Publication statistics

Pub. period:1998-2012
Pub. count:90
Number of co-authors:107



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

John Zimmerman:18
Scott E. Hudson:13
Sara Kiesler:13

 

 

Productive colleagues

Jodi Forlizzi's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
Scott E. Hudson:113
Jacob O. Wobbrock:71
 
 
 

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Jodi Forlizzi

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I hold the position of Associate Professor in Design and Human Computer Interaction, and the A. Nico Habermann Junior Faculty Chair in the School of Computer Science.

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Publications by Jodi Forlizzi (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Rule, Adam and Forlizzi, Jodi (2012): Designing interfaces for multi-user, multi-robot systems. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2012. pp. 97-104.

The use of autonomous robots in organizations is expected to increase steadily over the next few decades. Although some empirical work exists that examines how people collaborate with robots, little is known about how to best design interfaces to support operators in understanding aspects of the task or tasks at hand. This paper presents a design investigation to understand how interfaces should be designed to support multi-user, multi-robot teams. Through contextual inquiry, concept generation, and concept evaluation, we determine what operators should see, and with what salience different types of information should be presented. We present our findings through a series of design questions that development teams can use to help define interaction and design interfaces for these systems.

© All rights reserved Rule and Forlizzi and/or their publisher

 
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Lee, Min Kyung, Forlizzi, Jodi, Kiesler, Sara, Rybski, Paul, Antanitis, John and Savetsila, Sarun (2012): Personalization in HRI: a longitudinal field experiment. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2012. pp. 319-326.

Creating and sustaining rapport between robots and people is critical for successful robotic services. As a first step towards this goal, we explored a personalization strategy with a snack delivery robot. We designed a social robotic snack delivery service, and, for half of the participants, personalized the service based on participants' service usage and interactions with the robot. The service ran for each participant for two months. We evaluated this strategy during a 4-month field experiment. The results show that, as compared with the social service alone, adding personalized service improved rapport, cooperation, and engagement with the robot during service encounters.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Fan, Chloe, Forlizzi, Jodi and Dey, Anind (2012): Considerations for technology that support physical activity by older adults. In: Fourteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2012. pp. 33-40.

Barriers to physical activity prevent older adults from meeting recommended physical activity levels necessary for maintaining quality of life. As technology becomes more advanced, we have the opportunity and the responsibility to address concerns faced by the aging population. We seek opportunities for technology to empower older adults to overcome barriers on their own by interviewing and learning from older adults who have successfully overcome these barriers. In this paper, we present a set of needs that technology can address, and considerations for designing technology interventions that support physical activity by older adults.

© All rights reserved Fan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bardzell, Shaowen, Bardzell, Jeffrey, Forlizzi, Jodi, Zimmerman, John and Antanitis, John (2012): Critical design and critical theory: the challenge of designing for provocation. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 288-297.

Constructive design research is a form of research where design activity is a central research activity. One type of constructive design research is critical design, which seeks to disrupt or transgress social and cultural norms. Critical design's advocates have turned to critical theory as an intellectual resource to support their approach. Interestingly, critical design processes remain under-articulated in the growing design research literature. In this paper, we first explain why critical design is so hard to describe as a design practice or process. We then describe two critical design case studies we undertook and the effects we observed them having when place in the field. After sharing our breakdowns and breakthroughs along the way, we offer reflections on designing for provocativeness, the value of deep relationships between researchers and research participants, and the need to plan for and go with a fluid and emergent research plan -- with the goal of helping clarify critical design as an approach.

© All rights reserved Bardzell et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Odom, William, Zimmerman, John, Davidoff, Scott, Forlizzi, Jodi, Dey, Anind K. and Lee, Min Kyung (2012): A fieldwork of the future with user enactments. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 338-347.

Designing radically new technology systems that people will want to use is complex. Design teams must draw on knowledge related to people's current values and desires to envision a preferred yet plausible future. However, the introduction of new technology can shape people's values and practices, and what-we-know-now about them does not always translate to an effective guess of what the future could, or should, be. New products and systems typically exist outside of current understandings of technology and use paradigms; they often have few interaction and social conventions to guide the design process, making efforts to pursue them complex and risky. User Enactments (UEs) have been developed as a design approach that aids design teams in more successfully investigate radical alterations to technologies' roles, forms, and behaviors in uncharted design spaces. In this paper, we reflect on our repeated use of UE over the past five years to unpack lessons learned and further specify how and when to use it. We conclude with a reflection on how UE can function as a boundary object and implications for future work.

© All rights reserved Odom et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fan, Chloe, Forlizzi, Jodi and Dey, Anind K. (2012): A spark of activity: exploring informative art as visualization for physical activity. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 81-84.

In this note, we describe Spark, an informative art display that visualizes physical activity using abstract art. We present results from five deployments, lasting two to three weeks, that suggest that while graph visualizations are useful for information seeking, abstract visualizations are preferred for display purposes. Our results show that informative art is an appropriate way to visualize physical activity, and can be used in addition to graphs to increase enjoyment and engagement with physical activity displays.

© All rights reserved Fan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mutlu, Bilge, Kanda, Takayuki, Forlizzi, Jodi, Hodgins, Jessica and Ishiguro, Hiroshi (2012): Conversational gaze mechanisms for humanlike robots. In ACM Transactions on Interactive Intelligent Systems, 1 (2) p. 33.

During conversations, speakers employ a number of verbal and nonverbal mechanisms to establish who participates in the conversation, when, and in what capacity. Gaze cues and mechanisms are particularly instrumental in establishing the participant roles of interlocutors, managing speaker turns, and signaling discourse structure. If humanlike robots are to have fluent conversations with people, they will need to use these gaze mechanisms effectively. The current work investigates people's use of key conversational gaze mechanisms, how they might be designed for and implemented in humanlike robots, and whether these signals effectively shape human-robot conversations. We focus particularly on whether humanlike gaze mechanisms might help robots signal different participant roles, manage turn-exchanges, and shape how interlocutors perceive the robot and the conversation. The evaluation of these mechanisms involved 36 trials of three-party human-robot conversations. In these trials, the robot used gaze mechanisms to signal to its conversational partners their roles either of two addressees, an addressee and a bystander, or an addressee and a nonparticipant. Results showed that participants conformed to these intended roles 97% of the time. Their conversational roles affected their rapport with the robot, feelings of groupness with their conversational partners, and attention to the task.

© All rights reserved Mutlu et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Human-Robot Interaction: [/encyclopedia/human-robot_interaction.html]


 
2011
 
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Lee, Min Kyung, Forlizzi, Jodi, Kiesler, Sara, Cakmak, Maya and Srinivasa, Siddhartha (2011): Predictability or adaptivity?: designing robot handoffs modeled from trained dogs and people. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2011. pp. 179-180.

One goal of assistive robotics is to design interactive robots that can help disabled people with tasks such as fetching objects. When people do this task, they coordinate their movements closely with receivers. We investigated how a robot should fetch and give household objects to a person. To develop a model for the robot, we first studied trained dogs and person-to-person handoffs. Our findings suggest two models of handoff that differ in their predictability and adaptivity.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lee, Min Kyung, Tang, Karen P., Forlizzi, Jodi and Kiesler, Sara (2011): Understanding users' perception of privacy in human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2011. pp. 181-182.

Previous research has shown that design features that support privacy are essential for new technologies looking to gain widespread adoption. As such, privacy-sensitive design will be important for the adoption of social robots, as they could introduce new types of privacy risks to users. In this paper, we report findings from our preliminary study on users' perceptions and attitudes toward privacy in human-robot interaction, based on interviews that we conducted about a workplace social robot.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Cakmak, Maya, Srinivasa, Siddhartha S., Lee, Min Kyung, Kiesler, Sara and Forlizzi, Jodi (2011): Using spatial and temporal contrast for fluent robot-human hand-overs. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2011. pp. 489-496.

