Publication statistics

Pub. period:1984-2012
Pub. count:105
Number of co-authors:96



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Steven Poltrock:13
Anoop Gupta:12
Elizabeth Sanocki:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Jonathan Grudin's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Saul Greenberg:140
Scott E. Hudson:113
 
 
 

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Jonathan Grudin

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Has also published under the name of:
"J. Grudin"

Personal Homepage:
research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/jgrudin/


Current place of employment:
Microsoft Research

I work in the Adaptive Systems and Interaction Group at Microsoft Research, part of the Microsoft Corporation. My research is in human-computer interaction and computer supported cooperative work, with a particular focus on the design, adoption and use of group support technologies. Some of the work below was done in the Collaborative and Multimedia Systems Group. Prior to joining Microsoft Research, I was Professor of Information and Computer Science at University of California, Irvine. I have taught at Aarhus University, Keio University, and the University of Oslo, and worked at the MRC Applied Psychology Unit, Wang Laboratories, and MCC since earning my Ph.D. at UC San Diego.

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Publications by Jonathan Grudin (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2012): Taxonomy and theory in computer-supported cooperative work. In: Kozlowski, Steve W. J. (ed.). "The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Psychology, Two-Volume Set (Oxford Library of Psychology)". Oxford University Press, USA

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2012): A moving target: The evolution of human-computer interaction. In: Jacko, Julie A. (ed.). "Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies, and Emerging Applications, Third Edition (Human Factors and Ergonomics)". CRC Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 

Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2013): Computer Supported Cooperative Work. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html

2011
 
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Iqbal, Shamsi T., Grudin, Jonathan and Horvitz, Eric (2011): Peripheral computing during presentations: perspectives on costs and preferences. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 891-894.

Despite the common use of mobile computing devices to communicate and access information, the effects of peripheral computing tasks on people's attention is not well understood. Studies that have identified consequences of multitasking in diverse domains have largely focused on influences on productivity. We have yet to understand perceptions and preferences regarding the use of computing devices for potentially extraneous tasks in settings such as presentations at seminars and colloquia. We explore costs and attitudes about the use of computing devices by people attending presentations. We find that audience members who use devices believe that they are missing content being presented and are concerned about social costs. Other attendees report being less offended by multitasking around them than the device users may realize.

© All rights reserved Iqbal et al. and/or their publisher

2010
 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Poole, Erika Shehan (2010): Wikis at work: success factors and challenges for sustainability of enterprise Wikis. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Symposium on Wikis 2010. p. 5.

We examined wiki use in a range of enterprise settings. We found many thriving wikis, but they were a minority of the thousands for which we obtained data. Even an actively used wiki can disappoint some important stakeholders. Careful stakeholder analysis and education may be crucial to successful wiki deployment. We identify a range of success factors, sources of wiki abandonment, and approaches to addressing the challenges. Some of our observations may extend to other social media.

© All rights reserved Grudin and Poole and/or their publisher

 
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Poole, Erika Shehan and Grudin, Jonathan (2010): A taxonomy of Wiki genres in enterprise settings. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Symposium on Wikis 2010. p. 14.

A growing body of work examines enterprise wikis. In this paper, we argue that "enterprise wiki" is a blanket term describing three different genres of wiki: single contributor wikis, group or team wikis, and internal-use encyclopedias emulating Wikipedia. Based on the results of a study of wiki usage in a multinational software company, we provide a taxonomy of enterprise wiki genres. We discuss emerging challenges specific to company-wide encyclopedias for which platforms such as Wikipedia provide surprisingly little guidance. These challenges include platform and content management decisions, territoriality, establishment of contribution norms, dispute resolution, and employee turnover.

© All rights reserved Poole and Grudin and/or their publisher

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2010): What a wonderful critter: orphans find a home. In Interactions, 17 (2) pp. 76-78.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2010): CSCW: time passed, tempest, and time past. In Interactions, 17 (4) pp. 38-40.

2009
 
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Bernstein, Michael, Andr, Paul, Luther, Kurt, Solovey, Erin Treacy, Poole, Erika S., Paul, Sharoda A., Kane, Shaun K. and Grudin, Jonathan (2009): CHIstory. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3493-3494.

How might the world view human-computer interaction a century from now? In this video, set one hundred years in the future, we playfully re-envision the early history of HCI. As the video opens, the Great Usability Cataclysm of 2068 has erased all previous knowledge of HCI. The world has been plunged into an age of darkness where terror, fear, and poor usability reign. Unearthing fragments of previously lost archival footage, a disembodied HCI historian (Jonathan Grudin) introduces a first attempt to reconstruct the history of our field. Pioneering systems like NLS and Sketchpad are reviewed alongside more recent work from CHI and related conferences. The results may surprise and perplex as much as they entertain, but most of all, we hope they inspire reflection on the past and future of our field.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Skeels, Meredith M. and Grudin, Jonathan (2009): When social networks cross boundaries: a case study of workplace use of facebook and linkedin. In: GROUP09 - International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2009. pp. 95-104.

The use of social networking software by professionals is increasing dramatically. How it is used, whether it enhances or reduces productivity, and how enterprise-friendly design and use might evolve are open questions. We examine attitudes and behaviors in a large, technologically-savvy organization through a broad survey and thirty focused interviews. We find extensive social and work uses, with complex patterns that differ with software system and networker age. Tensions arise when use spans social groups and the organization's firewall. Although use is predominantly to support weak ties whose contribution to productivity can be difficult to prove, we anticipate rapid uptake of social networking technology by organizations.

© All rights reserved Skeels and Grudin and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Olson, Gary M. and Grudin, Jonathan (2009): The information school phenomenon. In Interactions, 16 (2) pp. 15-19.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2009): Brian Shackel's contribution to the written history of Human-Computer Interaction. In Interacting with Computers, 21 (5) pp. 370-374.

