because as previous research has shown, different interruption styles have different potential advantages and disadvantages. To explore impacts of interruptions in the end-user debugging domain, this paper describes an empirical comparison of two interruption styles that have been used to alert end-user programmers to debugging information. Our results show that negotiated-style interruptions were superior to immediate-style interruptions in several issues of importance to end-user debugging, and further suggest that a reason for this superiority may be that immediate-style interruptions encourage different debugging strategies.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Beckwith, Laura and Burnett, Margaret M. (2004): Gender: An Important Factor in End-User Programming Environments?. In: VL-HCC 2004 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 26-29 September, 2004, Rome, Italy. pp. 107-114.

 
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Blackwell, Alan, Burnett, Margaret M. and Jones, Simon L. Peyton (2004): Champagne Prototyping: A Research Technique for Early Evaluation of Complex End-User Programming Systems. In: VL-HCC 2004 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 26-29 September, 2004, Rome, Italy. pp. 47-54.

 
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Ruthruff, Joseph R., Phalgune, Amit, Beckwith, Laura, Burnett, Margaret M. and Cook, Curtis R. (2004): Rewarding "Good" Behavior: End-User Debugging and Rewards. In: VL-HCC 2004 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 26-29 September, 2004, Rome, Italy. pp. 115-122.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Cook, Curtis R. and Rothermel, Gregg (2004): End-user software engineering. In Communications of the ACM, 47 (9) pp. 53-58.

2003
 
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Wilson, Aaron, Burnett, Margaret M., Beckwith, Laura, Granatir, Orion, Casburn, Ledah, Cook, Curtis, Durham, Mike and Rothermel, Gregg (2003): Harnessing curiosity to increase correctness in end-user programming. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 305-312.

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Brown, Darren, Burnett, Margaret M., Rothermel, Gregg, Fujita, Hamido and Negoro, Fumio (2003): Generalizing WYSIWYT visual testing to screen transition languages. In: HCC 2003 - IEEE Symposium on Human Centric Computing Languages and Environments 28-31 October, 2003, Auckland, New Zealand. pp. 203-210.

 
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Ruthruff, J., Creswick, E., Burnett, Margaret M., Cook, C., Prabhakararao, S., Fisher, M. and Main, M. (2003): End-user software visualizations for fault localization. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Software Visualization 2003. pp. 123-132.

End-user programming has become the most common form of programming today. However, despite this growth, there has been little investigation into bringing the benefits of software visualization to end-user programmers. Evidence from the spreadsheet paradigm, probably the most widely used end-user environment, reveals that end users' programs often contain faults. We would like to integrate software visualization into these end-user environments to help end users deal with the reliability issues in their programs. Towards this end, we have devised several fault localization visualization techniques for spreadsheets. This paper describes these techniques and reports the results of a formative study -- using tests created by end users -- to investigate how these fault localization techniques compare. Our results reveal some strengths and weaknesses of each technique, and provide insights into the cost-effectiveness of each technique for the interactive world of end-user spreadsheet development.

© All rights reserved Ruthruff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Cook, Curtis R., Pendse, Omkar, Rothermel, Gregg, Summet, Jay and Wallace, Chris S. (2003): End-User Software Engineering with Assertions in the Spreadsheet Paradigm. In: Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Software Engineering May 3-10, 2003, Portland, Oregon, USA. pp. 93-105

There has been little research on end-user program development beyond the activity of programming. Devising ways to address additional activities related to end-user program development may be critical, however, because research shows that a large proportion of the programs written by end users contain faults. Toward this end, we have been working on ways to provide formal "software engineering" methodologies to end-user programmers. This paper describes an approach we have developed for supporting assertions in end-user software, focusing on the spreadsheet paradigm. We also report the results of a controlled experiment, with 59 end-user subjects, to investigate the usefulness of this approach. Our results show that the end users were able to use the assertions to reason about their spreadsheets, and that doing so was tied to both greater correctness and greater efficiency.

