Publication statistics

Pub. period:1984-2011
Pub. count:47
Number of co-authors:59



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Clare-Marie Karat:20
Carolyn Brodie:6
John Bennett:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

John Karat's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Alistair G. Sutcli..:148
Mary Beth Rosson:142
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
Gamification: Creating Addictive User Experience
Starts TODAY LAST CALL!
go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 3
68% booked. Starts in 27 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
 
 

John Karat

Ph.D

Picture of John Karat.
Update pic
Has also published under the name of:
"J. Karat"

Personal Homepage:
researcher.watson.ibm.com/researcher/view.php?person=us-jkarat


Current place of employment:
IBM T.J. Watson Research Center

John Karat is an internationally recognized researcher in the field of human-computer interaction. Over his career with IBM Development (1982-1987) and Research (1987-current) he has worked on the development of guidelines and principles for user interface design (including the chairing committees for the development of ANSI and ISO standards), researched and advised on design collaboration, researched and developed speech-based systems (including the design of IBM's large vocabulary desktop speech recognition system), researched and designed electronic medical record systems for Kaiser Colorado Region and Barnes Hospital in St Louis), and information search and unstructured knowledge management, entertainment applications, personalization. John is currently involved in research on privacy and information system policy management. At IBM Research, he has been a researcher, project leader, and manager. John is currently co-leader of the IBM Privacy Research Institute, researcher on a project to enable end-to-end management of privacy policies in natural language, and project leader for an open collaborative research (OCR) initiative in privacy and security policy management with Carnegie Mellon and Purdue Universities. He has been awarded several patents (addressing speech recognition interfaces, and general help systems) and received a number of internal IBM awards for invention achievement and other contributions. Recent publications have been in the areas of speech user interfaces (best paper award at the 1999 IFIP INTERACT conference), personalization (including an edited book Designing Personalized User Experiences in eCommerce published by Kluwer), and development of a policy management workbench for privacy (Best paper nominee at ACM SIGCHI 2006). John has served ACM in a number of ways. He has been a member of the SIGCHI Extended Executive Committee since 1994, serving to expand its international base. From 1995 to 1998, he was a member of the Board of Directors for the ACM and IEEE/CS FOCUS organization (Federation on Computing in the United States) established to represent the US in the International Federation for Information Processing (IFIP). John was the US representative to the IFIP Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction (TC13 from 1991 to 1998), the ACM representative to this organization from 1998 through 2006, and Chair of TC13 from 2001 to 2004. In this period he helped organize the first international HCI conferences in China (2002), India (2004), and Brazil (2007). He contributed to the expansion of the HCI field to bring design into a more prominent role - organizing an early workshop on the topic, and editing a book (Taking software design seriously published by Academic Press in 1991. John helped establish the successful ACM conference Designing Interactive Systems (DIS) in 1995 and chaired the conference in 2000. As a leading researcher in HCI, John has published over 60 articles in professional and technical journals, delivered keynote addresses at international conferences (most recently Asia Pacific CHI in Beijing in 2002 and India International Conference on HCI in Bangalore in 2004), taught courses, edited a book on software design techniques, and has authored numerous chapters in recently published books. Throughout his career he has balanced contributions to his employers with contribution to the professional community. He served as chair of national (ANSI 200) and international user interface standards development committees (ISO TC 159), on the editorial board for 3 Journals (International Journal of Cognitive Ergonomics, Universal Access in the Information Society, and Interactions) and as editor of one (Behaviour and Information Technology), has held executive positions in several professional societies, and is currently co-editor-in-chief of the Springer book series in human-computer-interaction.

Edit author info
Rename / change spelling
Add publication
 

Publications by John Karat (bibliography)

 what's this?
2011
 
Edit | Del

Karat, Clare-Marie and Karat, John (2011): Industrial HCI Research: A Personal and Professional Perspective. In Journal of Usability Studies, 7 (1) pp. 1-8.

2010
 
Edit | Del

Johnson, Maritza, Karat, John, Karat, Clare-Marie and Grueneberg, Keith (2010): Optimizing a policy authoring framework for security and privacy policies. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2010. p. 8.