In 1997, Brian Shackel published the article "Human-Computer Interaction -- Whence and Whither?" In this early foray into historical reflection on the field, past work is covered with a focus on identifying European contributions, issues of particular contemporary interest are explored, and a set of 10-year predictions are offered. In this essay, from a vantage-point of an additional decade of history, insights of lasting value that Professor Shackel was uniquely positioned to glean are identified. His work is placed in the broader context now available, and an always-useful reminder of the difficulty of anticipating future events is provided.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or Elsevier Science

2008
 
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Spaulding, Aaron, Jameson, Anthony, Grudin, Jonathan, Yorke-Smith, Neil and Zaientz, Jack (2008): Usable artificial intelligence. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3937-3940.

"The AI and HCI communities have often been characterized as having opposing views of how humans and computers should interact" observes Winograd in "Shifting Viewpoints". Reconciling these views requires a thoughtful balancing of assistance and control, of mental and system representations, and of abstract process and contextualized workflow. This workshop examines the gap between HCI and artificial intelligence, with the goal of improving usability of AI systems.

© All rights reserved Spaulding et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2008): Travel back in time: design methods of two billionaire industrialists. In Interactions, 15 (3) pp. 30-33.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2008): Why Engelbart wasn't given the keys to Fort Knox: revisiting three HCI landmarks. In Interactions, 15 (5) pp. 65-67.

2007
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2007): Living without parental controls: the future of HCI. In Interactions, 14 (2) pp. 48-52.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2007): Policies and practices. In Interactions, 14 (3) pp. 5-7.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2007): NordiCHI 2006: learning from a regional conference. In Interactions, 14 (3) pp. 52-53.

 
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Efimova, Lilia and Grudin, Jonathan (2007): Crossing Boundaries: A Case Study of Employee Blogging. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. p. 86.

 
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Russell, Daniel M. and Grudin, Jonathan (2007): Minitrack Summary: Using Information: New Technologies, Ways & Means. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. p. 84.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2007): Collaborative Behavior and Supporting Technologies. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 700-701.

2006
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2006): Is HCI homeless?: in search of inter-disciplinary status. In Interactions, 13 (1) pp. 54-59.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2006): The GUI shock: computer graphics and human-computer interaction. In Interactions, 13 (2) pp. 46-ff.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2006): A missing generation: office automation/information systems and human-computer interaction. In Interactions, 13 (3) pp. 58-61.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2006): Death of a sugar daddy: the mystery of the AFIPS orphans. In Interactions, 13 (4) pp. 54-57.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2006): Turing maturing: the separation of artificial intelligence and human-computer interaction. In Interactions, 13 (5) pp. 54-57.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2006): Enterprise Knowledge Management and Emerging Technologies. In: HICSS 2006 - 39th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 4-7 January, 2006, Kauai, HI, USA. .

2005
 
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Grudin, Jonathan, Tallarico, Shari and Counts, Scott (2005): As technophobia disappears: implications for design. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 256-259.

We conducted two studies of communication: an ethnographic study of communication primarily in homes, cars, and public places, and a survey of communication in a large corporation. A clear pattern emerged. To a greater degree than expected in the ethnographic study, people were familiar with a broad range of communication tools. Awareness and a lack of anxiety was the norm even for tools that a person rarely or had not yet used. As a result, people frequently shifted to the tool that was most appropriate for a task at hand. The resulting behaviors conflict with popular press images and have implications for the designers of communication tools.

© All rights reserved Grudin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2005): Why CHI fragmented. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1083-1084.

I have been active in SIGCHI since 1983, serving on the Executive Committee and many conference and program committees. After editing ACM TOCHI for six years, I explored the history of CHI and related fields. The "conference-centered" model unique to U.S. computer science, wherein little published research reaches journals, and uncertainty regarding HCI's academic niche have created an unusual situation. I propose some paths forward.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Olson, Judith S., Grudin, Jonathan and Horvitz, Eric (2005): A study of preferences for sharing and privacy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1985-1988.

We describe studies of preferences about information sharing aimed at identifying fundamental concerns with privacy and at understanding how people might abstract the details of sharing into higher-level classes of recipients and information that are treated similarly. Thirty people specified what information they are willing to share with whom.. Although people vary in their overall level of comfort in sharing, we identified key classes of recipients and information. Such abstractions highlight the promise of developing expressive controls for sharing and privacy.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Foley, James D., Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel, Grudin, Jonathan, Hollan, James D., Hudson, Scott E., Olson, Judy and Verplank, Bill (2005): Graduate education in human-computer interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2113-2114.

HCI, course outlines, curricula, degree programs, digital library, graduate education, teaching materials

© All rights reserved Foley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (2005): Videoconferencing: Recent Experiments and Reassessment. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. .

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
2004
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2004): Return on investment and organizational adoption. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 324-327.

This paper considers the complexity of measuring the return on investment for technology adoption. A brief case study of technology adoption in a large design and construction firm provides a clear view of factors that came into play. The technology considered is simple; the apparent costs and benefits are relatively clear. Four parties are involved: diverse employees interested in using dual monitors, the information technology support group in the organization, an executive who had worked his way up from drafting, and employees of a software company that is considering expanding their support for dual monitor use. In the construction company, a seemingly logical and inexpensive hardware upgrade was subject to a wide range of technical and social pressures, some obstructing and others promoting adoption. Decisions are made in a manner that did not fit the model held by the product planners and designers in the software company.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2004): Crossing the divide. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11 (1) pp. 1-25.

This essay summarizes the editor's views of publication in the field of human-computer interaction. Digital technologies have begun changing the way journal articles and conference papers are produced, reviewed, published, accessed, and used. This period of profound change presents challenges and opportunities for both new and existing channels of scientific and technical communication.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Bargeron, David and Grudin, Jonathan (2004): As Users Grow More Savvy: Experiences with an Asynchronous Distance Learning Tool. In: HICSS 2004 2004. .

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2004): Managerial Use and Emerging Norms: Effects of Activity Patterns on Software Design and Deployment. In: HICSS 2004 2004. .

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
2003
 
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Rui, Yong, Gupta, Anoop and Grudin, Jonathan (2003): Videography for telepresentations. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 457-464.