For robots to get integrated in daily tasks assisting humans, robot-human interactions will need to reach a level of fluency close to that of human-human interactions. In this paper we address the fluency of robot-human hand-overs. From an observational study with our robot HERB, we identify the key problems with a baseline hand-over action. We find that the failure to convey the intention of handing over causes delays in the transfer, while the lack of an intuitive signal to indicate timing of the hand-over causes early, unsuccessful attempts to take the object. We propose to address these problems with the use of spatial contrast, in the form of distinct hand-over poses, and temporal contrast, in the form of unambiguous transitions to the hand-over pose. We conduct a survey to identify distinct hand-over poses, and determine variables of the pose that have most communicative potential for the intent of handing over. We present an experiment that analyzes the effect of the two types of contrast on the fluency of hand-overs. We find that temporal contrast is particularly useful in improving fluency by eliminating early attempts of the human.

© All rights reserved Cakmak et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lee, Min Kyung, Kiesler, Sara and Forlizzi, Jodi (2011): Mining behavioral economics to design persuasive technology for healthy choices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 325-334.

Influence through information and feedback has been one of the main approaches of persuasive technology. We propose another approach based on behavioral economics research on decision-making. This approach involves designing the presentation and timing of choices to encourage people to make self-beneficial decisions. We applied three behavioral economics persuasion techniques -- the default option strategy, the planning strategy, and the asymmetric choice strategy -- to promote healthy snacking in the workplace. We tested the strategies in three experimental case studies using a human snack deliverer, a robot, and a snack ordering website. The default and the planning strategies were effective, but they worked differently depending on whether the participants had healthy dietary lifestyles or not. We discuss designs for persuasive technologies that apply behavioral economics.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kim, SeungJun, Dey, Anind K., Lee, Joonhwan and Forlizzi, Jodi (2011): Usability of car dashboard displays for elder drivers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 493-502.

The elder population is rising worldwide; in the US, no longer being able to drive is a significant marker of loss of independence. One of the approaches to helping elders drive more safely is to investigate the use of automotive user interface technology, and specifically, to explore the instrument panel (IP) display design to help attract and manage attention and make information easier to interpret. In this paper, we explore the premise that dashboard displays can be better designed to support elder drivers, their information needs, and their cognitive capabilities. We conducted a study to understand which display design features are critically linked to issues of divided attention and driving performance. We found that contrast of size and reduced clutter are instrumental in enhancing driving performance, particularly for the elder population. Surprisingly, our results showed that color elements have a negative effect on driving performance for elders, while color elements and fills slightly improve performance. We conclude with design implications generated from this work.

© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Odom, William, Zimmerman, John and Forlizzi, Jodi (2011): Teenagers and their virtual possessions: design opportunities and issues. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1491-1500.

Over the past several years, people have increasingly acquired virtual possessions. We consider these things to include artifacts that are increasingly becoming immaterial (e.g. books, photos, music, movies) and things that have never traditionally had a lasting material form (e.g. SMS archives, social networking profiles, personal behavior logs). To date, little research exists about how people value and form attachments to virtual possessions. To investigate, we conducted a study with 21 teenagers exploring the perceived value of their virtual possessions, and the comparative similarities and differences with their material things. Findings are interpreted to detail design and research opportunities and issues in this emerging space.

© All rights reserved Odom et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Harrison, Chris, Hsieh, Gary, Willis, Karl D. D., Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2011): Kineticons: using iconographic motion in graphical user interface design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1999-2008.

Icons in graphical user interfaces convey information in a mostly universal fashion that allows users to immediately interact with new applications, systems and devices. In this paper, we define Kineticons -- an iconographic scheme based on motion. By motion, we mean geometric manipulations applied to a graphical element over time (e.g., scale, rotation, deformation). In contrast to static graphical icons and icons with animated graphics, kineticons do not alter the visual content or "pixel-space" of an element. Although kineticons are not new -- indeed, they are seen in several popular systems -- we formalize their scope and utility. One powerful quality is their ability to be applied to GUI elements of varying size and shape from a something as small as a close button, to something as large as dialog box or even the entire desktop. This allows a suite of system-wide kinetic behaviors to be reused for a variety of uses. Part of our contribution is an initial kineticon vocabulary, which we evaluated in a 200 participant study. We conclude with discussion of our results and design recommendations.

© All rights reserved Harrison et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bardzell, Shaowen, Churchill, Elizabeth, Bardzell, Jeffrey, Forlizzi, Jodi, Grinter, Rebecca and Tatar, Deborah (2011): Feminism and interaction design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1-4.

This workshop is aimed at exploring the issues at the intersection of feminist thinking and human computer interaction. Both feminism and HCI have made important contributions to social science in the past several decades, but though their potential for overlap seem high, they have not engaged each other directly until recently. In this workshop we will explore diverse -- and contentious -- ways that feminist perspectives can support user research, design ideation and problem framing, sketching and prototyping, and design criticism and evaluation. The workshop will include fast-moving mini-panels and hands-on group exercises emphasizing feminist interaction criticism and design ideation.

© All rights reserved Bardzell et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi, DiSalvo, Carl, Bardzell, Jeffrey, Koskinen, Ilpo and Wensveen, Stephan (2011): Quality control: a panel on the critique and criticism of design research. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 823-826.

Design research is an emerging area in design that has increasing relevance to the field of HCI. While we have made advances in integrating design research methods, approaches, and outcomes in HCI, we still have a way to go. This is due to fundamental differences in the development of design knowledge as compared to scientific knowledge and knowledge about human theories of behavior. We call together this panel at CHI 2011, comprised of leading HCIdesign researchers, to explore ways to develop and refine critical discussions of design research within the HCI community.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Li, Ian, Dey, Anind, Forlizzi, Jodi, Hook, Kristina and Medynskiy, Yevgeniy (2011): Personal informatics and HCI: design, theory, and social implications. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2417-2420.

Personal informatics is a class of systems that help people collect personal information to improve self-knowledge. The development of personal informatics applications poses new challenges in human-computer interaction and creates opportunities for collaboration between diverse disciplines, including design, ubiquitous computing, persuasive technology and information visualization. This workshop will continue the conversation from the CHI 2010 workshop and extend the discussion of personal informatics to include behavioral theories that can guide the development of such systems, as well as the social implications of self-tracking.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tractinsky, Noam, Abdu, Rotem, Forlizzi, Jodi and Seder, Thomas (2011): Towards personalisation of the driver environment: investigating responses to instrument cluster design. In International Journal of Vehicle Design, 55 (2) pp. 208-236.

Recent trends in the automotive and the Information Technology (IT) industries lead to growing consumer expectations for aesthetic and personalised design of products. The merging of these trends is more likely to lead to considerable changes in the driver environment. Two experiments were conducted in which we examined people's aesthetic response to the design of Instrument Clusters (ICs): the first used images of existing clusters, and the second used a set of conceptual ICs that were designed to enable the experimental control of the ICs' form and colour. The results indicate strong correlations between preferences, symbolism and attractiveness. There was no apparent trade-off between attractiveness and readability, although attractiveness was given more weight than readability in determining people's preferences. Typicality and novelty of the design were negatively correlated, and both contributed to explaining variance in aesthetic evaluations. Finally, diversity in design preferences suggests the benefits of personalised driving environment.

© All rights reserved Tractinsky et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
 
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Li, Ian, Dey, Anind K. and Forlizzi, Jodi (2011): Understanding my data, myself: supporting self-reflection with ubicomp technologies. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2011. pp. 405-414.

We live in a world where many kinds of data about us can be collected and more will be collected as Ubicomp technologies mature. People reflect on this data using different tools for personal informatics. However, current tools do not have sufficient understanding of users' self-reflection needs to appropriately leverage Ubicomp technologies. To design tools that effectively assist self-reflection, we need to comprehensively understand what kinds of questions people have about their data, why they ask these questions, how they answer them with current tools, and what kinds of problems they encounter. To explore this, we conducted interviews with people who use various kinds of tools for personal informatics. We found six kinds of questions that people asked about their data. We also found that certain kinds of questions are more important at certain times, which we call phases. We identified two phases of reflection: Discovery and Maintenance. We discuss the kinds of questions and the phases in detail and identify features that should be supported in personal informatics tools for which Ubicomp technologies can play an important role.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Slyper, Ronit, Lehman, Jill, Forlizzi, Jodi and Hodgins, Jessica (2011): A tongue input device for creating conversations. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 117-126.