Policies which address security and privacy are pervasive parts of both technical and social systems, and technology to enable both organizations and individuals to create and manage such policies is seen as a critical need in IT. This paper describes policy authoring as a key component to usable privacy and security systems, and advances the notions of policy templates in a policy management environment in which different roles with different skill sets are seen as important. We discuss existing guidelines and provide support for the addition of new guidelines for usable policy authoring for security and privacy systems. We describe the relationship between general policy templates and specific policies, and the skills necessary to author each of these in a way that produces high-quality policies. We also report on an experiment in which technical users with limited policy experience authored policy templates using a prototype template authoring user interface we developed.

© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or their publisher

2008
 
Edit | Del

Vaniea, Kami, Karat, Clare-Marie, Gross, Joshua B., Karat, John and Brodie, Carolyn (2008): Evaluating assistance of natural language policy authoring. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2008. pp. 65-73.

The goal of the research study reported here was to investigate policy authors' ability to take descriptions of changes to policy situations and author high-quality, complete policy rules that would parse with high accuracy. As a part of this research, we investigated ways in which we could assist policy authors in writing policies. This paper presents the results of a user study on the effectiveness of providing syntax highlighting in a natural language policy authoring interface. While subjects liked the new interface, they showed no improvement in accuracy when writing rules. We discuss our results in terms of a three phase authoring process that users move through when authoring or modifying policies. We describe this process, discuss why and how our interface failed to support it and make recommendations to designers on how to better support this process.

© All rights reserved Vaniea et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
Edit | Del

Reeder, Robert W., Karat, Clare-Marie, Karat, John and Brodie, Carolyn (2007): Usability Challenges in Security and Privacy Policy-Authoring Interfaces. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 141-155.

2006
 
Edit | Del

Karat, Clare-Marie, Karat, John, Brodie, Carolyn and Feng, Jinjuan (2006): Evaluating interfaces for privacy policy rule authoring. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 83-92.

Privacy policy rules are often written in organizations by a team of people in different roles. Currently, people in these roles have no technological tools to guide the creation of clear and implementable high-quality privacy policy rules. High-quality privacy rules can be the basis for verifiable automated privacy access decisions. An empirical study was conducted with 36 users who were novices in privacy policy authoring to evaluate the quality of rules created and user satisfaction with two experimental privacy authoring tools and a control condition. Results show that users presented with scenarios were able to author significantly higher quality rules using either the natural language with a privacy rule guide tool or a structured list tool as compared to an unguided natural language control condition. The significant differences in quality were found in both user self-ratings of rule quality and objective quality scores. Users ranked the two experimental tools significantly higher than the control condition. Implications of the research and future research directions are discussed.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Karat, John, Bodker, Suzanne and Gaver, William (2006): Can we measure quality in design and do we need to?. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 119-121.

The new usability agenda is driving empirical and experimental studies into a growing range of quality criteria such as engagement, user experience, and aesthetics. Some see this as a positive move to theorise about the nature of good design qualities, and to objectively test such hypotheses on the new usability theme. However, others (e.g. [1], [2]) have argued for interpretation-based inquiry into user engagement and experience on the grounds that such phenomena can only be understood by investigations into contexts of use which defy quantitative approaches. Many in the design community would agree with them and go further to argue that quality in design is a matter of creativity and can not be measured or theorised per se; instead, research should focus on understanding and improving the process of design. This panel will debate the tensions between these positions and explore possible common ground between them as a contribution towards the research agenda that is being debated in the DIS conference series.

© All rights reserved Sutcliffe et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Brodie, Carolyn A., Karat, Clare-Marie and Karat, John (2006): An empirical study of natural language parsing of privacy policy rules using the SPARCLE policy workbench. In: Proceedings of the 2006 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2006. pp. 8-19.

Today organizations do not have good ways of linking their written privacy policies with the implementation of those policies. To assist organizations in addressing this issue, our human-centered research has focused on understanding organizational privacy management needs, and, based on those needs, creating a usable and effective policy workbench called SPARCLE. SPARCLE will enable organizational users to enter policies in natural language, parse the policies to identify policy elements and then generate a machine readable (XML) version of the policy. In the future, SPARCLE will then enable mapping of policies to the organization's configuration and provide audit and compliance tools to ensure that the policy implementation operates as intended. In this paper, we present the strategies employed in the design and implementation of the natural language parsing capabilities that are part of the functional version of the SPARCLE authoring utility. We have created a set of grammars which execute on a shallow parser that are designed to identify the rule elements in privacy policy rules. We present empirical usability evaluation data from target organizational users of the SPARCLE system and highlight the parsing accuracy of the system with the organizations' privacy policies. The successful implementation of the parsing capabilities is an important step towards our goal of providing a usable and effective method for organizations to link the natural language version of privacy policies to their implementation, and subsequent verification through compliance auditing of the enforcement logs.