 
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Poltrock, Steven, Grudin, Jonathan, Dumais, Susan, Fidel, Raya, Bruce, Harry and Pejtersen, Annelise Mark (2003): Information seeking and sharing in design teams. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 239-247.

Information retrieval is generally considered an individual activity, and information retrieval research and tools reflect this view. As digitally mediated communication and information sharing increase, collaborative information retrieval merits greater attention and support. We describe field studies of information gathering in two design teams that had very different products, disciplinary backgrounds, and tools. We found striking similarities in the kinds of information they sought and the methods used to get it. For example, each team sought information about design constraints from external sources. A common strategy was to propose ideas and request feedback, rather than to ask directly for recommendations. Some differences in information seeking and sharing reflected differences in work contexts. Our findings suggest some ways that existing team collaboration tools could support collaborative information retrieval more effectively.

© All rights reserved Poltrock et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Pruitt, John and Grudin, Jonathan (2003): Personas: practice and theory. In: Proceedings of DUX03: Designing for User Experiences 2003. pp. 1-15.

"Personas" is an interaction design technique with considerable potential for software product development. In three years of use, our colleagues and we have extended Alan Cooper's technique to make Personas a powerful complement to other usability methods. After describing and illustrating our approach, we outline the psychological theory that explains why Personas are more engaging than design based primarily on scenarios. As Cooper and others have observed, Personas can engage team members very effectively. They also provide a conduit for conveying a broad range of qualitative and quantitative data, and focus attention on aspects of design and use that other methods do not.

© All rights reserved Pruitt and Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Lovejoy, Tracey and Grudin, Jonathan (2003): Messaging And Formality: Will IM Follow in the Footsteps of Email?. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 817.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2003): Collaboration Technology in Teams, Organizations, and Communities. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 1023.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (2003): Computer-supported cooperative work and groupware. In: Zelkowitz, Marvin (ed.). "Advances in Computers". Academic Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
2002
 
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Brush, A. J. Bernheim, Bargeron, David, Grudin, Jonathan and Gupta, Anoop (2002): Notification for shared annotation of digital documents. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 89-96.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2002): Group dynamics and ubiquitous computing. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (12) pp. 74-78.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Pruitt, John (2002): Personas , Participatory Design and Product Development : An Infrastructure for Engagement. In Design, 2002

The design of commercial products that are intended to serve millions of people has been a challenge for collaborative approaches. The creation and use of fictional users, concrete representations commonly referred to as personas, is a relatively new interaction design technique. It is not without problems and can be used inappropriately, but based on experience and analysis it has extraordinary potential. Not only can it be a powerful tool for true participation in design, it also forces designers to consider social and political aspects of design that otherwise often go unexamined.

© All rights reserved Grudin and Pruitt and/or Blackwell Publishing Inc

 Cited in the following chapter:

Personas: [/encyclopedia/personas.html]


 
2001
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2001): Partitioning Digital Worlds: Focal and Peripheral Awareness in Multiple Monitor Use. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 458-465.

Software today does not help us partition our digital worlds effectively. We must organize them ourselves. This field study of users of multiple monitors examines how people with a lot of display space arrange information. Second monitors are generally used for secondary activities related to principal tasks, for peripheral awareness of information that is not the main focus, and for easy access to resources. A second monitor improves efficiency in ways that are difficult to measure yet can have substantial subjective benefit. The study concludes with illustrations of shortcomings of today's systems and applications: the way we work could be improved at relatively low cost.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Jancke, Gavin, Venolia, Gina Danielle, Grudin, Jonathan, Cadiz, Jonathan J. and Gupta, Anoop (2001): Linking Public Spaces: Technical and Social Issues. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 530-537.

Three public spaces frequency used by members of a single organization who are distributed across different floors of two buildings were linked by constantly-running video and audio connections. We discuss the design of the system, including issues in providing low-latency, full-duplex audio-video connectivity, ways to increase possibilities for interaction while addressing privacy concerns, and the introduction of the system to the community. We report on responses to the system and lessons learned, including unexpected issues, such as creative decorations of the spaces and assertions by a vocal minority of employees about the private nature of "public space."

© All rights reserved Jancke et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2001): Desituating Action: Digital Representation of Context. In Human-Computer Interaction, 16 (2) pp. 269-286.

Many psychological studies have shown that when we act, and especially when we interact, we consciously and unconsciously attend to context of many types. Sensors can pick up some but not all context that is acquired through our senses. Some context is lost, some is added, and captured context is presented in new ways. Digital aggregators and interpreters do not aggregate and interpret the same way we do. Missing or altered context disrupts our processing of information in ways that we may not recognize. To address the disruption we may use additional sensors to capture and deliver some of the missing context. Learning to handle these new conduits is then a further source of disruption, and on it can go. With greater knowledge of context, we can work and interact more efficiently, assuming that we can learn to take advantage of the information without being overwhelmed. However, converting contextual information to a digital format changes it in specific ways. Transient information becomes more permanent, local information is made available globally, and information that once spread slowly can spread much more quickly. The information can enable us to work more efficiently, but these changes in its nature have profound indirect effects. The potential loss of privacy is widely discussed, but other effects may be more significant. In particular, the loss of confinement and transience of information creates an environment that is fundamentally unnatural, in conflict with the one we evolved to live in.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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LeeTiernan, S. and Grudin, Jonathan (2001): Fostering Engagement in Asynchronous Learning through Collaborative Multimedia Annotation. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 472-479.

 
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Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (2001): Collaboration Technology in Teams, Organizations, and Communities. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 819-820.

 
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Bargeron, David, Gupta, Anoop, Grudin, Jonathan, Sanocki, Elizabeth and Li, Francis C. (2001): Asynchronous Collaboration around Multimedia and its Application to On-Demand Training. In: HICSS 2001 2001. .

2000
 
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He, Li-wei, Sanocki, Elizabeth, Gupta, Anoop and Grudin, Jonathan (2000): Comparing Presentation Summaries: Slides vs. Reading vs. Listening. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 177-184.