We present a new tongue input device, the tongue joystick, for use by an actor inside an articulated-head character costume. Using our device, the actor can maneuver through a dialogue tree, selecting clips of prerecorded audio to hold a conversation in the voice of the character. The device is constructed of silicone sewn with conductive thread, a unique method for creating rugged, soft, low-actuation force devices. This method has application for entertainment and assistive technology. We compare our device against other portable mouth input devices, showing it to be the fastest and most accurate in tasks mimicking our target application. Finally, we show early results of an actor inside an articulated-head costume using the tongue joystick to interact with a child.

© All rights reserved Slyper et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Odom, William, Zimmerman, John and Forlizzi, Jodi (2010): Designing for dynamic family structures: divorced families and interactive systems. In: Proceedings of DIS10 Designing Interactive Systems 2010. pp. 151-160.

While the HCI community has long investigated issues of designing for family and the home, very little attention has focused on the lives of divorced families and the ways in which interactive systems might be better designed to address the very real and growing issues they face. In this paper we present an overview of related research on divorce and families. We then report field evidence from 13 in depth interviews conducted with families of parents and children in joint custody situations, and unpack key emergent problems and tensions. We conclude with a discussion of the design implications and opportunities that give shape to how the HCI community may be able to have a positive effect on this set of potential users. The overarching goal of this research is to better understand how the HCI community might begin to approach designing for this alternative family.

© All rights reserved Odom et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Zimmerman, John, Stolterman, Erik A. and Forlizzi, Jodi (2010): An analysis and critique of Research through Design: towards a formalization of a research approach. In: Proceedings of DIS10 Designing Interactive Systems 2010. pp. 310-319.

The field of HCI is experiencing a growing interest in Research through Design (RtD), a research approach that employs methods and processes from design practice as a legitimate method of inquiry. We are interested in expanding and formalizing this research approach, and understanding how knowledge, or theory, is generated from this type of design research. We conducted interviews with 12 leading HCI design researchers, asking them about design research, design theory, and RtD specifically. They were easily able to identify different types of design research and design theory from contemporary and historical design research efforts, and believed that RtD might be one of the most important contributions of design researchers to the larger research community. We further examined three historical RtD projects that were repeatedly mentioned in the interviews, and performed a critique of current RtD practices within the HCI research and interaction design communities. While our critique summarizes the problems, it also shows possible directions for further developments and refinements of the approach.

© All rights reserved Zimmerman et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Odom, William, Zimmerman, John and Forlizzi, Jodi (2010): Virtual possessions. In: Proceedings of DIS10 Designing Interactive Systems 2010. pp. 368-371.

For more than forty years, researchers have detailed how people develop attachments to their material possessions as they create and evolve a sense of self. Over the past several years people have increasingly acquired virtual possessions. These include both possessions that are losing their material integrity (books, photos, music, movies) as well as things that have never had material form (e.g. email archives, social networking profiles, personal behavior logs). However, little is known about how people perceive, value, and form attachments to their virtual possessions. To investigate, we conducted a study with teens exploring their virtual possessions. Preliminary findings reveal three key themes and suggest emerging interaction design opportunities for new forms for people's virtual things.

© All rights reserved Odom et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Haapalainen, Eija, Kim, SeungJun, Forlizzi, Jodi and Dey, Anind K. (2010): Psycho-physiological measures for assessing cognitive load. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2010. pp. 301-310.

With a focus on presenting information at the right time, the ubicomp community can benefit greatly from learning the most salient human measures of cognitive load. Cognitive load can be used as a metric to determine when or whether to interrupt a user. In this paper, we collected data from multiple sensors and compared their ability to assess cognitive load. Our focus is on visual perception and cognitive speed-focused tasks that leverage cognitive abilities common in ubicomp applications. We found that across all participants, the electrocardiogram median absolute deviation and median heat flux measurements were the most accurate at distinguishing between low and high levels of cognitive load, providing a classification accuracy of over 80% when used together. Our contribution is a real-time, objective, and generalizable method for assessing cognitive load in cognitive tasks commonly found in ubicomp systems and situations of divided attention.

© All rights reserved Haapalainen et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Li, Ian, Dey, Anind and Forlizzi, Jodi (2010): A stage-based model of personal informatics systems. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 557-566.

People strive to obtain self-knowledge. A class of systems called personal informatics is appearing that help people collect and reflect on personal information. However, there is no comprehensive list of problems that users experience using these systems, and no guidance for making these systems more effective. To address this, we conducted surveys and interviews with people who collect and reflect on personal information. We derived a stage-based model of personal informatics systems composed of five stages (preparation, collection, integration, reflection, and action) and identified barriers in each of the stages. These stages have four essential properties: barriers cascade to later stages; they are iterative; they are user-driven and/or system-driven; and they are uni-faceted or multi-faceted. From these properties, we recommend that personal informatics systems should 1) be designed in a holistic manner across the stages; 2) allow iteration between stages; 3) apply an appropriate balance of automated technology and user control within each stage to facilitate the user experience; and 4) explore support for associating multiple facets of people's lives to enrich the value of systems.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi, Barley, William C. and Seder, Thomas (2010): Where should i turn: moving from individual to collaborative navigation strategies to inform the interaction design of future navigation systems. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1261-1270.

The design of in-vehicle navigation systems fails to take into account the social nature of driving and automobile navigation. In this paper, we consider navigation as a social activity among drivers and navigators to improve design of such systems. We explore the implications of moving from a map-centered, individually-focused design paradigm to one based upon collaborative human interaction during the navigation task. We conducted a qualitative interaction design study of navigation among three types of teams: parents and their teenage children, couples, and unacquainted individuals. We found that collaboration varied among these different teams, and was influenced by social role, as well as the task role of driver or navigator. We also found that patterns of prompts, maneuvers, and confirmations varied among the three teams. We identify overarching practices that differ greatly from the literature on individual navigation. From these discoveries, we present design implications that can be used to inform future navigation systems.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Li, Ian, Forlizzi, Jodi and Dey, Anind (2010): Know thyself: monitoring and reflecting on facets of one's life. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 4489-4492.

People strive to gain better knowledge of themselves by collecting information about their behaviors, habits, and thoughts. Personal informatics systems can help by facilitating the collection of personal information and the reflection on that information. These systems satisfy people's innate curiosity about themselves and encourage holistic engagement with one's life. Development of such systems poses new challenges in human-computer interaction and opens opportunities for new applications and collaborations between diverse disciplines, such as design, life-logging, ubiquitous computing, persuasive technologies, and information visualization.

© All rights reserved Li et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lee, Min Kyung, Kiesler, Sara and Forlizzi, Jodi (2010): Receptionist or information kiosk: how do people talk with a robot?. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 31-40.

The mental structures that people apply towards other people have been shown to influence the way people cooperate with others. These mental structures or schemas evoke behavioral scripts. In this paper, we explore two different scripts, receptionist and information kiosk, that we propose channeled visitors' interactions with an interactive robot. We analyzed visitors' typed verbal responses to a receptionist robot in a university building. Half of the visitors greeted the robot (e.g., "hello") prior to interacting with it. Greeting the robot significantly predicted a more social script: more relational conversational strategies such as sociable interaction and politeness, attention to the robot's narrated stories, self-disclosure, and less negative/rude behaviors. The findings suggest people's first words in interaction can predict their schematic orientation to an agent, making it possible to design agents that adapt to individuals during interaction. We propose designs for interactive computational agents that can elicit people's cooperation.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lee, Min Kyung, Kielser, Sara, Forlizzi, Jodi, Srinivasa, Siddhartha and Rybski, Paul (2010): Gracefully mitigating breakdowns in robotic services. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2010. pp. 203-210.

Robots that operate in the real world will make mistakes. Thus, those who design and build systems will need to understand how best to provide ways for robots to mitigate those mistakes. Building on diverse research literatures, we consider how to mitigate breakdowns in services provided by robots. Expectancy-setting strategies forewarn people of a robot's limitations so people will expect mistakes. Recovery strategies, including apologies, compensation, and options for the user, aim to reduce the negative consequence of breakdowns. We tested these strategies in an online scenario study with 317 participants. A breakdown in robotic service had severe impact on evaluations of the service and the robot, but forewarning and recovery strategies reduced the negative impact of the breakdown. People's orientation toward services influenced which recovery strategy worked best. Those with a relational orientation responded best to an apology; those with a utilitarian orientation responded best to compensation. We discuss robotic service design to mitigate service problems.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi (2010): All look same?: a comparison of experience design and service design. In Interactions, 17 (5) pp. 60-62.