© All rights reserved Brodie et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Karat, Clare-Marie, Brodie, Carolyn and Karat, John (2006): Usable privacy and security for personal information management. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (1) pp. 56-57.

2005
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John, Karat, Clare-Marie, Brodie, Carolyn and Feng, Jinjuan (2005): Privacy in information technology: Designing to enable privacy policy management in organizations. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 63 (1) pp. 153-174.

As information technology continues to spread, we believe that there will be an increasing awareness of a fundamental need to address privacy concerns, and that doing so will require an understanding of policies that govern information use accompanied by development of technologies that can implement such policies. The research reported here describes our efforts to design a system which facilitates privacy policy authoring, implementation, and compliance monitoring. We employed a variety of user-centered design methods with 109 target users across the four steps of the research reported here. This case study highlights the work of identifying organizational privacy requirements, iteratively designing and validating a prototype with target users, and conducting laboratory tests to guide specific design decisions to meet the needs of providing flexible privacy enabling technologies. Each of the four steps in our work is identified and described, and directions for future work in privacy are suggested.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or Academic Press

 
Edit | Del

Patil, S., Alpert, S. R., Karat, John and Wolf, Catherine G. (2005): "THAT's What I Was Looking for": Comparing User-Rated Relevance with Search Engine Rankings. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 117-129.

We present a lightweight tool to compare the relevance ranking provided by a search engine to the relevance as actually judged by the user performing the query. Using the tool, we conducted a user study with two different versions of the search engine for a large corporate web site with more than 1.8 million pages, and with the popular search engine GoogleTM. Our tool provides an inexpensive and efficient way to do this comparison, and can be easily extended to any search engine that provides an API. Relevance feedback from actual users can be used to assess precision and recall of a search engine's retrieval algorithms and, perhaps more importantly, to tune its relevance ranking algorithms to better match user needs. We found the tool to be quite effective at comparing different versions of the same search engine, and for benchmarking by comparing against a standard.

© All rights reserved Patil et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John, Karat, Clare-Marie, Brodie, C. and Feng, J. (2005): Designing Natural Language and Structured Entry Methods for Privacy Policy Authoring. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 671-684.

As information technology continues to spread, we believe that there will be an increasing awareness of a fundamental need to seriously consider privacy concerns, and that doing so will require an understanding of policies that govern information use accompanied by development of technologies that can implement such policies. The research reported here describes our efforts to design a system which facilitates effective privacy policy authoring, implementation, and compliance monitoring. We employed a variety of user-centered design methods with 109 target users across the four steps of the research reported here. This case study highlights our work to iteratively design and validate a prototype with target users, and presents a laboratory evaluation aimed at providing early support for specific design decisions to meet the needs of providing flexible privacy enabling technologies. This paper highlights our work to include natural language and structured entry methods for policy authoring.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
Edit | Del

Brodie, Carolyn, Karat, Clare-Marie, Karat, John and Feng, Jinjuan (2005): Usable security and privacy: a case study of developing privacy management tools. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2005. pp. 35-43.

Privacy is a concept which received relatively little attention during the rapid growth and spread of information technology through the 1980's and 1990's. Design to make information easily accessible, without particular attention to issues such as whether an individual had a desire or right to control access to and use of particular information was seen as the more pressing goal. We believe that there will be an increasing awareness of a fundamental need to address privacy concerns in information technology, and that doing so will require an understanding of policies that govern information use as well as the development of technologies that can implement such policies. The research reported here describes our efforts to design a privacy management workbench which facilitates privacy policy authoring, implementation, and compliance monitoring. This case study highlights the work of identifying organizational privacy requirements, analyzing existing technology, on-going research to identify approaches that address these requirements, and iteratively designing and validating a prototype with target users for flexible privacy technologies.