As more audio and video technical presentations go online, it becomes imperative to give users effective summarization and skimming tools so that they can find the presentation they want and browse through it quickly. In a previous study, we reported three automated methods for generating audio-video summaries and a user evaluation of those methods. An open question remained about how well various text/image only techniques will compare to the audio-video summarizations. This study attempts to fill that gap. This paper reports a user study that compares four possible ways of allowing a user to skim a presentation: 1) PowerPoint slides used by the speaker during the presentation, 2) the text transcript created by professional transcribers from the presentation, 3) the transcript with important points highlighted by the speaker, and 4) a audio-video summary created by the speaker. Results show that although some text-only conditions can match the audio-video summary, users have a marginal preference for audio-video (ANOVA F=3.067, p=0.087). Furthermore, different styles of slide-authoring (e.g., detailed vs. big-points only) can have a big impact on their effectiveness as summaries, raising a dilemma for some speakers in authoring for on-demand previewing versus that for live audiences.

© All rights reserved He et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Jancke, Gavin, Grudin, Jonathan and Gupta, Anoop (2000): Presenting to Local and Remote Audiences: Design and Use of the TELEP System. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 384-391.

The current generation of desktop computers and networks are bringing streaming audio and video into widespread use. A small investment allows presentations or lectures to be multicast, enabling passive viewing from offices or rooms. We surveyed experienced viewers of multicast presentations and designed a lightweight system that creates greater awareness in the presentation room of remote viewers and allows remote viewers to interact with each other and the speaker. We report on the design, use, and modification of the system, and discuss design tradeoffs.

© All rights reserved Jancke et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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He, Li-wei, Grudin, Jonathan and Gupta, Anoop (2000): Designing Presentations for On-Demand Viewing. In: Kellogg, Wendy A. and Whittaker, Steve (eds.) Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work 2000, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 127-134.

Increasingly often, presentations are given before a live audience, while simultaneously being viewed remotely and recorded for subsequent viewing on-demand over the Web. How should video presentations be designed for web access? How is video accessed and used online? Does optimal design for live and on-demand audiences conflict? We examined detailed behavior patterns of more than 9000 on-demand users of a large corpus of professionally prepared presentations. We find that as many people access these talks on-demand as attend live. Online access patterns differ markedly from live attendance. People watch less overall and skip to different parts of a talk. Speakers designing presentations for viewing on-demand should emphasize key points early in the talk and early within each slide, use slide titles that reveal the talk structure and are meaningful outside the flow of the talk. In some cases the recommendations conflict with optimal design for live audiences. The results also provide guidance in developing tools for on-demand multimedia authoring and use.

© All rights reserved He et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cadiz, Jonathan J., Balachandran, Anand, Sanocki, Elizabeth, Gupta, Anoop, Grudin, Jonathan and Jancke, Gavin (2000): Distance Learning through Distributed Collaborative Video Viewing. In: Kellogg, Wendy A. and Whittaker, Steve (eds.) Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work 2000, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 135-144.

Previous research on Tutored Video Instruction (TVI) shows that learning is enhanced when small groups of students watch and discuss lecture videos together. Using specialized, high-end videoconferencing systems, these improved results have been shown to apply even when the students are in different locations (Distributed TVI, or DTVI). In this paper, we explore two issues in making DTVI-like scenarios widely supported at low cost. First, we explore design of a system that allows distributed individuals to collectively watch video using shared VCR controls such as play, pause, seek, stop. We show how such a system can be built on top of existing commercial technologies. Second, we explore the impact of four alternative discussion channels on student learning and interaction behavior. The four channels-text chat, audioconferencing, videoconferencing, and face-to-face-have differing infrastructure requirements and costs. Our lab studies show that while text chat does not work, there is no significant difference in discussion behavior and learning between audioconferencing and videoconferencing. While lab studies have their limitations and long-term field studies need to be done, the preliminary results point to a low-cost way for a DTVI-like model to be deployed widely in the very near future.

© All rights reserved Cadiz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cadiz, Jonathan J., Gupta, Anoop and Grudin, Jonathan (2000): Using Web Annotations for Asynchronous Collaboration Around Documents. In: Kellogg, Wendy A. and Whittaker, Steve (eds.) Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work 2000, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 309-318.

Digital web-accessible annotations are a compelling medium for personal comments and shared discussions around documents. Only recently supported by widely used products, "in-context" digital annotation is a relatively unexamined phenomenon. This paper presents a case study of annotations created by members of a large development team using Microsoft Office 2000-approximately 450 people created 9,000 shared annotations on about 1,250 documents over 10 months. We present quantitative data on use, supported by interviews with users, identifying strengths and weaknesses of the existing capabilities and possibilities for improvement.

© All rights reserved Cadiz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2000): Irresistible Forces and Immovable Objects. In: Hypertext 00 - Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia May 30 - June 03, 2000, San Antonio, Texas, USA. p. 259.

We cannot predict the future, but we don't want to design it entirely by trial and error. Our imaginations encompass everything from utopia to nightmare; we need to constrain the space of possibilities. Earlier technologies led to a mix of deterministic outcomes and individual or social choices in their use. I am of the persuasion that the Web and wireless technologies are "irresistible forces" that will merge and transform the world more than all but a handful of past technologies. But not everything is possible. The most immovable of objects is human biology: basic human perceptual, cognitive, affective, and social psychology, the product of millions of years of evolution. In addition, present-day social organization, the result of thousands of years of evolution, has become extremely complex. Evolution is not over in either case, but it will occur very slowly. Human psychology and existing social organization will strongly constrain the use of new technologies. Technology interacting with hard psychological and social realities will create both liberating and conservative pressures. By understanding the interplay of these expansive and constraining forces, we can better identify the space in which we can work to make a difference.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (2000): Cooperative Design and Personal Utopias: Opportunities and Challenges for Nordic CHI in a Networked World. In: Proceedings of the First Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2000. .