 
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Karapanos, Evangelos, Zimmerman, John, Forlizzi, Jodi and Martens, Jean-Bernard (2010): Measuring the dynamics of remembered experience over time. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (5) pp. 328-335.

A wealth of studies in the field of user experience have tried to conceptualize new measures of product quality and inquire into how the overall goodness of a product is formed on the basis of product quality perceptions. An interesting question relates to how the perception as well as the relative dominance of different product qualities evolve across different phases in the adoption of a product. However, temporality of experience poses substantial challenges to traditional reductive evaluation approaches. In this paper we present an alternative methodological approach for studying how users' experiences with interactive products develop over time. The approach lies in the elicitation of rich qualitative insights in the form of experience narratives, combined with content-analytical approaches for the aggregation of idiosyncratic insights into generalized knowledge. We describe a tool designed for eliciting rich experience narratives retrospectively, and illustrate this tool by means of a study that inquired into how users' experiences with mobile phones change over the first 6 months of use. We use the insights of the study to validate and extend a framework of temporality proposed by Karapanos et al. (2009b).

© All rights reserved Karapanos et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
2009
 
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Karapanos, Evangelos, Zimmerman, John, Forlizzi, Jodi and Martens, Jean-Bernard (2009): User experience over time: an initial framework. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 729-738.

A recent trend in Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) research addresses human needs that go beyond the instrumental, resulting in an increasing body of knowledge about how users form overall evaluative judgments on the quality of interactive products. An aspect largely neglected so far is that of temporality, i.e. how the quality of users' experience develops over time. This paper presents an in-depth, five-week ethnographic study that followed 6 individuals during an actual purchase of the Apple iPhone". We found prolonged use to be motivated by different qualities than the ones that provided positive initial experiences. Overall, while early experiences seemed to relate mostly to hedonic aspects of product use, prolonged experiences became increasingly more tied to aspects reflecting how the product becomes meaningful in one's life. Based on the findings, we promote three directions for CHI practice: designing for meaningful mediation, designing for daily rituals, and designing for the self.

© All rights reserved Karapanos et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Zimmerman, John, Forlizzi, Jodi and Koskinen, Ilpo (2009): Building a unified framework for the practice of experience design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4803-4806.

This workshop challenges design practitioners and researchers to begin creating a unified framework for the practice of experience design.

© All rights reserved Zimmerman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lee, Min Kyung, Forlizzi, Jodi, Rybski, Paul E., Crabbe, Frederick, Chung, Wayne, Finkle, Josh, Glaser, Eric and Kiesler, Sara (2009): The snackbot: documenting the design of a robot for long-term human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2009. pp. 7-14.

We present the design of the Snackbot, a robot that will deliver snacks in our university buildings. The robot is intended to provide a useful, continuing service and to serve as a research platform for long-term Human-Robot Interaction. Our design process, which occurred over 24 months, is documented as a contribution for others in HRI who may be developing social robots that offer services. We describe the phases of the design project, and the design decisions and tradeoffs that led to the current version of the robot.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi and DiSalvo, Carl (2009): Microsketching: creating components of complex interactive products and systems. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2009. pp. 87-96.

One of the problems with empathic research methods in interaction design is that the leap between findings about people and design is often left undocumented. In this paper, we describe a microsketching, a method for producing rapid concept sketches that emphasizes creative exploration of the aesthetic and interactive possibilities of the individual elements of a technology, rather than seeking to develop a complete product. We discuss the use of microsketching within the design process, and provide a case study of its use with an experienced designer and in a design studio course. We discuss how microsketching can be used to scaffold the leap between data collection and design, to quickly introduce designers outside of the research team to the elements of the design problem, and to teach novice interaction designers how to design the interface and interaction for complex products and systems.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi and DiSalvo and/or their publisher

 
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Robare, Paul and Forlizzi, Jodi (2009): Sound in computing: a short history. In Interactions, 16 (1) pp. 62-65.

2008
 
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Mutlu, Bilge and Forlizzi, Jodi (2008): Robots in Organizations: The Role of Workflow, Social, and Environmental Factors in Human-Robot Interaction. In: Proceedings in the Third International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction March 12-15, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. .

Robots are becoming increasingly integrated into the workplace, impacting organizational structures and processes, and affecting products and services created by these organizations. While robots promise significant benefits to organizations, their introduction poses a variety of design challenges. In this paper, we use ethnographic data collected at a hospital using an autonomous delivery robot to examine how organizational factors affect the way its members respond to robots and the changes engendered by their use. Our analysis uncovered dramatic differences between the medical and post-partum units in how people integrated the robot into their workflow and their perceptions of and interactions with it. Different patient profiles in these units led to differences in workflow, goals, social dynamics, and the use of the physical environment. In medical units, low tolerance for interruptions, a discrepancy between the perceived cost and benefits of using the robot, and breakdowns due to high traffic and clutter in the robot's path caused the robot to have a negative impact on the workflow and staff resistance. On the contrary, post-partum units integrated the robot into their workflow and social context. Based on our findings, we provide design guidelines for the development of robots for organizations.

© All rights reserved Mutlu and Forlizzi and/or ACM Press, New York, NY

 
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Forrest, Matthew, Forlizzi, Jodi and Zimmerman, John (2008): Driving the family: empowering the family technology lead. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2913-2918.

Advances in technology continually increase the ability, but also the complexity of consumer electronics. This is especially true when several devices must be configured to work together, such as a digital TV and satellite box. Manufacturers of consumer electronics attempt to remedy this by designing interfaces that consolidate multiple, complex user interfaces into a single, simple interface. However, the problem remains that end-users are still expected to configure and learn to operate these new interfaces on their own. This paper addresses the problem by proposing a radically new goal in terms of user interfaces for in-home, networked consumer electronics. Instead of trying and failing to make interfaces simple enough for everyone to use, we propose making interfaces that allow a "technology lead" -- the person in the family responsible for supporting the technology-to more easily administer devices in his or her own home and in the homes of other family members. In Japan, where this study is taking place, user-centered research methods show that families usually have a single technology lead who is challenged with supporting people remotely in several homes. By enabling the technology lead to remotely support family members at a distance, the natural family dynamic can be used to support users who either find the new breed of consumer electronics too difficult to learn or do not wish to invest the time to learn how they work.

© All rights reserved Forrest et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hsieh, Gary, Li, Ian, Dey, Anind K., Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2008): Using visualizations to increase compliance in experience sampling. In: Youn, Hee Yong and Cho, We-Duke (eds.) UbiComp 2008 Ubiquitous Computing - 10th International Conference September 21-24, 2008, Seoul, Korea. pp. 164-167.

 
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Lee, Joonhwan, Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2008): Iterative design of MOVE: A situationally appropriate vehicle navigation system. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (3) pp. 198-215.

Drivers need assistance when navigating an unfamiliar route. In-vehicle navigation systems have improved in recent years due to the technology advances, but are sometimes problematic because of information overload while driving. To address the attentional demands of reading a map while driving, we have developed the maps optimized for vehicular environments (MOVE) in-car navigation display, which provides situationally appropriate navigation information to the driver through optimization of map information. In this paper, we describe the iterative design and evaluation process that shaped the MOVE system. We describe early map reading and navigation studies that led to early designs for our system. We present a study on visual search tasks that refined the renditions used for the system. Finally, we present a study on the effectiveness of several variations of a contextually optimized route map visualization with a desktop steering system. The result of this study shows that MOVE's contextually optimized navigation information can reduce the driver's perceptual load significantly. Our laboratory experiment shows that the total map display fixation time was decreased six-fold, and the number of glances to interpret the map display were decreased about threefold, when comparing the contextually optimized display to a static display.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Mutlu, Bilge and Forlizzi, Jodi (2008): Robots in organizations: the role of workflow, social, and environmental factors in human-robot interaction. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2008. pp. 287-294.

