Publication statistics

Pub. period:1986-2013
Pub. count:109
Number of co-authors:65



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Donald A. Norman:4
Rolf Molich:3
Robert L. Mack:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Jakob Nielsen's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Ben Shneiderman:225
Mary Beth Rosson:142
Donald A. Norman:104
 
 
 

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Jakob Nielsen

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Personal Homepage:
http://www.useit.com/jakob/

Jakob Nielsen, Ph.D., is a User Advocate and principal of the Nielsen Norman Group which he co-founded with Dr. Donald A. Norman (former VP of research at Apple Computer). Before starting NNG in 1998 he was a Sun Microsystems Distinguished Engineer. Dr. Nielsen founded the "discount usability engineering" movement for fast and cheap improvements of user interfaces and has invented several usability methods, including heuristic evaluation. He holds 79 United States patents, mainly on ways of making the Internet easier to use.

 

Publications by Jakob Nielsen (bibliography)

 what's this?
2013
 
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Norman, Donald A. and Nielsen, Jakob (2013). 10 Heuristics for User Interface Design. Retrieved 31 August 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Norman, Donald A. (2013). Nielsen/Norman Group Eyetracking Studies. Retrieved 2 September 2013 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/topic/eyetracking/

A list of eye-tracking studies from the Nielsen/Norman Group. They emphasis the importance of placing important information within the centre of the viewer's/user's focus and also draw attention to the perceptual phenomenon referred to as 'Banner Blindness', a form of selective attention.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Norman and/or their publisher

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Norman, Donald A. (2013). List of 'Heuristic Evaluation' articles from the Nielsen/Norman Group. Retrieved 2 September 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/topic/heuristic-evaluation/

Heuristic evaluation articles from the Nielsen/Norman Group.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Norman and/or their publisher

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2013). Users' Pagination Preferences and 'View-All'. Retrieved 27 November 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/item-list-view-all/

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2013). Usability 101: Introduction to Usability. Retrieved 2 December 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/usability-101-introduction-to-usability/

2012
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2012). Intranet Users Stuck at Low Productivity. Retrieved 10 October 2013 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/intranet-users-stuck-low-productivity/

Although intranet design is improving, it hasn't kept pace with increased complexity in enterprise requirements, so measured usability is down slightly.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or his/her publisher

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2012). Usability 101: Introduction to Usability. Retrieved 10 October 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/usability-101-introduction-to-usability/

How to define usability? How, when, and where to improve it? Why should you care? Overview defines key usabilty concepts and answers basic questions.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or his/her publisher

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2012). How Many Test Users in a Usability Study. Retrieved 2 December 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/how-many-test-users/

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2012). Travelling Usability Lab. Retrieved 9 February 2014 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/traveling-usability-lab/

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2012). The Most Important Usability Activity. Retrieved 9 February 2014 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/the-most-important-usability-activity/

2010
 
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Norman, Donald A. and Nielsen, Jakob (2010): Gestural interfaces: a step backward in usability. In Interactions, 17 (5) pp. 46-49. Available online

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2010). Mega Menus Gone Wrong. Retrieved 28 November 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/mega-menus-gone-wrong/

2009
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2009). Mega Mnus Work Well for Site Navigation. Retrieved 13 November 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/mega-menus-work-well/

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2009). Mega Menus Work Well for Site Navigation. Retrieved 13 November 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/mega-menus-work-well/

2008
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2008). Usability ROI Declining, But Still Strong. Retrieved 10 October 2013 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/usability-roi-declining-but-still-strong/

The average business metrics improvement after a usability redesign is now 83%. This is substantially less than 6 years ago, but ROI remains high because usability is still cheap relative to gains.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or his/her publisher

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2008). Agile Development Projects and Usability. Retrieved 6 February 2014 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/agile-development-and-usability/

2006
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2006). Progressive Disclosure. Retrieved 13 September 2013 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/progressive-disclosure/