© All rights reserved Brodie et al. and/or ACM Press

2004
 
Edit | Del

Karat, Clare-Marie, Blom, Jan O. and Karat, John (eds.) (2004): Designing Personalized User Experiences in eCommerce. Springer-Verlag

2001
 
Edit | Del

Karat, Clare-Marie, Pinhanez, C., Karat, John, Arora, R. and Vergo, J. (2001): Less Clicking, More Watching: Results of the Iterative Design and Evaluation of Entertaining Web Experiences. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 455-463.

2000
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John, Karat, Clare-Marie and Ukelson, Jacob P. (2000): The human element: affordances, motivation, and the design of user interfaces. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (8) pp. 49-51.

1999
 
Edit | Del

Karat, Clare-Marie, Halverson, Christine, Karat, John and Horn, Daniel (1999): Patterns of Entry and Correction in Large Vocabulary Continuous Speech Recognition Systems. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 568-575.

A study was conducted to evaluate user performance and satisfaction in completion of a set of text creation tasks using three commercially available continuous speech recognition systems. The study also compared user performance on similar tasks using keyboard input. One part of the study (Initial Use) involved 24 users who enrolled, received training and carried out practice tasks, and then completed a set of transcription and composition tasks in a single session. In a parallel effort (Extended Use), four researchers used speech recognition to carry out real work tasks over 10 sessions with each of the three speech recognition software products. This paper presents results from the Initial Use phase of the study along with some preliminary results from the Extended Use phase. We present details of the kinds of usability and system design problems likely in current systems and several common patterns of error correction that we found.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or ACM Press

1998
 
Edit | Del

Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California.

1997
 
Edit | Del

Coble, Janette M., Karat, John and Kahn, Michael G. (1997): Maintaining a Focus on User Requirements Throughout the Development of Clinical Workstation Software. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 170-177.

Establishing user requirements is well recognized as a critical step in the development of useful and usable systems (e.g., [5]). Recent innovations in human-computer interaction design address new methods for effective requirements gathering, such as Participatory Design and Contextual Inquiry (e.g., [7], [9]). However, even when projects use these methods successfully to collect valid requirement descriptions, it remains a challenge to establish a process that makes direct use of those descriptions during software development [11]. Valuable requirements information can be lost as it is reinterpreted during the development of functional specifications and the implementation of the proposed system. We describe the several steps we have taken to keep an ongoing and evolving understanding of user requirements under consideration by system designers and developers as they face the "real" (to them) requirements of adapting function to the constraints of computer platforms, project cost, and delivery schedule. The specific work reported here applies to the design of software for a clinical workstation used to review medical information. However, we believe the lessons we learned, maintaining the influence of user requirements throughout the development process, will apply in other practical system development situations.

© All rights reserved Coble et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Wolf, Catherine G. and Karat, John (1997): Capturing What is Needed in Multi-User System Design: Observations from the Design of Three Healthcare Systems. In: Proceedings of DIS97: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1997. pp. 405-415.

The design of large-scale collaborative multi-user systems requires both a detailed understanding of the work of many individuals and an understanding of how the individual pieces fit together in the larger organizational context. In order to manage the complexity of the design task, designers develop and use various representations of work practices which selectively include some details, but omit others. This paper presents some heuristics based on our experience in the design of three healthcare systems that can help designers in determining what information needs to be included in representations for the design of multi-user systems. We present eight questions which can be used to capture important work practice information. We include a retrospective analysis of several design examples and suggest how the use of these questions can be integrated into design practice.

© All rights reserved Wolf and Karat and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John and Karat, Clare-Marie (1997): Future Ethics. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 29 (1) pp. 4-6.

 
Edit | Del

Coble, Janette M., Karat, John, Orland, Matthew J. and Kahn, Michael G. (1997): Iterative usability testing: Ensuring a usable clinical workstation. In: Proceedings of the AMIA Annual Fall Symposium 1997. pp. 744-748.

Once the users' needs are determined, how does one ensure that the resulting software meets the users' needs? This paper describes our application of a process, usability testing, that is used to measure the usability of systems as well as guide modifications to address usability problems. Usability testing is not a method to elicit opinions about software, but rather a method to determine scientifically a product's level of usability. Our application of usability testing is designed to determine the current usability level of a workstation designed for the clinician's use, determine specific problems with the Clinical Workstation's usability, and then evaluate the effectiveness of changes that address those problems.