Robots are becoming increasingly integrated into the workplace, impacting organizational structures and processes, and affecting products and services created by these organizations. While robots promise significant benefits to organizations, their introduction poses a variety of design challenges. In this paper, we use ethnographic data collected at a hospital using an autonomous delivery robot to examine how organizational factors affect the way its members respond to robots and the changes engendered by their use. Our analysis uncovered dramatic differences between the medical and post-partum units in how people integrated the robot into their workflow and their perceptions of and interactions with it. Different patient profiles in these units led to differences in workflow, goals, social dynamics, and the use of the physical environment. In medical units, low tolerance for interruptions, a discrepancy between the perceived cost and benefits of using the robot, and breakdowns due to high traffic and clutter in the robot's path caused the robot to have a negative impact on the workflow and staff resistance. On the contrary, post-partum units integrated the robot into their workflow and social context. Based on our findings, we provide design guidelines for the development of robots for organizations.

© All rights reserved Mutlu and Forlizzi and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi (2008): The product ecology: Understanding social product use and supporting design culture. In International Journal of Design, 2 (1) pp. 11-20.

The field of interaction design has broadened its focus from issues surrounding one person interacting with one system to how systems are socially and culturally situated among groups of people. To understand the situations surrounding product use interaction design researchers have turned to qualitative, ethnographic research methods. However, stripped from underlying theory, these methods can be prescriptive at best. This paper introduces Product Ecology as a theoretical design framework to describe how products evoke social behavior, to provide a roadmap for choosing appropriate qualitative research methods and to extend design culture within HCI by allowing for flexible, design-centered research planning and opportunity-seeking. This product-centered framework is illustrated as a method for selecting a set of design research methods and for working with other research approaches that study people in naturalistic settings.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapters:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
2007
 
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Zimmerman, John, Forlizzi, Jodi and Evenson, Shelley (2007): Research through design as a method for interaction design research in HCI. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 493-502.

For years the HCI community has struggled to integrate design in research and practice. While design has gained a strong foothold in practice, it has had much less impact on the HCI research community. In this paper we propose a new model for interaction design research within HCI. Following a research through design approach, designers produce novel integrations of HCI research in an attempt to make the right thing: a product that transforms the world from its current state to a preferred state. This model allows interaction designers to make research contributions based on their strength in addressing under-constrained problems. To formalize this model, we provide a set of four lenses for evaluating the research contribution and a set of three examples to illustrate the benefits of this type of research.

© All rights reserved Zimmerman et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]


 
 
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Mutlu, Bilge, Krause, Andreas, Forlizzi, Jodi, Guestrin, Carlos and Hodgins, Jessica (2007): Robust, Lowcost, Non-intrusive Sensing and Recognition of Seated Postures. In: Proceedings of 20th ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, 2007, Newport, RI, USA. .

In this paper, we present a methodology for recognizing seated postures using data from pressure sensors installed on a chair. Information about seated postures could be used to help avoid adverse effects of sitting for long periods of time or to predict seated activities for a human-computer interface. Our system design displays accurate near-real-time classification performance on data from subjects on which the posture recognition system was trained by using a set of carefully designed, subject-invariant signal features. By using a near-optimal sensor placement strategy, we keep the number of required sensors low thereby reducing cost and computational complexity. We evaluated the performance of our technology using a series of empirical methods including (1) cross-validation (classification accuracy of 87% for ten postures using data from 31 sensors), and (2) a physical deployment of our system (78% classification accuracy using data from 19 sensors).

© All rights reserved Mutlu et al. and/or ACM

 
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Snyder, Max, Zimmerman, John and Forlizzi, Jodi (2007): Your dinner's calling: supporting family dinnertime activities. In: Koskinen, Ilpo and Keinonen, Turkka (eds.) DPPI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces August 22-25, 2007, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 485-489.

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi, Zimmerman, John, Mancuso, Vince and Kwak, Sonya (2007): How interface agents affect interaction between humans and computers. In: Koskinen, Ilpo and Keinonen, Turkka (eds.) DPPI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces August 22-25, 2007, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 209-221.

 
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King, Simon and Forlizzi, Jodi (2007): Slow messaging: intimate communication for couples living at a distance. In: Koskinen, Ilpo and Keinonen, Turkka (eds.) DPPI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces August 22-25, 2007, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 451-454.

 
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Li, Ian, Forlizzi, Jodi, Dey, Anind K. and Kiesler, Sara (2007): My agent as myself or another: effects on credibility and listening to advice. In: Koskinen, Ilpo and Keinonen, Turkka (eds.) DPPI 2007 - Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces August 22-25, 2007, Helsinki, Finland. pp. 194-208.

 
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Gockley, Rachel, Forlizzi, Jodi and Simmons, Reid (2007): Natural person-following behavior for social robots. In: Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2007. pp. 17-24.

We are developing robots with socially appropriate spatial skills not only to travel around or near people, but also to accompany people side-by-side. As a step toward this goal, we are investigating the social perceptions of a robot's movement as it follows behind a person. This paper discusses our laser-based person-tracking method and two different approaches to person-following: direction-following and path-following. While both algorithms have similar characteristics in terms of tracking performance and following distances, participants in a pilot study rated the direction-following behavior as significantly more human-like and natural than the path-following behavior. We argue that the path-following method may still be more appropriate in some situations, and we propose that the ideal person-following behavior may be a hybrid approach, with the robot automatically selecting which method to use.

© All rights reserved Gockley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi (2007): How robotic products become social products: an ethnographic study of cleaning in the home. In: Proceedings of the ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2007. pp. 129-136.

Robots that work with people foster social relationships between people and systems. The home is an interesting place to study the adoption and use of these systems. The home provides challenges from both technical and interaction perspectives. In addition, the home is a seat for many specialized human behaviors and needs, and has a long history of what is collected and used to functionally, aesthetically, and symbolically fit the home. To understand the social impact of robotic technologies, this paper presents an ethnographic study of consumer robots in the home. Six families' experience of floor cleaning after receiving a new vacuum (a Roomba robotic vacuum or the Flair, a handheld upright) was studied. While the Flair had little impact, the Roomba changed people, cleaning activities, and other product use. In addition, people described the Roomba in aesthetic and social terms. The results of this study, while initial, generate implications for how robots should be designed for the home.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi, Li, Ian and Dey, Anind K. (2007): Ambient Interfaces that Motivate Changes in Human Behavior. In: Hazlewood, William R., Coyle, Lorcan and Consolvo, Sunny (eds.) Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Ambient Information Systems - Colocated at Pervasive 2007 May 13, 2007, Toronto, Canada. .

2006
 
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Lee, Joonhwan, Jun, Soojin, Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2006): Using kinetic typography to convey emotion in text-based interpersonal communication. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 41-49.

Text-based interpersonal communication tools such as instant messenger are widely used today. These tools often feature emoticons that people use to express emotion to some degree. However, emoticons still lack the ability to communicate the details of an emotional response, such as the speaker's tone of voice or intensity of emotion. In this paper, we hypothesize that kinetic typography -- text that moves or changes over time -- can address some of this problem by enhancing emotional qualities of text communication using its dynamic and expressive properties. This paper presents a study showing that a small sample of designers can create kinetic effects that end-users could employ to consistently convey emotion. In the study, three designers prepared 24 kinetic examples expressing four different emotions. We found that the examples were rated quite consistently by 66 participants. These findings provide a preliminary indication that designers can create predefined kinetic effects which can be applied to a variety of textual messages, and that these effects will reliably convey a particular emotional intent. The findings from this study inform design guidelines for designing an instant messaging client that uses kinetic typography presentation.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mutlu, Bilge, Forlizzi, Jodi, Nourbakhsh, Illah and Hodgins, Jessica (2006): The use of abstraction and motion in the design of social interfaces. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 251-260.

In this paper, we explore how dynamic visual cues can be used to create accessible and meaningful social interfaces without raising expectations beyond what is achievable with current technology. Our approach is inspired by research in perceptual causality, which suggests that simple displays in motion can evoke high-level social and emotional content. For our exploration, we iteratively designed and implemented a public social interface using abstraction and motion as design elements. Our interface communicated simple social and emotional content such as displaying happiness when there is high social interaction in the environment. Our qualitative evaluations showed that people frequently and repeatedly interacted with the interface while they tried to make sense of the underlying social content. They also shared their models with others, which led to more social interaction in the environment.

© All rights reserved Mutlu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mutlu, Bilge, Osman, Steven, Forlizzi, Jodi, Hodgins, Jessica and Kiesler, Sara (2006): Task Structure and User Attributes as Elements of Human-Robot Interaction Design. In: Proceedings of the 15th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive Communication (Ro-Man06) September, 2006, Hatfield, UK. .