For better and worse, the spread of trade and culture is diminishing regional differences. We move slowly toward a global consensus on basic human rights, we move more rapidly toward a consensus on fast-food restaurants and shopping malls. The fact that these trends are probably irreversible makes it more important to establish and create an accessible record of the diversity that exists now, to make it part of the practice that is carried forward. NordiCHI has a singular opportunity to contribute in this way to the field of human-computer interaction. The Nordic countries have a long history of information system design, development, and use. Some digital technologies are more widely used here than anywhere else in the world. In addition, without ignoring the differences among the five countries, there is an unusual degree of cultural homogeneity. The voices in a Nordic gathering are varied, but together they produce a distinct and unique contribution to the international discussion.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or his/her publisher

 
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White, Stephen A., Gupta, Anoop, Grudin, Jonathan, Chesley, Harry, Kimberly, Greg and Sanocki, Elizabeth (2000): Evolving Use of a System for Education at a Distance. In: HICSS 2000 2000. .

1999
 
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Omoigui, Nosa, He, Li-wei, Gupta, Anoop, Grudin, Jonathan and Sanocki, Elizabeth (1999): Time-Compression: Systems Concerns, Usage, and Benefits. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 136-143.

With the proliferation of online multimedia content and the popularity of multimedia streaming systems, it is increasingly useful to be able to skim and browse multimedia quickly. A key technique that enables quick browsing of multimedia is time-compression. Prior research has described how speech can be time-compressed (shortened in duration) while preserving the pitch of the audio. However, client-server systems providing this functionality have not been available. In this paper, we first describe the key tradeoffs faced by designers of streaming multimedia systems deploying time-compression. The implementation tradeoffs primarily impact the granularity of time-compression supported (discrete vs. continuous) and the latency (wait-time) experienced by users after adjusting degree of time-compression. We report results of user studies showing impact of these factors on the average-compression-rate achieved. We also present data on the usage patterns and benefits of time compression. Overall, we show significant time-savings for users and that considerable flexibility is available to the designers of client-server streaming systems with time compression.

© All rights reserved Omoigui et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mark, Gloria, Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (1999): Meeting at the desktop: An empirical study of virtually collocated teams. In: Bdker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark. p. 159.

 
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He, Liwei, Sanocki, Elizabeth, Gupta, Anoop and Grudin, Jonathan (1999): Auto-summarization of audio-video presentations. In: ACM Multimedia 1999 1999. pp. 489-498.

1998
 
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Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States.

 
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Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (1998): Conference Preview: CSCW '98: the 1998 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Nov. 14-18, 1998, Seattle, WA. In Interactions, 5 (5) pp. 41-43.

1996
 
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Gentner, Donald R. and Grudin, Jonathan (1996): Design Models for Computer-Human Interfaces. In IEEE Computer, 29 (6) pp. 28-35.

1995
 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Palen, Leysia (1995): Why Groupware Succeeds: Discretion or Mandate?. In: Marmolin, Hans, Sundblad, Yngve and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 95 - Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11-15 September, 1995, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 263-278.

Single-user applications are designed with a 'discretionary use' model. In contrast, for large systems, upper management support is considered crucial to adoption. Which applies to groupware? The relatively low cost of groupware reduces high-level visibility, but some argue that social dynamics will force mandated use -- the large system approach. Interview studies of recently adopted on-line meeting schedulers in two large organizations found successful, near-universal use achieved without managerial mandate. Versatile functionality and ease of use associated with discretionary products appeared to be factors leading to adoption. Other factors included organization-wide infrastructure and substantial peer pressure that developed over time.

© All rights reserved Grudin and Palen and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Baecker, Ronald M., Grudin, Jonathan, Buxton, Bill and Greenberg, Saul (eds.) (1995): Readings in Human-Computer Interaction: Toward the Year 2000. Morgan Kaufmann Publishers

1994
 
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Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (1994): Organizational Obstacles to Interface Design and Development: Two Participant-Observer Studies. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 1 (1) pp. 52-80.

The development of human-computer interfaces was studied in two large software product development organizations. Researchers joined development projects for approximately one month and participated in interface design while concurrently interviewing other project participants and employees, recording activity in meetings and on electronic networks, and otherwise observing the process. The two organizations differed in their approaches to development, and, in each case, the approach differed in practice from the model supported by the organizational structure. Development practices blocked the successful application of accepted principles of interface design. The obstacles to effective design included the inability of interface designers to obtain access to users, prototyping tools that allow minor changes to be tested but that constrain innovation, resistance to iterative design that results from people noticing and being affected by interface changes, and a lack of communication among those sharing responsibility for different aspects of the interface.

© All rights reserved Poltrock and and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1994): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: History and Focus. In IEEE Computer, 27 (5) pp. 19-26.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1994): Groupware and Social Dynamics: Eight Challenges for Developers. In Communications of the ACM, 37 (1) pp. 92-105.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Grinter, Rebecca E. (1994): Ethnography and design. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 3 (1) pp. 55-59.

1993
 
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Grnbk, Kaj, Grudin, Jonathan, Bdker, Susanne and Bannon, Liam (1993): Achieving Co-operative System Design - shifting from product to process focus. In: Schuler, D. and Namioka, A. (eds.). "Participatory Design: Perspectives of Systems Design". Hillsdale, New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associatespp. 79-98

 Cited in the following chapter:

Participatory Design: [Not yet published]


 
 
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Ishii, Hiroshi, Kobayashi, Minuro and Grudin, Jonathan (1993): Integration of Interpersonal Space and Shared Workspace: ClearBoard Design and Experiments. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 11 (4) pp. 349-375.

We describe the evolution of the novel shared drawing medium ClearBoard which was designed to seamlessly integrate an interpersonal space and a shared workspace. ClearBoard permits coworkers in two locations to draw with color markers or with electronic pens and software tools while maintaining direct eye contact and the ability to employ natural gestures. The ClearBoard design is based on the key metaphor of "talking through and drawing on a transparent glass window." We describe the evolution from ClearBoard-1 (which enables shared video drawing) to ClearBoard-2 (which incorporates TeamPaint, a multiuser paint editor). Initial observations and findings gained through the experimental use of the prototype, including the feature of "gaze awareness," are discussed. Further experiments are conducted with ClearBoard-0 (a simple mockup), ClearBoard-1, and an actual desktop as a control. In the settings we examined, the ClearBoard environment led to more eye contact and potential awareness of collaborator's gaze direction over the traditional desktop environment.