Progressive disclosure defers advanced or rarely used features to a secondary screen, making applications easier to learn and less error-prone.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Progressive Disclosure: [/encyclopedia/progressive_disclosure.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Progressive Disclosure: [/encyclopedia/progressive_disclosure.html]


 
2004
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2004): Card Sorting : How Many Users to Test. In Useit Alertbox, (0) pp. 3-7.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Card Sorting: [/encyclopedia/card_sorting.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Card Sorting: [/encyclopedia/card_sorting.html]


 
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2004): Designing for web usability. Indianapolis,USA, New Riders Publications

Users experience the usability of a web site before they have committed to using it and before making any purchase decisions. The web is the ultimate environment for empowerment, and he or she who clicks the mouse decides everything. Designing Web Usability is the definitive guide to usability from Jakob Nielsen, the world's leading authority. Over 250,000 Internet professionals around the world have turned to this landmark book, in which Nielsen shares the full weight of his wisdom and experience. From content and page design to designing for ease of navigation and users with disabilities, he delivers complete direction on how to connect with any web user, in any situation. Nielsen has arrived at a series of principles that work in support of his findings: 1. That web users want to find what they're after quickly; 2. If they don't know what they're after, they nevertheless want to browse quickly and access information they come across in a logical manner. This book is a must-have for anyone who thinks seriously about the web.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or New Riders Publications

 Cited in the following chapter:

Emotion and website design: [/encyclopedia/emotion_and_website_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Emotion and website design: [/encyclopedia/emotion_and_website_design.html]


 
2003
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2003). Information Foraging: Why Google Makes People Leave Your Site Faster. Retrieved 12 October 2013 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/information-scent/

The easier it is to find places with good information, the less time users will spend visiting any individual website. This is one of many conclusions that follow from analyzing how people optimize their behavior in online information systems.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or his/her publisher

2002
 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Tahir, Marie (2002): Homepage usability : 50 websites deconstructed. New Riders Publishing

 
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Gilutz, Shuli and Nielsen, Jakob (2002). Usability of Websites for Children: 70 design guidelines. Retrieved [Date unavailable] from Nielsen Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/reports/kids/

2001
 
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Pernice, Kara and Nielsen, Jakob (2001). Beyond ALT Text: Making the Web Easy to Use for Users with Disabilities. Nielsen Norman Group http://media.nngroup.com/media/reports/free/Usability_Guidelines_for_Accesible_Web_Design.pdf

The report contains: Results of usability tests of 19 websites with users with several different types of disabilities who are using a range of assistive technology: -blind users using screen readers -blind users using Braille readers -low-vision users using screen magnifiers -motor-impaired users -Test data collected mainly in the United States, with some additional studies in Japan to ensure the international applicability of the recommendations -A total of 104 users participated in the usability studies: -84 users with disabilities -20 non-disabled users who served as a control group -75 detailed design guidelines.

© All rights reserved Pernice and Nielsen and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design 4 All: [/encyclopedia/design_4_all.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design 4 All: [/encyclopedia/design_4_all.html]


 
2000
 
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Ramsay, Marc and Nielsen, Jakob (2000). WAP Usability: Dj Vu: 1994 All Over Again. Nielsen Norman Group http://www.nngroup.com/reports/wap/WAP_usability.pdf

Nielsen Norman Group conducted a field study of WAP users in London. Users were given a WAP telephone that provided mobile access to the Internet. They were given tasks to perform in laboratory usability studies before and after being allowed to use the phones on their own. They were also interviewed about their experience using WAP in the field. This report describes our findings regarding the usability of WAP itself, WAP content, and WAP services. The report also contains a substantial number of quotes from users reporting on their subjective experience with the services and their preferences for WAP design. When users were asked whether they were likely to use a WAP phone within one year, a resounding 70% answered no. WAP is not ready for prime time yet, nor do users expect it to be usable any time soon. This finding came after respondents had used WAP services for a full week, so their conclusions are significantly more valid than answers from focus group participants who are simply asked to speculate about whether they would like WAP. We surveyed people who had suffered through the painful experience of using WAP, and they definitely didn't like it. The report details the many usability problems that caused users to come to this negative conclusion. Unless the usability of mobile Internet services and devices improves considerably, people will simply not use them and billions of dollars will be wasted.