 
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Mutlu, Bilge, Osman, Steven, Forlizzi, Jodi, Hodgins, Jessica and Kiesler, Sara (2006): Perceptions of ASIMO: An exploration on co-operation and competition with humans and humanoid robots. In: Extended Abstracts of the Human-Robot Interaction Conference (HRI06) March, 2006, Salt Lake City, UT, USA. .

 
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Mutlu, Bilge, Hodgins, Jessica and Forlizzi, Jodi (2006): A Storytelling Robot: Modeling and Evaluation of Human-like Gaze Behavior. In: Proceedings 2006 IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robots December 2006, 2006, Genova, Italy. .

Engaging storytelling is a necessary skill for humanoid robots if they are to be used in education and entertainment applications. Storytelling requires that the humanoid robot be aware of its audience and able to direct its gaze in a natural way. In this paper, we explore how human gaze can be modeled and implemented on a humanoid robot to create a natural, human-like behavior for storytelling. Our gaze model integrates data collected from a human storyteller and a discourse structure model developed by Cassell and her colleagues for human-like conversational agents [1]. We used this model to direct the gaze of a humanoid robot, Honda’s ASIMO, as he recited a Japanese fairy tale using a pre-recorded human voice. We assessed the efficacy of this gaze algorithm by manipulating the frequency of ASIMO’s gaze between two participants and used pre and post questionnaires to assess whether participants evaluated the robot more positively and did better on a recall task when ASIMO looked at them more. We found that participants performed significantly better in recalling ASIMO's story when the robot looked at them more. Our results also showed significant differences in how men and women evaluated ASIMO based on the frequency of gaze they received from the robot. Our study adds to the growing evidence that there are many commonalities between human-human communication and human-robot communication.

© All rights reserved Mutlu et al. and/or IEEE

 
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Gockley, Rachel, Forlizzi, Jodi and Simmons, Reid (2006): Interactions with a moody robot. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCHI/SIGART Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2006. pp. 186-193.

This paper reports on the results of a long-term experiment in which a social robot's facial expressions were changed to reflect different moods. While the facial changes in each condition were not extremely different, they still altered how people interacted with the robot. On days when many visitors were present, average interactions with the robot were longer when the robot displayed either a "happy" or a "sad" expression instead of a neutral face, but the opposite was true for low-visitor days. The implications of these findings for human-robot social interaction are discussed.

© All rights reserved Gockley et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi and DiSalvo, Carl (2006): Service robots in the domestic environment: a study of the roomba vacuum in the home. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCHI/SIGART Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2006. pp. 258-265.

Domestic service robots have long been a staple of science fiction and commercial visions of the future. Until recently, we have only been able to speculate about what the experience of using such a device might be. Current domestic service robots, introduced as consumer products, allow us to make this vision a reality. This paper presents ethnographic research on the actual use of these products, to provide a grounded understanding of how design can influence human-robot interaction in the home. We used an ecological approach to broadly explore the use of this technology in this context, and to determine how an autonomous, mobile robot might "fit" into such a space. We offer initial implications for the design of these products: first, the way the technology is introduced is critical; second, the use of the technology becomes social; and third, that ideally, homes and domestic service robots must adapt to each other.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi and DiSalvo and/or ACM Press

 
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Mutlu, Bilge, Osman, Steven, Forlizzi, Jodi, Hodgins, Jessica and Kiesler, Sara (2006): Perceptions of ASIMO: an exploration on co-operation and competition with humans and humanoid robots. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCHI/SIGART Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2006. pp. 351-352.

Recent developments in humanoid robotics have made possible a vision of robots in everyday use in the home and workplace. However, little is known about how we should design social interactions with humanoid robots. We explored how co-operation versus competition in a game shaped people's perceptions of ASIMO. We found that in the co-operative interaction, people found the robot more sociable and more intellectual than in the competitive interaction while people felt more positive and were more involved in the task in the competitive condition than in the co-operative condition. Our poster presents these findings with the supporting theoretical background.

© All rights reserved Mutlu et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chen, Chun Y., Forlizzi, Jodi and Jennings, Pamela (2006): ComSlipper: An expressive design to support awareness and availability. In: Proceedings of the CHI 06 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems 2006. pp. 369-374.

In our increasingly decentralized world, demands to maintain relationships over long distances continue to increase. It is more and more difficult to maintain a sense of connection with others, to communicate with others in an emotionally rich way, and to know whether one is available for initiating a conversation in an appropriate context.This paper describes the design process and our solution to this challenge. The ComSlipper is a lightweight yet expressive sensible slipper that enhances the quality of computer-mediated relationships. The ComSlipper was developed using a human-centered design approach to better understand user behaviors and needs. The ComSlipper empowers the wearer to create a sense of connection to others. The wearer uses body gesture and tactile manipulation to feel and express emotions and availability to distant loved ones. The ComSlipper provides a natural and intimate way of communicating, and facilitates the development of intimate relationships.

© All rights reserved Chen et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

User Experience and Experience Design: [/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html]


 
2005
 
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Keyani, Pedram, Hsieh, Gary, Mutlu, Bilge, Easterday, Matthew and Forlizzi, Jodi (2005): DanceAlong: Supporting Positive Social Exchange and Exercise for the Elderly Through Dance. In: Extended Abstracts of the Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI05) April, 2005, Portland, OR, USA. .

 
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DiSalvo, Carl, Forlizzi, Jodi, Zimmerman, John, Mutlu, Bilge and Hurst, Amy (2005): The SenseChair: The lounge chair as an intelligent assistive device for elders. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences (DUX05) November, 2005, San Francisco, CA, USA. .

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi (2005): Robotic products to assist the aging population. In Interactions, 12 (2) pp. 16-18.

 
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Lee, Joonhwan, Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2005): Studying the effectiveness of MOVE: a contextually optimized in-vehicle navigation system. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 571-580.

In-vehicle navigation has changed substantially in recent years, due to the advent of computer generated maps and directions. However, these maps are still problematic, due to a mismatch between the complexity of the maps and the attentional demands of driving. In response to this problem, we are developing the MOVE (Maps Optimized for Vehicular Environments) system. This system will provide situationally appropriate map information by presenting information that uses appropriate amounts of the driver's attention. In this paper, we describe our findings of studies to help shape the design of the MOVE system, including studies on map reading and in-vehicle navigation, and studies on the effectiveness of a variety of contextually optimized route map visualizations in a simulated driving context. Results show that contextually optimized displays designed for the MOVE system should significantly reduce perceptual load in the context of driving. In our laboratory experiment there was a six-fold decrease in the total map display fixation time and nearly threefold decrease in the number of glances needed to interpret the contextually optimized display compared to a static display.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Chung, Yuan-Chou, Zimmerman, John and Forlizzi, Jodi (2005): Monitoring and managing presence in incoming and outgoing communication. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1284-1287.

The increase in channels and formats of personal communication such as email, instant messaging, and mobile phones, has generated new problems both with selecting the appropriate method to contact someone and communicating a preference for incoming communication. Some applications, such as instant messaging have partially addressed this problem with status and away messages, but this approach offers limited communication options and only works for this communication channel. Following a user-centered design approach, we explored the needs of users to manage their communication channels. Using diaries, observations, and directed story-telling interviews we generated a set of observed needs. We then generated concept scenarios that capture these needs and performed a concept validation with a focus group looking for an overlap between our observed needs and the focus groups perceived needs. This paper documents our findings and offers implications for designers addressing these communication needs.

© All rights reserved Chung et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hurst, Amy, Zimmerman, John, Atkeson, Christopher and Forlizzi, Jodi (2005): The sense lounger: establishing a ubicomp beachhead in elders' homes. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1467-1470.

In this paper we describe the Sense Lounger, a method for simply and cheaply turning a lounge chair into an initial "ubicomp" device in a home; providing a beachhead for transforming the home into a rich ubicomp environment. The Sense Lounger employs fabric sensors sewn into a chair's slipcover and force sensors on each leg to detect both an occupant and their activity. Drawing insights from user needs, we developed the Sense Lounger to (i) fit into the home and lifestyle of elders, (ii) assist and add value to the lives of elders, (iii) provide a platform for expanding assistive devices within the home environment. The current Sense Lounger prototype can be used to detect signs of life, patterns of use, posture, and sitting duration.