© All rights reserved Coble et al. and/or Hanley and Belfus

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1997): Evolving the Scope of User-Centered Design. In Communications of the ACM, 40 (7) pp. 33-38.

1996
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1996): User Centered Design: Quality or Quackery?. In Interactions, 3 (4) pp. 18-20.

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John and Karat, Clare-Marie (1996): Perspectives on Design and Internationalization. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (1) pp. 39-40.

1995
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John and Dayton, Tom (1995): Practical Education for Improving Software Usability. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 162-169.

A usable software system is one that supports the effective and efficient completion of tasks in a given work context. In most cases of the design and development of commercial software, usability is not dealt with at the same level as other aspects of software engineering (e.g., clear usability objectives are not set, resources for appropriate activities are not given priority by project management). One common consequence is the assignment of responsibility for usability to people who do not have appropriate training, or who are trained in behavioral sciences rather than in more product-oriented fields such as design or engineering. Relying on our experiences in industrial settings, we make personal suggestions of activities for the realistic and practical alternative of training development team members as usability advocates. Our suggestions help meet the needs specified in the recent Strong et al. [21] report on human-computer interaction education, research, and practice.

© All rights reserved Karat and Dayton and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Danis, Catalina and Karat, John (1995): Technology-Driven Design of Speech Recognition Systems. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 17-24.

End-users and application developers are increasingly considering use of large vocabulary automatic speech recognition (ASR) technology for tasks that involve entering large volumes of text into a computer. Interest is in part fueled by the overwhelmingly positive reviews the technology is receiving in the trade press and at major trade shows. While acknowledging the impressive advances in ASR technology in recent years, critics nevertheless point out that problems with ASR-enabled applications currently preclude them from being broadly considered viable alternatives to keyboard input. In this paper, we argue that to become a generally viable alternative to keyboard input, ASR needs to undergo a transformation from a laboratory technology into a human computer interaction (HCI) technique. That is, we must discover how the technology should be used to support users engaged in productive work. We propose that to bring this about, designers must engage in building applications grounded in real work contexts now, even though the technology is still at an immature stage of development. We call this approach technology-driven design to emphasize our goal of advancing the technology in our design activities. Not as apparent in this label, but of great importance to our approach, is a commitment to the involvement of users in every aspect of system design.

© All rights reserved Danis and Karat and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1995): World-Wide CHI: `Issue Process' Featured at IFIP Congress '94. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 27 (2) pp. 11-14.

1994
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1994): International Perspectives: Joe's Diner, McDonald's, and SIGCHI. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (2) pp. 4-5.

 
Edit | Del

Carroll, John M., Alpert, Sherman R., Karat, John, Deusen, Mary S. Van and Rosson, Mary Beth (1994): Raison d'Etre: capturing design history and rationale in mutimedia narratives. In: Plaisant, Catherine (ed.) Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 1994, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, April 24-28, 1994, Conference Companion 1994. p. 213.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]


 
1993
 
Edit | Del

Maguire, M., Dillon, Andrew, Brooke, John, Gerven, Johan van, Bevan, Nigel, Paci, Anna Maria, Karat, John and Shackel, Brian (1993): Usability Measurement -- Its Practical Value to the Computer Industry. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 145-148.

This panel will consider the role of usability measurement in the design process. It will address the time needed to perform usability evaluations and compare this process with that of expert assessment. This topic will be discussed in the industrial context of developing computer products within strict timescales. However it will also be seen against the traditional problem of needing to set usability goals and to measure their achievement if usability is to be given the same priority as the more technical software engineering objectives.

© All rights reserved Maguire et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1993): Defining Roles in International Communication within HCI. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (1) pp. 8-9.

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John and Karat, Clare-Marie (1993): Understanding the International Community and Their Concerns. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (2) p. 7.

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1993): IFIP's Technical Committee on Information Systems. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (3) pp. 9-10.

 
Edit | Del

Dayton, Tom, Barr, Bob, Burke, Pamela A., Cohill, Andrew M., Day, Mary Carol, Dray, Susan M., Ehrlich, Kate, Fitzsimmons, Lynne Axel, Henneman, Richard L., Hornstein, Susan B., Karat, John and Kliger, Jill (1993): Skills Needed by User-Centered Design Practitioners in Real Software Development Environments: Report on the CHI'92 Workshop. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (3) pp. 16-31.