© All rights reserved Burnett et al. and/or IEEE Computer Society

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Jones, Simon L. Peyton, Blackwell, Alan and Burnett, Margaret M. (2003): A user-centred approach to functions in Excel. In SIGPLAN Notices, 38 (9) pp. 165-176

We describe extensions to the Excel spreadsheet that integrate userdefined functions into the spreadsheet grid, rather than treating them as a bolt-on. Our first objective was to bring the benefits of additional programming language features to a system that is often not recognised as a programming language. Second, in a project involving the evolution of a well-established language, compatibility with previous versions is a major issue, and maintaining this compatibility was our second objective. Third and most important, the commercial success of spreadsheets is largely due to the fact that many people find them more usable than programming languages for programming-like tasks. Thus, our third objective (with resulting constraints) was to maintain this usability advantage. Simply making Excel more like a conventional programming language would not meet these objectives and constraints. We have therefore taken an approach to our design work that emphasises the cognitive requirements of the user as a primary design criterion. The analytic approach that we demonstrate in this project is based on recent developments in the study of programming usability, including the Cognitive Dimensions of Notations and the Attention Investment model of abstraction use. We believe that this approach is also applicable to the design and

© All rights reserved Jones et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
2002
 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Yang, Sherry and Summet, Jay (2002): A scalable method for deductive generalization in the spreadsheet paradigm. In Interactions, 9 (5) pp. 9-11.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Yang, Sherry and Summet, Jay (2002): Appendices A--D: A scalable method for deductive generalization in the spreadsheet paradigm. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 9 (4) pp. 1-5.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Yang, Sherry and Summet, Jay (2002): A scalable method for deductive generalization in the spreadsheet paradigm. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 9 (4) pp. 253-284.

In this paper, we present an efficient method for automatically generalizing programs written in spreadsheet languages. The strategy is to do generalization through incremental analysis of logical relationships among concrete program entities from the perspective of a particular computational goal. The method uses deductive dataflow analysis with algebraic back-substitution rather than inference with heuristics, and there is no need for generalization-related dialog with the user. We present the algorithms and their time complexities and show that, because the algorithms perform their analyses incrementally, on only the on-screen program elements rather than on the entire program, the method is scalable. Performance data is presented to help demonstrate the scalability.

© All rights reserved Burnett et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Blackwell, Alan and Burnett, Margaret M. (2002): Applying Attention Investment to End-User Programming. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 28-30.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Erwig, Martin (2002): Visually Customizing Inference Rules About Apples and Oranges. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 140-148.

 
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Beckwith, Laura, Burnett, Margaret M. and Cook, Curtis R. (2002): Reasoning about Many-to-Many Requirement Relationships in Spreadsheets. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 149-157.

 
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Wallace, Christine, Cook, Curtis R., Summet, Jay and Burnett, Margaret M. (2002): Assertions in End-User Software Engineering: A Think-Aloud Study. In: HCC 2002 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments 3-6 September, 2002, Arlington, VA, USA. pp. 63-.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Sheretov, Andrei, Ren, Bing and Rothermel, Gregg (2002): Testing Homogeneous Spreadsheet Grids with the "What You See Is What You Test" Methodology. In IEEE Trans. Software Eng., 28 (6) pp. 576-594

Although there has been recent research into ways to design environments that enable end users to create their own programs, little attention has been given to helping these end users systematically test their programs. To help address this need in spreadsheet systemsthe most widely used type of end-user programming languagewe previously introduced a visual approach to systematically testing individual cells in spreadsheet systems. However, the previous approach did not scale well in the presence of largely homogeneous grids, which introduce problems somewhat analogous to the array-testing problems of imperative programs. In this paper, we present two approaches to spreadsheet testing that explicitly support such grids. We present the algorithms, time complexities, and performance data comparing the two approaches. This is part of our continuing work to bring to end users at least some of the benefits of formalized notions of testing, without requiring knowledge of testing beyond a naive level.