© All rights reserved Ramsay and Nielsen and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (2000). WAP Field Study Findings. Retrieved 8 November 2012 from useit.com: http://www.useit.com/alertbox/20001210.html

Nielsen Norman Group conducted a field study of WAP users in London. Users were given a WAP telephone that provided mobile access to the Internet. They were given tasks to perform in laboratory usability studies before and after being allowed to use the phones on their own. They were also interviewed about their experience using WAP in the field. This report describes our findings regarding the usability of WAP itself, WAP content, and WAP services. The report also contains a substantial number of quotes from users reporting on their subjective experience with the services and their preferences for WAP design. When users were asked whether they were likely to use a WAP phone within one year, a resounding 70% answered no. WAP is not ready for prime time yet, nor do users expect it to be usable any time soon. This finding came after respondents had used WAP services for a full week, so their conclusions are significantly more valid than answers from focus group participants who are simply asked to speculate about whether they would like WAP. We surveyed people who had suffered through the painful experience of using WAP, and they definitely didn't like it. The report details the many usability problems that caused users to come to this negative conclusion. Unless the usability of mobile Internet services and devices improves considerably, people will simply not use them and billions of dollars will be wasted.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
1999
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1999): Designing Web Usability : The Practice of Simplicity. New Riders Publishing

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1999): Designing Web Usability: The Practice of Simplicity. New Riders Publishing

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1999): User Interface Directions for the Web. In Communications of the ACM, 42 (1) pp. 65-72. Available online

1996
 
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Gentner, Donald R. and Nielsen, Jakob (1996): The Anti-Mac Interface. In Communications of the ACM, 8 pp. 70-82.

 Cited in the following chapters:

Mental models: [/encyclopedia/mental_models_glossary.html]

Vigilance: [/encyclopedia/vigilance.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Mental models: [/encyclopedia/mental_models_glossary.html]

Vigilance: [/encyclopedia/vigilance.html]


 
 
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Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Faber, Jan Maurits (1996): Improving System Usability Through Parallel Design. In IEEE Computer, 29 (2) pp. 29-35.

 
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Gentner, Donald R. and Nielsen, Jakob (1996): The Anti-Mac Interface. In Communications of the ACM, 39 (8) pp. 70-82.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Galdo, Elisa M. del (1996): International User Interfaces. New York, USA, Wiley Computer Publishing

Leading authorities from around the world discuss the latest topics in international user-interface design. With most major companies in the computer industry depending on exports for 50 percent or more of their sales, user-interface design teams face a major challenge in making their products both useful and accessible to the global marketplace. It is no longer enough to simply offer a product translated in ten to twenty different languages. Users also want a product that acknowledges their unique cultural characteristics and business practices. In International User Interfaces, Elisa del Galdo and Jakob Nielsen head a team of acknowledged international authorities who confront some of the problems currently facing international user-interface developers, including: * International Usability Engineering. * Developing a Cultural Model. * Arabization of Graphical User Interfaces. * Managing a Multiple-Language Document System. * An Intelligent Lexical Management System for Multilingual Machine Translation. * A Chinese Text Display Supported by an Algorithm for Chinese Segmentation. * Breaking the Language Barrier with Graphics. * Cultural Issues That Can Affect Training

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Galdo and/or Wiley Computer Publishing

 Cited in the following chapter:

Emotion and website design: [/encyclopedia/emotion_and_website_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Emotion and website design: [/encyclopedia/emotion_and_website_design.html]


 
1995
 
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Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1995): Multimedia and Hypertext: The Internet and Beyond. Academic Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1995): The Future of Hypertext. In Interactions, 2 (2) pp. 66-78. Available online

Nielsen looks back at predictions from his earlier book on hypertext and looks forward with predictions regarding hypermedia -- from today through the next twenty years.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1995): The electronic business card: an experiment in half-dead hypertext. In New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 1 pp. 155-168.