© All rights reserved Hurst et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Jafarinaimi, Nassim, Forlizzi, Jodi, Hurst, Amy and Zimmerman, John (2005): Breakaway: an ambient display designed to change human behavior. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1945-1948.

We present Breakaway, an ambient display that encourages people, whose job requires them to sit for long periods of time, to take breaks more frequently. Breakaway uses the information from sensors placed on an office chair to communicate in a non-obtrusive manner how long the user has been sitting. Breakaway is a small sculpture placed on the desk. Its design is inspired by animation arts and theater, which rely heavily on body language to express emotions. Its shape and movement reflect the form of the human body; an upright position reflecting the body's refreshed pose, and a slouching position reflecting the body's pose after sitting for a long time. An initial evaluation shows a correlation between the movement of the sculpture and when participants took breaks, suggesting that ambient displays that make use of aesthetic and lifelike form might be promising for making positive changes in human behavior.

© All rights reserved Jafarinaimi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Howard, Jeff and Forlizzi, Jodi (2005): Design of a neighborhood pathfinder. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences DUX05 2005. p. 22.

Everyone understands their city in a slightly different way. This project seeks to leverage these differences by allowing people to share their understandings and compile a visual social history of the city. Most wayfinding systems are designed around a process of discovery, of locating a known destination within the environment. A more subtle proposition is that of exploration, a progressive uncovering of the environment centered around the creation of one's own pathways. This project seeks to allow people to more readily grasp the potential for pathmaking within their environment. It allows them to collaboratively map their neighborhood through a network of geotagged cameraphone images documenting shared landmarks. As people add their own photos to the system, the shared image of the city grows and reflects new connections. Encouraged to explore, even lifelong residents may begin to see their home with a greater sense of depth and understanding.

© All rights reserved Howard and Forlizzi and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi, DiSalvo, Carl, Zimmerman, John, Mutlu, Bilge and Hurst, Amy (2005): The SenseChair: the lounge chair as an intelligent assistive device for elders. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences DUX05 2005. p. 31.

The elder population is rising. In the United States, the number of those needing assistance far exceeds the number of care facilities available to help the aging population. This creates a great incentive to help elders remain independently in their homes. Our group is exploring how robotic technology, designed in forms as familiar as home appliances, might be used to assist elders and those who provide care. We have designed the SenseChair, an intelligent assistive lounge chair that brings assistive technology to elders in a comfortable and familiar fashion. The SenseChair takes information about a sitter's behavior and the environment and provides information ranging from ambient displays to explicit notification. It serves as a research platform to understand how we can help elders stay independently in their homes, and offer them physical, social, and emotional support.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi et al. and/or ACM Press

2004
 
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Lee, Johnny C., Avrahami, Daniel, Hudson, Scott E., Forlizzi, Jodi, Dietz, Paul H. and Leigh, Darren (2004): The calder toolkit: wired and wireless components for rapidly prototyping interactive devices. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 167-175.

Toolkits and other tools have dramatically reduced the time and technical expertise needed to design and implement graphical user interfaces (GUIs) allowing high-quality, iterative, user-centered design to become a common practice. Unfortunately the generation of functioning prototypes for physical interactive devices as not had similar support -- it still requires substantial time and effort by individuals with highly specialized skills and tools. This creates a divide between a designers' ability to explore form and interactivity of product designs and the ability to iterate on the basis of high fidelity interactive experiences with a functioning prototype. To help overcome this difficulty we have developed the Calder hardware toolkit. Calder is a development environment for rapidly exploring and prototyping functional physical interactive devices. Calder provides a set of reusable small input and output components, and integration into existing interface prototyping environments. These components communicate with a computer using wired and wireless connections. Calder is a tool targeted toward product and interaction designers to aid them in their early design process. In this paper we describe the process of gaining an understanding of the needs and workflow habits of our target users to generate a collection of requirements for such a toolkit. We describe technical challenges imposed by these needs, and the specifics of design and implementation of the toolkit to meet these challenges.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Holstius, David, Kembel, John, Hurst, Amy, Wan, Peng-Hui and Forlizzi, Jodi (2004): Infotropism: living and robotic plants as interactive displays. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 215-221.

Designers often borrow from the natural world to achieve pleasing, unobtrusive designs. We have extended this practice by combining living plants with sensors and lights in an interactive display, and by creating a robotic analogue that mimics phototropic behavior. In this paper, we document our design process and report the results of a 2-week field study. We put our living plant display, and its robotic counterpart, in a cafeteria between pairs of trash and recycling containers. Contributions of recyclables or trash triggered directional bursts of light that gradually induced the plant displays to lean toward the more active container. In interviews, people offered explanations for the displays and spoke of caring for the plants. A marginally significant increase in recycling behavior (p=.08) occurred at the display with living plants. Apparent increases also occurred at the robotic display and a unit with only lights. Our findings indicate value in exploring the use of living material and biomimetic forms in displays, and in using lightweight robotics to deliver simple rewards.

© All rights reserved Holstius et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi and Battarbee, Katja (2004): Understanding experience in interactive systems. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 261-268.

Understanding experience is a critical issue for a variety of professions, especially design. To understand experience and the user experience that results from interacting with products, designers conduct situated research activities focused on the interactions between people and products, and the experience that results. This paper attempts to clarify experience in interactive systems. We characterize current approaches to experience from a number of disciplines, and present a framework for designing experience for interactive system. We show how the framework can be applied by members of a multidisciplinary team to understand and generate the kinds of interactions and experiences new product and system designs might offer.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi and Battarbee and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

User Experience and Experience Design: [/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html]

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]


 
 
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Forlizzi, Jodi, DiSalvo, Carl and Gemperle, Francine (2004): Assistive Robotics and an Ecology of Elders Living Independently in Their Homes. In Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (1) pp. 25-59.

For elders who remain independent in their homes, the home becomes more than just a place to eat and sleep. The home becomes a place where people care for each other, and it gradually subsumes all activities. This article reports on an ethnographic study of aging adults who live independently in their homes. Seventeen elders aged 60 through 90 were interviewed and observed in their homes in 2 Midwestern cities. The goal is to understand how robotic products might assist these people, helping them to stay independent and active longer. The experience of aging is described as an ecology of aging made up of people, products, and activities taking place in a local environment of the home and the surrounding community. In this environment, product successes and failures often have a dramatic impact on the ecology, throwing off a delicate balance. When a breakdown occurs, family members and other caregivers have to intervene, threatening elders' independence and identity. This article highlights the interest in how the elder ecology can be supported by new robotic products that are conceived of as a part of this interdependent system. It is recommended that the design of these products fit the ecology as part of the system, support elders' values, and adapt to all of the members of the ecology who will interact with them.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

2003
 
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Hudson, Scott E., Fogarty, James, Atkeson, Christopher, Avrahami, Daniel, Forlizzi, Jodi, Kiesler, Sara, Lee, Johnny and Yang, Jie (2003): Predicting human interruptibility with sensors: a Wizard of Oz feasibility study. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 257-264.

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi, Lee, Johnny and Hudson, Scott E. (2003): The kinedit system: affective messages using dynamic texts. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 377-384.

 
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Fogarty, James, Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2003): Portrait: Generating Personal Presentations. In: Graphics Interface 2003 June 11-13, 2003, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. pp. 209-216.

 
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Gemperle, Francine, DiSalvo, Carl, Forlizzi, Jodi and Yonkers, Willy (2003): The Hug: a new form for communication. In: Proceedings of DUX03: Designing for User Experiences 2003. pp. 1-4.

Recent advances in telecommunication and wireless networking technology have exploded the possibilities for remote communication between people. We present a product called the Hug as a challenge to familiar telecommunication products. A visionary design born out of research with elders, the Hug addresses a very human need for physical closeness in remote communications. It uses the same network infrastructure as many appliances today, but places a new face on human product interaction.

© All rights reserved Gemperle et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi, Gemperle, Francine and DiSalvo, Carl F. (2003): Perceptive sorting: a method for understanding responses to products. In: DPPI 2003 - Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Designing Pleasurable Products and Interfaces June 23-26, 2003, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 103-108.

2002
 
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Fogarty, James, Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2002): Specifying behavior and semantic meaning in an unmodified layered drawing package. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 61-70.