© All rights reserved Burnett et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Erwig, Martin and Burnett, Margaret M. (2002): Adding Apples and Oranges. In: Krishnamurthi, Shriram and Ramakrishnan, C. R. (eds.) Practical Aspects of Declarative Languages, 4th International Symposium - PADL 2002 January 19-20, 2002, Portland, OR, USA. pp. 173-191

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Cao, Nanyu, Arredondo-Castro, Miguel and Atwood, J. William (2002): End-User Programming of Time as an 'Ordinary' Dimension in Grid-Oriented Visual Programming Languages. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 13 (4) pp. 421-447

 
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Ko, Andrew Jensen, Burnett, Margaret M., Green, T. R. G., Rothermel, Karen J. and Cook, Curtis R. (2002): Improving the Design of Visual Programming Language Experiments Using Cognitive Walkthroughs. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 13 (5) pp. 517-544

2001
 
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Burnett, Margaret M. (2001): What visual programming research contributes to universal access. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) HCI International 2001 - Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 5-10, 2001, New Orleans, USA. pp. 257-261.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Chekka, Sudheer Kumar and Pandey, Rajeev K. (2001): FAR: An End-User Language to Support Cottage E-Services. In: HCC 2001 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments September 5-7, 2001, Stresa, Italy. pp. 195-202.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Ren, Bing, Ko, Andrew Jensen, Cook, Curtis R. and Rothermel, Gregg (2001): Visually Testing Recursive Programs in Spreadsheet Languages. In: HCC 2001 - IEEE CS International Symposium on Human-Centric Computing Languages and Environments September 5-7, 2001, Stresa, Italy. pp. 288-.

2000
 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Cao, Nanyu and Jr., John W. Atwood (2000): Time in Grid-Oriented VPLs: Just Another Dimension?. In: VL 2000 2000. pp. 137-144.

 
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Green, T. R. G., Burnett, Margaret M., Ko, Andrew Jensen, Rothermel, Karen J., Cook, Curtis R. and Schonfeld, Justin (2000): Using the Cognitive Walkthrough to Improve the Design of a Visual Programming Experiment. In: VL 2000 2000. pp. 172-179.

 
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Djang, Rebecca Walpole, Burnett, Margaret M. and Chen, Roger D. (2000): Static Type Inference for a First-Order Declarative Visual Programming Language with Inheritance. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 11 (2) pp. 191-235

1999
 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Sheretov, Andrei and Rothermel, Gregg (1999): Scaling up a "What You See Is What You Test" Methodology to Spreadsheet Grids. In: VL 1999 1999. pp. 30-37.

1998
 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Gottfried, Herkimer J. (1998): Graphical Definitions: Expanding Spreadsheet Languages through Direct Manipulation and Gestures. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 5 (1) pp. 1-33.

In the past, attempts to extend the spreadsheet paradigm to support graphical objects, such as colored circles or user-defined graphical types, have led to approaches featuring either a direct way of creating objects graphically or strong compatibility with the spreadsheet paradigm, but not both. This inability to conveniently go beyond numbers and strings without straying outside the spreadsheet paradigm has been a limiting factor in the applicability of spreadsheet languages. In this article we present graphical definitions, an approach that removes this limitation, allowing both simple and complex graphical objects to be programmed directly using direct manipulation and gestures, in a manner that fits seamlessly within the spread-sheet paradigm. We also describe an empirical study, in which subjects programmed such objects faster and with fewer errors using this approach than when using a traditional approach to formula specification. Because the approach is expressive enough to be used with both built-in and user-defined types, it allows the directness of demonstrational and spread-sheet techniques to be used in programming a wider range of applications than has been possible before.

© All rights reserved Burnett and and/or ACM Press

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Jr., John W. Atwood and Welch, Zachary T. (1998): Implementing Level 4 Liveness in Declarative Visual Programming Languages. In: VL 1998 1998. pp. 126-133.

 
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Djang, Rebecca Walpole and Burnett, Margaret M. (1998): Similarity Inheritance: A New Model of Inheritance for Spreadsheet VPLs. In: VL 1998 1998. pp. 134-141.

1997
 
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Wilcox, E. M., Atwood, J. W., Burnett, Margaret M., Cadiz, Jonathan J. and Cook, Curtis (1997): Does Continuous Visual Feedback Aid Debugging in Direct-Manipulation Programming Systems?. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 258-265.