User-centered design (UCD) of human-computer interfaces-including task flow and documentation-is gaining acceptance in software development organizations. But managers who want their organizations to start using UCD often do not know what characteristics to look for, in candidates for hiring or retraining to fill UCD roles; this article can help. It has the recommendations from participants in a CHI '92 conference workshop on this topic. The 16 workshop participants were UCD practitioners and managers from companies and a few universities across the United States, Canada, and Sweden. This article first describes some typical roles of UCD practitioners in software development organizations. There follows a list of attributes that UCD practitioners should have. Some attributes should be had by all practitioners, regardless of their subspecialties. The most important of those universal attributes are of three types: knowledge that can be acquired formally (e.g., of the human-computer interaction literature, cognitive processes, experimental design, rapid prototyping), skill that can be gotten from experience (e.g., estimating resources needed to do a job, commitment to users, understanding of the software development process, negotiating ability, enjoyment of working on teams, ability to really listen), and attributes that are harder to acquire (e.g., tenacity, flexibility). Every practitioner needs other characteristics as well, but their importances differ by the practitioners' subspecialties (e.g., a design team leader needs team management skills).

© All rights reserved Dayton et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John and Karat, Clare-Marie (1993): A Human Interface Society Abroad. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (4) p. 12.

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John and Bennett, John (1993): CSCW'92 Workshop Report: Understanding and Supporting Successful Group Work in Software Design. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (4) pp. 51-56.

Fifteen people participated in the one day workshop held at CSCW'92 in Toronto on October 31, 1992. The workshop announcement invited experienced practitioners and reflective researchers to submit short position papers as background for discussion. The focus was on how people doing software design activities in groups can be effectively supported. Our overall objective was to create a dialog within which we could characterize a microcosm of group work that takes place during the complex activity of design. If we could develop some understanding of design aspects, we could then identify different types of support and interventions that might be helpful. In this way each of us as individuals in our subsequent work might increase the probability of outcomes considered successful in terms of both design team results and design team processes.

© All rights reserved Karat and Bennett and/or ACM Press

1992
 
Edit | Del

Karat, Clare-Marie and Karat, John (1992): Some Dialogue on Scenarios. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (4) p. 7.

1991
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1991): International Perspectives: Some Thoughts on Differences between North American and European HCI. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (4) pp. 9-10.

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (ed.) (1991): Taking Software Design Seriously: Practical Techniques for Human-Computer Interaction Design. New York, Academic Press

1990
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John and Bennett, John (1990): Supporting Effective and Efficient Design Meetings. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 365-370.

We present a description of the methodology employed in our evolving user-centered design framework. Our experience suggests that the quality of human-computer-interaction (HCI) supported by a system design will be strongly influenced by the insight generated in design work at early stages of development. Our methodology focuses on creating a shared vision and working environment within the design team for productive action on system objectives, constraints, resources, and proposed designs. Two aspects of the methodology which we focus on are use of the walls of a "design room" to hold representation of the design-in-progress, and fostering collaboration through discussions by team members with different skills and perspectives. Our experience indicates that the framework and techniques used within it are generally applicable, but that successful use requires attention to characteristics of each particular design project and group.

© All rights reserved Karat and Bennett and/or North-Holland

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John and Dayton, Tom (1990): Taking Design Seriously: Exploring Techniques Useful in HCI Design. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 22 (2) pp. 26-33.

1989
 
Edit | Del

Butler, Keith A., Bennett, John, Polson, Peter G. and Karat, John (1989): Report on the Workshop on Analytical Models. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (4) pp. 63-79.

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1989): The Relation of Psychological Theory to Human-Computer Interaction Standards. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1989. pp. 582-588.

With increasing presence of computers in society, there have been calls from a number of sources for standardization of human-computer interfaces. Such standardization could contribute to the quality of computer software if the standards helped produce systems which both matched the needs and capabilities of users, and enabled them to easily acquire knowledge needed to use the systems and transfer previously learned skills. One question that we can ask of the science base we are attempting to apply to HCI design is whether or not such standards might possibly be based on theory. While it is not possible to offer a theoretically based HCI standard at this time, theoretical research in cognitive psychology can offer some suggestions for developers of standards.