In order to create and use rich custom appearances, designers are often forced to introduce an unnatural gap into the design process. For example, a designer creating a skin for a music player must separately specify the appearance of the elements in the music player skin and the mapping between these visual elements and the functionality provided by the music player. This gap between appearance and semantic meaning creates a number of problems. We present a set of techniques that allows designers to use their preferred drawing tool to specify both appearance and semantic meaning. We demonstrate our techniques in an unmodified version of Adobe Photoshop, but our techniques are general and adaptable to nearly any layered drawing package.

© All rights reserved Fogarty et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lee, Johnny C., Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2002): The kinetic typography engine: an extensible system for animating expressive text. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 81-90.

Kinetic typography -- text that uses movement or other temporal change -- has recently emerged as a new form of communication. As we hope to illustrate in this paper, kinetic typography can be seen as bringing some of the expressive power of film -- such as its ability to convey emotion, portray compelling characters, and visually direct attention -- to the strong communicative properties of text. Although kinetic typography offers substantial promise for expressive communications, it has not been widely exploited outside a few limited application areas (most notably in TV advertising). One of the reasons for this has been the lack of tools directly supporting it, and the accompanying difficulty in creating dynamic text. This paper presents a first step in remedying this situation -- an extensible and robust system for animating text in a wide variety of forms. By supporting an appropriate set of carefully factored abstractions, this engine provides a relatively small set of components that can be plugged together to create a wide range of different expressions. It provides new techniques for automating effects used in traditional cartoon animation, and provides specific support for typographic manipulations.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wobbrock, Jacob O., Forlizzi, Jodi, Hudson, Scott E. and Myers, Brad A. (2002): WebThumb: interaction techniques for small-screen browsers. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 205-208.

The proliferation of wireless handheld devices is placing the World Wide Web in the palms of users, but this convenience comes at a high interactive cost. The Web that came of age on the desktop is ill-suited for use on the small displays of handhelds. Today, handheld browsing often feels like browsing on a PC with a shrunken desktop. Overreliance on scrolling is a big problem in current handheld browsing. Users confined to viewing a small portion of each page often lack a sense of the overall context -- they may feel lost in a large page and be forced to remember the locations of items as those items scroll out of view. In this paper, we present a synthesis of interaction techniques to address these problems. We implemented these techniques in a prototype, WebThumb, that can browse the live Web.

© All rights reserved Wobbrock et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Fass, Adam, Forlizzi, Jodi and Pausch, Randy (2002): MessyDesk and MessyBoard: two designs inspired by the goal of improving human memory. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 303-311.

MessyDesk is a replacement desktop that invites free-form decoration. MessyBoard is a large, projected, shared bulletin board that is decorated collaboratively by a small group of users. We built these programs with the goal of helping people remember more of the content that they access through a computer. Our approach is to embed content within distinct contexts. For instance, a computer with multiple projection screens could surround the user with panoramic vistas that correspond to projects that the user is working on. Since few people are willing to create their own context, we created MessyDesk and MessyBoard in order to entice people to decorate. Though we have not yet evaluated the impact of either program on users' memories, we have observed people using these programs over a several week period. From anecdotal evidence, we believe that MessyDesk may be a good tool for decoration and information management. MessyBoard became popular when we projected the board on the wall in our lab. We have seen that different research groups use it differently. One group uses it mostly for jokes and games, and another group uses it for long design discussions. It is good for scheduling, and supports factual as well as emotional communication among group members.

© All rights reserved Fass et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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DiSalvo, Carl F., Gemperle, Francine, Forlizzi, Jodi and Kiesler, Sara (2002): All robots are not created equal: the design and perception of humanoid robot heads. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 321-326.

This paper presents design research conducted as part of a larger project on human-robot interaction. The primary goal of this study was to come to an initial understanding of what features and dimensions of a humanoid robot's face most dramatically contribute to people's perception of its humanness. To answer this question we analyzed 48 robots and conducted surveys to measure people's perception of each robot's humanness. Through our research we found that the presence of certain features, the dimensions of the head, and the total number of facial features heavily influence the perception of humanness in robot heads. This paper presents our findings and initial guidelines for the design of humanoid robot heads.

© All rights reserved DiSalvo et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nichols, Jeffrey, Wobbrock, Jacob O., Gergle, Darren and Forlizzi, Jodi (2002): Mediator and medium: doors as interruption gateways and aesthetic displays. In: Proceedings of DIS02: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2002. pp. 379-386.

Office doors are more than entrances to rooms, they are entrances to a person's time and attention. People can mediate access to themselves by choosing whether to leave their door open or closed when they are in their office. Doors also serve as a medium for communication, where people can broadcast individual messages to passersby, or accept messages from others who stopped by when the door was closed. These qualities make the door an excellent location for designing solutions that help people better manage their time and attention. In this paper, we present a study of doors, derive design insights from the study, and then realize some of these insights in two cooperating implementations deployed in our workplace.

© All rights reserved Nichols et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Fogarty, James, Forlizzi, Jodi and Hudson, Scott E. (2001): Aesthetic information collages: generating decorative displays that contain information. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 141-150.

Normally, the primary purpose of an information display is to convey information. If information displays can be aesthetically interesting, that might be an added bonus. This paper considers an experiment in reversing this imperative. It describes the Kandinsky system which is designed to create displays which are first aesthetically interesting, and then as an added bonus, able to convey information. The Kandinsky system works on the basis of aesthetic properties specified by an artist (in a visual form). It then explores a space of collages composed from information bearing images, using an optimization technique to find compositions which best maintain the properties of the artist's aesthetic expression.

© All rights reserved Fogarty et al. and/or ACM Press

2000
 
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Hirsch, Tad, Forlizzi, Jodi, Hyder, Elaine, Goetz, Jennifer, Stroback, Jacey and Kurtz, Chris (2000): The ELDeR Project: Social, Emotional, and Environmental Factors in the Design of Eldercare Technologies. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2000. pp. 72-79.

The ELDER (Enhanced Living through Design Research) Project, comprised of a team of designers and behavioral scientists, conducted a four-month study at a seniors community near Pittsburgh, PA. The purpose of the project was to understand the experiences of elders and their caregivers in order to: 1) study the eldercare experience from the perspective of primary stakeholders; 2) to assess the importance of psychological and social factors in the eldercare experience; and 3) to identify implications for product, interface, and interaction design and opportunities for new products and technologies. Our findings show that social, emotional, and environmental factors play a key role in the eldercare experience and the adoption and use of new products. We argue that designing eldercare technologies to address all of these factors lowers social and economic barriers to universal usability.

© All rights reserved Hirsch et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi and McCormack, Margaret (2000): Case Study: User Research to Inform the Design and Development of Integrated Wearable Computers and Web-Based Services. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 275-279.

The competitive playing field for startup companies often does not allow for the time to understand how user needs can influence the development of a new product. This paper presents a case study of informing the design of a wearable computer with web-based services through user research. We discuss our motivation for choosing to do user research to address our multi-faceted design problem; present the methodology and technique design; and summarize lessons learned in the process of analyzing the data and communicating findings to an interdisciplinary shareholder team.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi and McCormack and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlizzi, Jodi and Ford, Shannon (2000): The Building Blocks of Experience: An Early Framework for Interaction Designers. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 419-423.

Design activity has recently attempted to embrace designing the user experience. Designers need to demystify how we design for user experience and how the products we design achieve specific user experience goals. This paper proposes an initial framework for understanding experience as it relates to user-product interactions. We propose a system for talking about experience, and look at what influences experience and qualities of experience. The framework is presented as a tool to understand what kinds of experiences products evoke.

© All rights reserved Forlizzi and Ford and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Forlizzi, Jodi and Franz, Laura (1999): Collaboration and Design from a Distance: University of Pennsylvania Law School Case Study. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (3) pp. 6-8.

1998
 
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Boyarski, Daniel, Neuwirth, Christine, Forlizzi, Jodi and Regli, Susan Harkness (1998): A Study of Fonts Designed for Screen Display. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 87-94.

This study examined the readability and subjective preferences of a set of fonts designed for screen display. Two new binary bitmap fonts performed well, suggesting that designers should consider incorporating similar attributes into default fonts for online type.

© All rights reserved Boyarski et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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