Half-dead hypertext has links where the user has to do some work to retrieve the destination nodes (for example mount a CD-ROM or send an email message). Also, response times may be so slow that users do not have the normal hypertext feeling of freely navigating an information space. This is in contrast to normal live hypertext where the nodes appear immediately upon activation of a link anchor and dead hypertext where the links are simple cross-references to material that is not available on the computer and thus cannot be retrieved at all. Half-dead hypertext can be used in cases where live links are technically difficult or impossible to support. One example is the electronic business card, which is a link to further information about its owner. Electronic business cards can be transmitted between personal digital assistants and will allow the recipient to link to much more extensive information than can be transmitted and stored on a PDA platform. Also, electronic business card links can be printed in brochures, research papers, and other non-electronic media from which access to the server can be made with human intervention.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Sano, Darrell (1995): SunWeb: user interface design for Sun Microsystem's internal Web. In Computer Networks and ISDN Systems, 28 (1) pp. 179-188.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Card Sorting: [/encyclopedia/card_sorting.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Card Sorting: [/encyclopedia/card_sorting.html]


 
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1995). Heuristic Evaluation. Retrieved 6 January 2014 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/how-to-conduct-a-heuristic-evaluation/

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1995). Usability Inspection Method Summary. Retrieved 7 January 2014 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/articles/summary-of-usability-inspection-methods/

1994
 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Mack, Robert L. (eds.) (1994): Usability Inspection Methods. New York, Wiley

Computer Science/Computers-Human Interaction Usability Inspection Methods is the first comprehensive, book-length work in this important new field. Designed to get you quickly up and running with the full complement of UI strategies, tools, and techniques, this extremely practical guide offers you a unique opportunity to learn them from the women and men who invented them. With the help of numerous real-life case studies, the authors give you: Step-by-step guidance on all important methods now in use, including the heuristic evaluation method, the pluralistic walkthrough method, the cognitive walkthrough method, and more Proven techniques for integrating usability inspections with other methods now in use An in-depth, comparative analysis of UI versus user testing A cost-benefit analysis of UI as compared to other approaches Program prototypes that provide UI computer support for interface designers An important resource for user interface developers, software designers, as well as graduate students and researchers

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Mack and/or Wiley

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1994): Heuristic evaluation. In: Nielsen, Jakob and Mack, Robert L. (eds.). "Usability Inspection Methods". New York: Wiley

 Cited in the following chapter:

Heuristics and heuristic evaluation: [/encyclopedia/heuristics_and_heuristic_evaluation.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Heuristics and heuristic evaluation: [/encyclopedia/heuristics_and_heuristic_evaluation.html]


 
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1994): Why GUI Panic is Good Panic. In Interactions, 1 (2) pp. 55-58. Available online

Having to design completely new interfaces often serves as a powerful motivator to learn more about usability and to bring in a small amount of usability expertise.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1994): As They May Work. In Interactions, 1 (4) pp. 19-24. Available online

The author describes strategies for extending a task analysis to suggest a number of features that users would likely want in a new system.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1994): Usability Laboratories. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 13 (1) pp. 3-8.

This article provides a table with summary statistics for the thirteen usability laboratories described in the papers in this special issue. It also gives an introduction to the main uses of usability laboratories in usability engineering and surveys some of the issues related to practical use of user testing and CAUSE tools for computer-aided usability engineering.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1994): Estimating the Number of Subjects Needed for a Thinking Aloud Test. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 41 (3) pp. 385-397.

Two studies of using the thinking aloud method for user interface testing showed that experimenters who were not usability specialists could use the method. However, they found only 28-30% of known usability problems when running a single test subject. Running more test subjects increased the number of problems found, but with progressively diminishing returns; after five test subjects 77-85% of the problems had been found.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Academic Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1994): "Defying Gravity: The Making of Newton," by Doug Menuez and Markos Kounalakis. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (1) p. 73.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1994): UPA93. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (2) pp. 29-33.

 
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Hix, Deborah, Hartson, H. Rex and Nielsen, Jakob (1994): A Taxonomy for Developing High Impact Formative Usability Evaluation Methods. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (4) pp. 20-22.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Levy, Jonathan (1994): Measuring Usability: Preference vs. Performance. In Communications of the ACM, 37 (4) pp. 66-75.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1994): Enhancing the explanatory power of usability heuristics. In: Plaisant, Catherine (ed.) Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 1994, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, April 24-28, 1994, Conference Companion 1994. p. 210. Available online

Several published sets of usability heuristics were compared with a database of existing usability problems drawn from a variety of projects in order to determine what heuristics best explain actual usability problems. Based on a factor analysis of the explanations as well as an analysis of the heuristics providing the broadest explanatory coverage of the problems, a new set of nine heuristics were derived: visibility of system status, match between system and the real world, user control and freedom, consistency and standards, error prevention, recognition rather than recall, flexibility and efficiency of use, aesthetic and minimalist design, and helping users recognize, diagnose, and recover from errors.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
1993
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1993): Usability Engineering. Boston, MA, Morgan Kaufmann

Written by the author of the best-selling HyperText&HyperMedia, this book is an excellent guide to the methods of usability engineering. The book provides the tools needed to avoid usability surprises and improve product quality. Step-by-step information on which method to use at various stages during the development lifecycle are included, along with detailed information on how to run a usability test and the unique issues relating to international usability. * Emphasizes cost-effective methods that developers can implement immediately* Instructs readers about which methods to use when, throughout the development lifecycle, which ultimately helps in cost-benefit analysis. * Shows readers how to avoid the four most frequently listed reasons for delay in software projects.* Includes detailed information on how to run a usability test.* Covers unique issues of international usability.* Features an extensive bibliography allowing readers to find additional information.* Written by an internationally renowned expert in the field and the author of the best-selling HyperText&HyperMedia.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Morgan Kaufmann

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Landauer, Thomas K. (1993): A Mathematical Model of the Finding of Usability Problems. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 206-213. Available online

For 11 studies, we find that the detection of usability problems as a function of number of users tested or heuristic evaluators employed is well modeled as a Poisson process. The model can be used to plan the amount of evaluation required to achieve desired levels of thoroughness or benefits. Results of early tests can provide estimates of the number of problems left to be found and the number of additional evaluations needed to find a given fraction. With quantitative evaluation costs and detection values, the model can estimate the numbers of evaluations at which optimal cost/benefit ratios are obtained and at which marginal utility vanishes. For a "medium" example, we estimate that 16 evaluations would be worth their cost, with maximum benefit/cost ratio at four.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Landauer and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Phillips, Victoria L. (1993): Estimating the Relative Usability of Two Interfaces: Heuristic, Formal, and Empirical Methods Compared. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 214-221. Available online

Two alternative user interface designs were subjected to user testing to measure user performance in a database query task. User performance was also estimated heuristically in three different ways and by use of formal GOMS modelling. The estimated values for absolute user performance had very high variability, but estimates of the relative advantage of the fastest interface were less variable. Choosing the fastest of the two designs would have a net present value more than 1,000 times the cost of getting the estimates. A software manager would make the correct choice every time in our case study if decisions were based on at least three independent estimates. User testing was 4.9 times as expensive as the cheapest heuristic method but provided better performance estimates.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Phillips and/or ACM Press

 
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Spool, Jared M., Allen, C. Dennis, Ballman, Don, Begg, Vivienne, Miller-Jacobs, Harold H., Muller, Michael J. and Nielsen, Jakob (1993): User Involvement in the Design Process: Why, When and How?. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 251-254. Available online