Continuous visual feedback is becoming a common feature in direct-manipulation programming systems of all kinds -- from demonstrational macro builders to spreadsheet packages to visual programming languages featuring direct manipulation. But does continuous visual feedback actually help in the domain of programming? There has been little investigation of this question, and what evidence there is from related domains points in conflicting directions. To advance what is known about this issue, we conducted an empirical study to determine whether the inclusion of continuous visual feedback into a direct-manipulation programming system helps with one particular task: debugging. Our results were that although continuous visual feedback did not significantly help with debugging in general, it did significantly help with debugging in some circumstances. Our results also indicate three factors that may help determine those circumstances.

© All rights reserved Wilcox et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cook, Curtis, Burnett, Margaret M. and Boom, Derrick (1997): A Bug's Eye View of Immediate Visual Feedback in Direct-Manipulation Programming Systems. In: Empirical Studies of Programmers - Seventh Workshop October 24-26, 1997, 1997, Alexandria, Virginia. pp. 20-41.

Immediate visual feedback is becoming a common feature in direct-manipulation programming systems of all kinds -- from demonstrational macro builders to spreadsheet packages to visual programming languages featuring direct manipulation. But does immediate visual feedback actually help in the domain of programming? We previously reported on an empirical study to determine whether the inclusion of immediate visual feedback into a direct-manipulation programming system helps with one particular task: debugging. In that study, subjects debugged programs with and without immediate visual feedback. We found that although immediate visual feedback did not significantly help with debugging in general, it did significantly help with debugging in some circumstances. In this paper, we follow up on those results, looking at attributes of the bugs themselves to see if they help to determine the circumstances in which feedback helps with debugging. We analyze how particular bugs and collections of bugs grouped by error type related to subjects' debugging abilities with and without immediate visual feedback, which we term the "which" questions; how bugs' position on the screen related to subjects' debugging abilities with and without immediate visual feedback, termed the "where" questions; and whether the presence or absence of immediate visual feedback affected the speed and order in which bugs were corrected, termed the "when" questions. The results show that a bug's error type and screen position were together a strong predictor of whether feedback would aid in identifying and correcting it, and that these two factors also significantly influenced how feedback affected the speed and order in which the bugs were corrected.

© All rights reserved Cook et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Gottfried, Herkimer J. and Burnett, Margaret M. (1997): Programming Complex Objects in Spreadsheets: An Empirical Study Comparing Textual Formula Entry with Direct Manipulation and Gestures. In: Empirical Studies of Programmers - Seventh Workshop October 24-26, 1997, 1997, Alexandria, Virginia. pp. 42-68.

Spreadsheets have traditionally provided strong support for computations that use simple types such as numbers and strings, while providing little or no support for programming with more complex objects such as colored circles or user-defined types. In expanding spreadsheets to support complex objects, we wanted to learn whether programs using complex objects could be constructed more effectively by defining formulas textually or through the use of graphical techniques such as direct manipulation and gestures. In this paper we present an empirical study comparing these two techniques for constructing spreadsheet programs that use complex objects. The results show that programmers can use graphical techniques to program complex objects faster and with fewer errors than with the textual methods traditional of spreadsheets.

© All rights reserved Gottfried and Burnett and/or ACM Press

 
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Gottfried, Herkimer J. and Burnett, Margaret M. (1997): Graphical Definitions: Making Spreadsheets Visual Through Direct Manipulation and Gestures. In: VL 1997 1997. pp. 250-257.

 
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Walpole, Rebecca A. and Burnett, Margaret M. (1997): Supporting Reuse of Evolving Visual Code. In: VL 1997 1997. pp. 68-75.

 
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Yang, Sherry, Burnett, Margaret M., DeKoven, Elyon and Zloof, Mosh M. (1997): Representation Design Benchmarks: A Design-Time Aid for VPL Navigable Static Representations. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 8 (5) pp. 563-599

A weakness of many interactive visual programming languages (VPLs) is their static representations. Lack of an adequate static representation places a heavy cognitive burden on a VPL's programmers, because they must remember potentially long dynamic sequences of screen displays in order to understand a previously written program. However, although this problem is widely acknowledged, research on how to design better static representations for interactive VPLs is still in its infancy. Building upon the cognitive dimensions developed for programming languages by cognitive psychologists Green and others, we have developed a set of concrete benchmarks for VPL designers to use when designing new static representations. These benchmarks provide design-time information that can be used to improve a VPL's static representation. ( 1997 Academic Press

© All rights reserved Yang et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
1996
 
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Jr., John W. Atwood, Burnett, Margaret M., Walpole, Rebecca A., Wilcox, E. M. and Yang, Sherry (1996): Steering programs via time travel. In: VL 1996 1996. pp. 4-11.

 
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Zee, Pieter van, Burnett, Margaret M. and Chesire, Maureen (1996): Retire Superman: Handling Exceptions Seamlessly in a Declarative Visual Programming Language. In: VL 1996 1996. pp. 222-230.

 
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Carlson, Paul, Burnett, Margaret M. and Cadiz, Jonathan J. (1996): A seamless integration of algorithm animation into a visual programming language. In: Catarci, Tiziana, Costabile, Maria Francesca, Levialdi, Stefano and Santucci, Giuseppe (eds.) AVI 1996 - Proceedings of the workshop on Advanced visual interfaces May 27-29, 1996, Gubbio, Italy. pp. 194-202.

1995
 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Goldberg, Adele and Lewis, Ted (1995): Visual Object-Oriented Programming: Concepts and Environments. Prentice Hall

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Mcintyre, David W. (1995): Visual Programming - Guest Editors' Introduction. In IEEE Computer, 28 (3) pp. 14-16.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M., Baker, Marla J., Bohus, Carisa, Carlson, Paul, Yang, Sherry and Zee, Pieter van (1995): Scaling Up Visual Programming Languages. In IEEE Computer, 28 (3) pp. 45-54.

 
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Carlson, Paul and Burnett, Margaret M. (1995): Integrating Algorithm Animation into a Declarative Visual Programming Language. In: VL 1995 1995. pp. 126-127.

1994
 
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Yang, Sherry and Burnett, Margaret M. (1994): From Concrete Forms to Generalized Abstractions through Perspective-Oriented Analysis Of Logical Relationships. In: VL 1994 1994. pp. 6-14.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Ambler, Allen L. (1994): Declarative Visual Languages. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 5 (1) pp. 1-3

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Ambler, Allen L. (1994): Interactive Visual Data Abstraction in a Declarative Visual Programming Language. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 5 (1) pp. 29-60

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Baker, Marla J. (1994): A Classification System for Visual Programming Languages. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 5 (3) pp. 287-300

1993
 
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Burnett, Margaret M. (1993): Types and Type Inference in a Visual Programming Language. In: Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages August 24-27, 1993, Bergen, Norway. pp. 238-243.

 
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Pandey, Rajeev K. and Burnett, Margaret M. (1993): Is It Easier to Write Matrix Manipulation Programs Visually or Textually? An Empirical Study. In: Proceedings of the 1993 IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages August 24-27, 1993, Bergen, Norway. pp. 344-351.

1992
 
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Ambler, Allen L., Burnett, Margaret M. and Zimmerman, Betsy A. (1992): Operational Versus Definitional: A Perspective on Programming Paradigms. In IEEE Computer, 25 (9) pp. 28-43.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Ambler, Allen L. (1992): A Declarative Approach to Event-Handling in Visual Programming Languages. In: Proceedings of the 1992 IEEE Workshop on Visual Languages September 15-18, 1992, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 34-40.

 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Ambler, Allen L. (1992): Generalizing Event Detection and Response in Visual Programming Languages. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 1992 1992. pp. 334-347.

1990
 
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Burnett, Margaret M. and Ambler, Allen L. (1990): Efficiency Issues in a Class of Visual Language. In: VL 1990 1990. pp. 209-214.

1989
 
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Ambler, Allen L. and Burnett, Margaret M. (1989): Influence of Visual Technology on the Evolution of Language Environments. In IEEE Computer, 22 (10) pp. 9-22.

 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/margaret_m__burnett.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1989-2011
Pub. count:103
Number of co-authors:137



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Laura Beckwith:16
Curtis R. Cook:13
Susan Wiedenbeck:12

 

 

Productive colleagues

Margaret M. Burnett's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
Mary Beth Rosson:142
Mary Czerwinski:80
 
 
 

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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
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Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
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The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
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