© All rights reserved Ishii et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan, MacLean, Allan and Overmyer, Scott (1993): Report on the 1992 East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction (St. Petersburg, Russia, August 4-8). In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (2) pp. 36-39.

The East-West International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction was held August 4-8, 1992 in St. Petersburg, Russia. The second conference in an annual series, it brought together researchers from the former USSR, Europe, the United States, Japan, and Australia. At the time of the 1991 conference, the USSR was still intact (by about two weeks). By 1992 it had become the Commonwealth of Independent States and the Baltic Republics (henceforth CIS/Baltic). The conference committee settled on the more stable (if not entirely accurate) designation "East-West" to characterize the communities that came together. Before summarizing the technical element of the conference, we will give a brief description of who was involved and how the conference was structured. This may be of particular interest to anyone considering attending in 1993.

© All rights reserved Grudin et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1993): Interface: An Evolving Concept. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (4) pp. 110-119.

1992
 
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Ishii, Hiroshi, Kobayashi, Makoto and Grudin, Jonathan (1992): Integration of Inter-Personal Space and Shared Workspace: ClearBoard Design and Experiments. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 33-42.

This paper describes the evolution of a novel shared drawing medium that permits co-workers in two different locations to draw with color markers or with electronic pens and software tools while maintaining direct eye contact and the ability to employ natural gestures. We describe the evolution from ClearBoard-1 (based on a video drawing technique) to ClearBoard-2 (which incorporates TeamPaint, a multi-user paint editor). Initial observations based on use and experimentation are reported. Further experiments are conducted with ClearBoard-0 (a simple mockup), with ClearBoard-1, and with an actual desktop as a control. These experiments verify the increase of eye contact and awareness of collaborator's gaze direction in ClearBoard environments where workspace and co-worker images compete for attention.

© All rights reserved Ishii et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fischer, Gerhard, Grudin, Jonathan, Lemke, Andreas C., McCall, Raymond, Ostwald, Jonathan, Reeves, Brent and Shipman III, Frank M. (1992): Supporting Indirect Collaborative Design with Integrated Knowledge-Based Design Environments. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (3) pp. 281-314.

We are developing a conceptual framework and a demonstration system for collaboration among members of design teams when direct communication among these members is impossible or impractical. Our research focuses on the long-term, indirect communication needs of project teams rather than the short-term needs of face-to-face communication or electronic mail. We address these needs with integrated, domain-oriented design environments. Our conceptual framework and our system-building efforts address two major issues: (a) How does individual work blend into project work (especially in large projects that span great distances and time)? and (b) What role do the work objects play in the coordination? We use a specific domain-oriented design environment (NETWORK-HYDRA -- for the design of computer networks) to illustrate our approach, and we discuss HYDRA as the underlying domain-independent, multifaceted architecture for design environments.

© All rights reserved Fischer et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1992): Utility and Usability: Research Issues and Development Contexts. In Interacting with Computers, 4 (2) pp. 209-217.

It is notoriously difficult to separate the function of interactive software from its form, to draw a line between software functionality and its human-computer interface. Nevertheless, two research communities exist in the USA, one focused on information system functionality and organizational impact, the other on human-computer dialogues or 'user interfaces' to systems and applications. These communities largely draw from different systems development contexts: in-house or internal development and off-the-shelf product development, respectively. Each has its own core set of issues, theoretical constructs, and terminologies. The histories of these research and development communities are summarized, points of contact are identified, and their possible evolution is suggested.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1992): Consistency, Standards, and Formal Approaches to Interface Development and Evaluation: A Note on Wiecha, Bennett, Boies, Gould, and Greene. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 10 (1) pp. 103-111.

1991
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1991): Obstacles to User Involvement in Software Product Development, with Implications for CSCW. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34 (3) pp. 435-452.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Participatory Design: [Not yet published]


 
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1991): CSCW: The Convergence of Two Development Contexts. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 91-97.

CSCW research and groupware development represent converging interests from two contexts of interactive systems development. Issues of group dynamics and organizational impact have primarily been explored in the in-house development of systems for organizations -- systems that support organizational goals. Similar issues are now being encountered by researchers and developers with a product development orientation who are seeking to support small groups. We have not integrated effectively the interests, experiences and approaches arising in these two development contexts. To do so, we have to go beyond what is shared and explore the differences.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1991): Systematic Sources of Suboptimal Interface Design in Large Product Development Organizations. In Human-Computer Interaction, 6 (2) pp. 147-196.

Many poor interface features are the result of carelessness, ignorance, or neglect in the development process. For these features, methods such as user involvement in iterative design with prototyping, the use of check lists and guidelines, and even formal evaluation can be of great help. However, there are strong forces present in development environments that block the use of such methods and distort interface designs in a systemic way. Because these forces serve legitimate goals, such as making a design simpler, more easily communicated, or more marketable, they are more difficult to counter; because developers are skilled at working toward those goals, the tangential effects on the interface usually pass unnoticed. This descriptive, empirical article describes these forces in the context of large organizations developing commercial off-the-shelf software products. Most points are supported by examples and by a logical argument. Not all of the phenomena may appear in a given development organization, but the overall picture of a complex environment in which interface development requires unwavering attention is quite general.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1991): Obstacles to User Involvement in Software Product Development, with Implications for CSCW. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34 (3) pp. 435-452.

This paper addresses one particular software development context: large product development organizations. It describes common obstacles that product developers face in obtaining knowledge about actual or potential users of their systems and applications. Many of these obstacles can be traced to organizational structures and development practices that arose prior to the widespread market for interactive systems. These observations apply to user involvement in human-computer interface development in general, but have particular relevance to CSCW and groupware development.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or Academic Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1991): A Tale of Two Cities: Reflections on CSCW in Europe and the United States. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (3) pp. 22-24.

 
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Cypher, Allen, Grudin, Jonathan, MacLean, Allan, Naimark, Michael, Okada, Ken-ichi, Patel, Mukesh, Press, Larry, Price, Blaine, Tarantola, Carlo and Welles, Marilyn (1991): The First Moscow International Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 11-12.

The First Moscow International Workshop on Human-Computer Interaction gathered approximately 15 non-Soviet and 75 Soviet computer professionals for a week-long workshop at the International Center for Scientific and Technical Information (ICSTI) in Moscow. At this workshop, 50 paper presentations and 25 product and prototype demos were presented. This report provides a brief description of the workshop and opportunities for future interaction.

© All rights reserved Cypher et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1991): Utility and Usability: Research Issues and Development Contexts. In: First Moscow International HCI91 Workshop Proceedings 1991. pp. 18-22.

It is notoriously difficult to separate the function of interactive software from its form, to draw a line between software functionality and its human-computer interface. Nevertheless, two research communities exist in the United States, one focused on information system functionality and organizational impact, the other on human-computer dialogues or "user interfaces" to systems and applications. These communities largely draw from different systems development contexts: in-house or internal development and off-the-shelf product development, respectively. Each has its own core set of issues, theoretical constructs, and terminologies. The histories of these research and development communities are summarized, points of contact are identified, and their possible evolution is suggested.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or Intl. Centre for Scientific And Technical Information

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1991): Interactive Systems: Bridging the Gaps Between Developers and Users. In IEEE Computer, 24 (4) pp. 59-69.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1991): CSCW - Introduction to the Special Section. In Communications of the ACM, 34 (12) pp. 30-34.

1990
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1990): Interface. In: Halasz, Frank (ed.) Proceedings of the 1990 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work October 07 - 10, 1990, Los Angeles, California, United States. pp. 269-278.

 
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Johnson, Jeff, Ehn, Pelle, Grudin, Jonathan, Nardi, Bonnie A., Thoresen, Kari and Suchman, Lucy A. (1990): Participatory Design of Computer Systems. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 141-144.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1990): The Computer Reaches Out: The Historical Continuity of Interface Design. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 261-268.

This paper examines the evolution of the focus of user interface research and development from the first production of commercial computer systems in the 1950s through the present. The term "user interface" was not needed in the beginning, when most users were engineers and programmers; it may again become inappropriate when more applications are written for groups than for individuals. But there is a continuity to the outward movement of the computer's interface to its external environment, from hardware to software to increasingly higher-level cognitive capabilities and finally to social processes. As the focus shifts, the approaches to design and the skills required of practitioners changes. In this paper five foci or levels of development are identified. Most development today is positioned in the third level and considerable research is directed at the fourth. Some attention is now being given to the fifth: repositioning the interface in the work group or organization itself. Work at the different levels is not entirely independent, so establishing a comprehensive framework may enable us to position existing research and development efforts and plan future work more effectively.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Gentner, Donald R. and Grudin, Jonathan (1990): Why Good Engineers (Sometimes) Create Bad Interfaces. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 277-282.

This paper presents a view of system design that shows how good engineering practice can lead to poor user interfaces. From the engineer's perspective, the ideal interface reflects the underlying mechanism and affords direct access to the control points of the mechanism. The designer of the user interface is often also the designer of the mechanism (or at least is very familiar with the mechanism), and thus has a strong bias toward basing the interface on the engineering model. The user, however, wants to complete a task, and an interface that is based on the task is often more appropriate than one based on the system mechanism. We discuss these issues, and also discuss where to position the user interface between the poles of the engineering model and the task model.

© All rights reserved Gentner and Grudin and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1990): Obstacles to User Involvement in Interface Design in Large Product Development Organizations. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 219-224.

Development of an "off-the-shelf" product typically starts with a product idea and limited knowledge of the eventual users. Since the functionality is partially predefined, the most natural focus for user involvement in design is the human-computer interface. However, large product development organizations contain inherent obstacles to involving existing or potential users even in interface design. Formed before the human-computer interface attained its present prominence, their organizational structures and development processes have evolved with minimal consideration of the particular needs of interface development. This paper outlines the problems in achieving and benefiting from user involvement in design that stem from typical divisions of responsibility and development processes. While overcoming such organizational constraints may ultimately require organizational change, those working within such an organization must be aware of the problems and constantly seek constructive paths around them.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or North-Holland

 
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Anderson, Richard I., Carroll, John M., McGrew, John F., Grudin, Jonathan and Scapin, Dominique L. (1990): Task Analysis: The Oft Missing Step in the Development of Computer-Human Interfaces; Its Desirable Nature, Value, and Role. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1051-1054.

1989
 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Poltrock, Steven (1989): User Interface Design in Large Corporations: Coordination and Communication Across Disciplines. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 197-203.

This report describes some of the results of a survey constructed to address the multidisciplinary, collaborative nature of user interface design as it is practiced in large software development organizations today. Survey forms were prepared for Software Engineers, Human Factors Engineers, Industrial Design Engineers, Technical Writers, Training Developers, and Marketing representatives. The survey was filled out by over 200 designers from multiple sites within 7 large companies. Previous interview studies of user interface design have relied on far smaller samples taken primarily from single organizations, and have focused on the individual designer's perspective, primarily that of programmers or software engineers. While surveys have limitations as information-gathering tools, the findings in this report suggest specific places where organizational change or tool development might improve the coordination or communication among the different professionals and managers who contribute to interface design in large company settings.

© All rights reserved Grudin and Poltrock and/or ACM Press

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1989): CSCW'88: Report on the Conference and Review of the Proceedings. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (4) pp. 80-84.

 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1989): The Case Against User Interface Consistency. In Communications of the ACM, 32 (10) pp. 1164-1173.

1988
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1988): Why CSCW Applications Fail: Problems in the Design and Evaluation of Organizational Interfaces. In: Greif, Irene (ed.) Proceedings of the 1988 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work September 26 - 28, 1988, Portland, Oregon, United States. pp. 85-93.