© All rights reserved Karat and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1987
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John, Fowler, Richard and Gravelle, Mary (1987): Evaluating User Interface Complexity. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 489-495.

This paper presents an attempt to utilize a formal model in the study of user interface development. A study was conducted to examine learning and performance differences between a command language and a direct manipulation system. Subjects initially unfamiliar with computer systems learned file management functions and carried out a series of tasks on one of the systems. Experimental results point out large differences in performance between the command language and direct manipulation systems which favor direct manipulation. Formal models of the knowledge required to use the systems were developed following the framework suggested by Kieras and Polson [1]. There are difficulties in mapping predictions from the formal models to the experimental data for the systems involved. Analysis suggests that inability of the formal model to predict error data was a basic problem with the formal analysis.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or North-Holland

 
Edit | Del

Karat, John (1987): Evaluating User Interface Complexity. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 31st Annual Meeting 1987. pp. 566-570.

A study was conducted to examine learning and performance differences between a command language and a direct manipulation system. Experimental results point out large differences in performance between the command language and direct manipulation systems which favor direct manipulation. Formal models of the knowledge required to use the systems were developed following the framework suggested by Kieras and Polson (1985). Failure of the formal models to accurately predict the advantages for the direct manipulation system are traced to insufficient emphasis on error behavior.

© All rights reserved Karat and/or Human Factors Society

1986
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John, McDonald, James E. and Anderson, Matt (1986): A Comparison of Menu Selection Techniques: Touch Panel, Mouse and Keyboard. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 25 (1) pp. 73-88.

Two studies were conducted to test user performance and attitudes for three types of selection devices used in computer systems. The techniques examined included on-screen direct pointing (touch panel), off-screen pointer manipulation (mouse), and typed identification (keyboard). Both experiments tested subjects on target selection practice tasks, and in typical computer applications using menu selection and keyboard typing. The first experiment examined the performance and preferences of 24 subjects. The second experiment used 48 subjects divided into two typing skill groups and into male-female categories. The studies showed performance advantages for on-screen touch panel entry. Preference ratings for the touch panel and keyboard devices depended on the type of task being performed, while the mouse was always the least preferred device. Differences between this result and those reporting an advantage of mouse selection are discussed.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or Academic Press

1984
 
Edit | Del

Karat, John, McDonald, James E. and Anderson, Matt (1984): A Comparison of Selection Techniques: Touch Panel, Mouse and Keyboard. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 189-193.

A study was conducted testing user performance and attitudes for three types of selection devices. The subjects were tested on target selection practice tasks, and in typical computer applications using menu selection and keyboard typing. The study showed an advantage for on-screen touch panel over keyboard selection, and for keyboard selection over mouse entry. Differences between this result and those reporting an advantage of mouse selection are discussed.

© All rights reserved Karat et al. and/or North-Holland

 
Add publication
Show list on your website
 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
Join our community!
 
 
 

Changes to this page (author)

23 Nov 2012: Modified
31 Oct 2011: Modified
02 Nov 2010: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
25 Jul 2009: Modified
09 Jul 2009: Added
08 Apr 2009: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
12 May 2008: Modified
09 Dec 2007: Added
17 Oct 2007: Added
24 Jul 2007: Modified
24 Jul 2007: Modified
24 Jul 2007: Modified
28 Jun 2007: Added
27 Jun 2007: Modified
27 Jun 2007: Modified
27 Jun 2007: Modified
25 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
23 Jun 2007: Modified
23 Jun 2007: Modified
23 Jun 2007: Modified
22 Jun 2007: Modified
22 Jun 2007: Modified
22 Jun 2007: Modified
19 Jun 2007: Modified
28 Apr 2003: Added

Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/john_karat.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1984-2011
Pub. count:47
Number of co-authors:59



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Clare-Marie Karat:20
Carolyn Brodie:6
John Bennett:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

John Karat's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Alistair G. Sutcli..:148
Mary Beth Rosson:142
 
 
 

Upcoming Courses

go to course
Gamification: Creating Addictive User Experience
Starts TODAY LAST CALL!
go to course
User-Centred Design - Module 3
68% booked. Starts in 27 days
 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
 
 
 
 
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading