Number of co-authors:13
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Leena Salo:2Paula Savioja:2Marja Liinasuo:2
Leena Norros's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Jari Laarni:9Hannu Karvonen:4Leena Salo:4
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Publications by Leena Norros (bibliography)
Norros, Leena, Norros, Ilkka, Liinasuo, Marja and Seppänen, Kari (2011): Impact of human operators on communication network dependability. In: Proceedings of the 2011 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2011. pp. 35-42.
Motivation -- To shed light on the context and content of the human operators' work in maintaining the dependability of telecommunication networks. Research approach -- A case study was accomplished in a large telecommunication company. The research focused on clarifying the impact of human operators on the dependability of telecommunication network. Findings/Design -- Interviews confirmed earlier assumption among members of the Communication Network Operations (CNO) community that the human operator has an important impact on the network dependability. Specific sources of errors in daily work were identified and strategies of avoiding erroneous action were described. Moreover we defined generic control demands of the CNO work domain, and operators' ways of coping with these demands. Research limitations/Implications -- The study was restricted to one Finnish telecommunication company. This limits possible empirical generalisation of the findings. Originality/Value -- There is a scarcity of scientific literature about the characteristics of the control work and its demands in this critical domain. Take away message -- Regarding human dependability of communication network operations, a combination of resilient and proactive ways of acting is needed. Due to daily changes in the network and the continuous increase of its complexity, specifically change management on both organisational and work practice levels is required.
© All rights reserved Norros et al. and/or their publisher
Norros, Leena, Liinasuo, Marja and Hutton, Rob (2010): Designing tools for emergency operations: new method of parallel augmented exercise. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 49-56.
Motivation -- To improve Emergency Response activity by designing technical support to maintain a common operational picture (COP) of the emergency situation. Research approach -- A design experiment was conducted to test solutions to support identification of hazardous gases in an accident. A new method was proposed to tackle the known design problem labelled the "task-artefact-cycle" and to identify promisingness of technologies in a future context of use. Findings/Design -- The results reveal decision making demands in a fire situation, how they are tackled in the present practice, and what added value the tested new technology might bring. Research limitations/Implications -- The study was a first case in which the proposed method was used. Originality/Value -- The research proposes a theoretically based new method for analysis of user activity in the design context. Take away message -- The "task-artefact cycle" can be tackled by creating conceptually oriented formative methods of activity analysis.
© All rights reserved Norros et al. and/or their publisher
Karvonen, Hannu, Aaltonen, Iina, Wahlström, Mikael, Salo, Leena, Savioja, Paula and Norros, Leena (2010): Unraveling metro train driver's work: challenges in automation concept. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Annual European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics 2010. pp. 233-240.
Motivation -- We focused on the question: "What is the significance of the train driver in the metro system?" We were especially interested in challenges related to an automation concept of a driverless metro. Research approach -- Metro train drivers' work and the metro system as a whole was examined in interview and field observation studies based on the core-task analysis method. Afterward, a mirror data workshop was organised. Findings/Design -- We describe the diversity of metro train driver's work: in addition to accelerating or braking and door opening or closing, the driver contributes to a variety of other functions in the metro system. For example, the driver maintains an awareness of the surrounding environment and facilitates communication between different actors of the system. Research limitations/Implications -- The participants for both the interview (N=12) and field observation study (N=4) were chosen in advance by the metro organisation. The small sample in the observation study might have also affected the results. Originality/Value -- Our paper analyses the role of the driver in the metro system. The results suggest that a change to a driverless system can affect the quality of service and raise safety issues. The results can be applied to automation implementations also in other domains. Take away message -- There is more to driving a metro train than meets the eye.
© All rights reserved Karvonen et al. and/or their publisher
Norros, Leena, Koskinen, Hanna, Salo, Leena and Savioja, Paula (eds.) ECCE 2009 – European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics Designing beyond the Product – Understanding Activity and User Experience in Ubiquitous Environments 30 September-2 October, 2009, Otaniemi, Finland.
Laarni, Jari, Norros, Leena and Koskinen, Hanna Maria Kaarina (2007): Affordance Table - A Collaborative Smart Interface for Process Control. In: Jacko, Julie A. (ed.) HCI International 2007 - 12th International Conference - Part IV 2007. pp. 611-619.
Norros, Leena and Nuutinen, Maaria (2005): Performance-based usability evaluation of a safety information and alarm system. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63 (3) pp. 328-361.
Evaluation of the appropriateness of information technical systems for complex professional usage in safety-critical contexts poses significant methodical and practical challenges. In this study, the usability of a Safety Information and Alarm Panel (SIAP) in a nuclear power plant control room was tested. An integrated validation concept was used that included a new approach to measuring system and operator performance in complex work environments. The tested system was designed to aid the operators in severe disturbance and emergency situations. It had already been implemented at a nuclear power plant. The study was conducted in a full-scope training simulator. The results verified that an acceptable level of performance could be achieved when using the SIAP. When the operators' practices were analysed by a habit-centred analysis, it was discovered that the effects of the SIAP differed between crews and between test scenarios. Thus, the SIAP tended to promote coherence of practices but reduce situatively attentive action. In diffuse task contexts the tool failed to support the shift supervisor's control of the overall process situation, his awareness of the crew's work load and his ability to update the crew's awareness of the process. The operators reported that the system supported their process control activity and reduced stress in the situation, but the shift supervisors and operators also noticed some possible negative effects of the tool. These subjective evaluations corresponded to the effects observed in practice. The results revealed the complexity of the implementation of new tools into professional practice. It was proposed that a validation project should focus on the trajectory of development of the entire distributed cognitive system instead of comprehending validation studies as tests of the effects of information systems on a pre-defined process output. Formative evaluation criteria are needed in projecting distributed cognitive systems.
© All rights reserved Norros and Nuutinen and/or Academic Press
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