Many systems, applications, and features that support cooperative work share two characteristics: A significant investment has been made in their development, and their successes have consistently fallen far short of expectations. Examination of several application areas reveals a common dynamic: 1) A factor contributing to the application's failure is the disparity between those who will benefit from an application and those who must do additional work to support it. 2) A factor contributing to the decision-making failure that leads to ill-fated development efforts is the unique lack of management intuition for CSCW applications. 3) A factor contributing to the failure to learn from experience is the extreme difficulty of evaluating these applications. These three problem areas escape adequate notice due to two natural but ultimately misleading analogies: the analogy between multi-user application programs and multi-user computer systems, and the analogy between multi-user applications and single-user applications. These analogies influence the way we think about cooperative work applications and designers and decision-makers fail to recognize their limits. Several CSCW application areas are examined in some detail.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Computer Supported Cooperative Work: [/encyclopedia/cscw_computer_supported_cooperative_work.html]


 
 
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Grudin, Jonathan, Carroll, John M., Ehrlich, Sheryl M., Grisham, Mike, Hersh, Harry and Seybold, Patricia (1988): Integrating Human Factors and Software Development. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. pp. 157-159.

Approaches to integrating human factors or user interface knowledge and expertise with software development are still exploratory and evolving. The human-computer interface provides a broader range of user interface challenges than earlier technology, but human factors is only now starting to be widely recognized as a distinct discipline requiring integration with system development. Devoting human and computer resources to user interface enhancement has been considered a luxury, and in many places still is, but the falling cost of computational power and the growing user resistance to poor interfaces, as well as a rising need for product differentiation in the marketplace, insure that human factors will become a necessity where it has not already. The need to develop organizational approaches to support the integration of human factors or user interface expertise with product development is thus a relatively new concern. The integration problems that have been identified include some that are shared with more established support activities such as technical writing, and others that are particular to human factors or result from the relative unfamiliarity of the discipline.

© All rights reserved Grudin et al. and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1987): Social Evaluation of the User Interface: Who Does the Work and Who Gets the Benefit?. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 805-811.

When an application requires the involvement of several users, evaluating its functionality and interface becomes more complex: that which benefits one user might not benefit another. An application program written to support cooperative work may present a systematic imbalance in the efforts required of and benefits obtained by different categories of user. Such imbalances may affect the acceptance and use of a product in unforeseen ways. The collective benefit to the group may be difficult to measure, and even if established, may be difficult to communicate effectively to those who do not benefit directly. In weighing a potential development project, decision-makers may be inordinately influenced by the attractiveness of the system to managers such as themselves, and not perceive that the requisite cooperation of other users of the application will not be forthcoming when those users do not benefit equally. In the absence of careful analysis, decisions to build unworkable systems are not only possible, but likely. These points are elaborated through the examination of several multi-user application areas in the context of evolving technology trends, organizational practices, and social tendencies.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or North-Holland

 
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Grudin, Jonathan, Ehrlich, Susan F. and Shriner, Rick (1987): Positioning human factors in the user interface development chain. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 125-131.

1986
 
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Grudin, Jonathan (1986): Designing in the Dark: Logics that Compete with the User. In: Mantei, Marilyn and Orbeton, Peter (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 86 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 13-17, 1986, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 281-284.

Skills developed by software user interface designers to solve problems in communication, management, implementation, and other areas may influence design decisions in the absence of sufficient knowledge of user populations. Given today's rapid changes in both "faces" to the software interface -- user populations and software functionality -- the first pass at a design may be made without sufficient understanding of the relevant goals and behaviors of the eventual users. Without this information, designers are less able to grasp "user logic", and may rely on more familiar "logics" that are useful in other problem-solving arenas. Understanding how these approaches can affect a design may help us recognize them across a wide range of contexts and enable us to focus the human factors contribution to the design evolution process.

© All rights reserved Grudin and/or ACM Press

1985
 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Barnard, Philip J. (1985): When Does an Abbreviation Become a Word? And Related Questions. In: Borman, Lorraine and Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 121-125.

An experiment is reported in which subjects previously naive to text editing learned to use a set of editing commands. Some subjects used abbreviations from the beginning. Others began by using full command names, then switched to the (optional) use of abbreviations, either of their own devising or of our selection. We found significant differences in the number and nature of the errors produced by subjects in the different conditions. People who created their own abbreviations did most poorly, and did not appear to learn from this experience. Those who used abbreviations from the start were more likely to fall into error through misrecalling the referent names. The results suggest aspects of the underlying cognitive representations, with implications for the design of software interfaces.

© All rights reserved Grudin and Barnard and/or ACM Press

1984
 
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Grudin, Jonathan and Barnard, Philip J. (1984): The Role of Prior Task Experience in Command Name Abbreviation. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 295-299.

An experiment is reported in which subjects previously naive to text editing are asked to generate abbreviations for a set of editing commands. We manipulated the degree of the subjects' experience with the editing task prior to the point at which they were asked to produce the abbreviations. We found effects of experience on both the length and the form of the abbreviations produced, with more experienced subjects inclined toward shorter abbreviations and, independently, toward truncation as an abbreviation scheme. We conclude that experimental paradigms previously used to investigate naming and abbreviation may have encouraged subjects to construe their task falsely as one in which they would be using abbreviations to reconstruct referent names, whereas the actual task involved recalling the abbreviation given recall of the referent object or its name.

© All rights reserved Grudin and Barnard and/or North-Holland

 
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Grudin, Jonathan and MacLean, Allan (1984): Adapting a Psychophysical Method to Measure Performance and Preference Tradeoffs in Human-Computer Interaction. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 737-741.

An experimental methodology for contrasting certain design alternatives and quickly determining user preferences and performance tradeoffs is presented. It is shown how this experimental paradigm, used for psychophysical measurement, may be applied to the field of human-computer interaction. Where it can be applied, it promises a relatively quick determination of user preference and performance characteristics and tradeoffs on these measures with variation in parameters governing the user situation. Because the methodology is within-subject, it may also facilitate the study of individual differences.

© All rights reserved Grudin and MacLean and/or North-Holland

 
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URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/jonathan_grudin.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1984-2012
Pub. count:105
Number of co-authors:96



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

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Anoop Gupta:12
Elizabeth Sanocki:6

 

 

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Jonathan Grudin's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

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