For years the CHI community has championed the importance of the user in system development. As many of us develop systems, we find that the concept of user involvement is not so easy to implement. Does one always strive to involve the user in the design process? Are there situations when the users should not be involved? What if the user is reluctant to change? How is user involvement handled when the user claims to know all the answers and wants to design the entire interface his or her way? What if the users, or even potential users are not available? How can user involvement be accomplished under these developmental restrictions? User Involvement, therefore, may be a goal -- not a given, and how to effect user involvement is not as straight forward as the text books convey! To assist the process of user interface development, many techniques have been developed such as Heuristic Evaluation, Participatory Design, Cognitive Walk Throughs, Task Analysis and Rapid Prototyping. These techniques vary considerably in the extent of user involvement that they require. This panel will attempt to match the technique with the degree of user involvement that the developer is faced with or can achieve. The issues discussed in this session are important to the entire user interface community. Developers will be happy to hear that they are not alone; others have similar problems with users. They will learn which of the techniques are best suited for each development situation. Methodologists will gain greater insight into the breadth and depth of working with, and attempting to satisfy various types of users. They may be able to better refine the technologies we now have available to meet the needs of user interface developers.

© All rights reserved Spool et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Schaefer, Lynn (1993): Sound Effects as an Interface Element for Older Users. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 12 (4) pp. 208-215.

Users who were between 70 and 75 years old with a mean age of 71.8 years were tested using a paint program that could generate a variety of sound effects to accompany and differentiate the paint tools. Even though the sound effects seemed enjoyable to several younger interface analysts, the older users testing the program with sound effects did not find the program more enjoyable than those testing it in a silent mode. Also, the older test users found the interface more difficult to use when they were exposed to the sounds, possibly because they were overwhelmed by the multimedia effects.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Schaefer and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Mack, Robert L. and Nielsen, Jakob (1993): Usability Inspection Methods: Report on a Workshop Held at CHI'92, Monterey, CA, May 3-4, 1992. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (1) pp. 28-33.

Usability inspection methods, based on informed intuitions about interface design quality, hold promise of providing faster, more cost-effective ways to generate usability evaluations, compared to empirical user evaluation methods. Examples of inspection methods include heuristic evaluation (Nielsen&Molich, 1990), usability walkthroughs (Bias, 1991; Karat&Bennett, 1991a, 1991b), cognitive walkthroughs (Lewis, Polson, Wharton&Reiman, 1990), and applications of guidelines in walkthroughs (Jeffries, Miller, Wharton,&Uyeda, 1991). These methods have been used in development for some time in one form or another (perhaps by other names), often because there is simply no alternative like user testing. Usability inspection methods have been an object of research in the last two years or so. Progress has been made in refining methods, and understanding their role in usability engineering. We organized this workshop because the time seemed right for a group of practitioners and researchers involved with these methods to review the state of the practice. Thirteen people participated in the two-day workshop. On the first day each participant led the group through a half hour demonstration and discussion of a specific method or methodological issue. Participants were asked to read position papers prepared before the workshop, in order to provide a common background. On the second day, the group engaged in a wide-ranging discussion of issues raised on the previous day. Procedurally, this discussion began with the development of a issue space consisting of key issues written on index cards, pinned up on a wall and grouped into larger topics. This SIGCHI report is our initial summary of what we discussed and in some cases, what we concluded. We also plan to produce an edited collection of papers based on the workshop.

© All rights reserved Mack and Nielsen and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1993): Tog on Interface. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 25 (2) pp. 54-55.

This is an enjoyable although somewhat whimsical book to be read for its firm foundation in graphical user interfaces for personal computers and insights into consistency and the evolutionary nature of interfaces. It is not a general textbook on user interface design.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1993): Iterative User-Interface Design. In IEEE Computer, 26 (11) pp. 32-41.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1993): Noncommand User Interfaces. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (4) pp. 82-99.

1992
 
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Mulligan, Robert M., Dieli, Mary, Nielsen, Jakob, Poltrock, Steven, Rosenberg, Daniel and Rudman, Susan Ehrlich (1992): Designing Usable Systems Under Real-World Constraints: A Practitioners Forum. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 149-152. Available online

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1992): Finding Usability Problems Through Heuristic Evaluation. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 373-380. Available online

Usability specialists were better than non-specialists at performing heuristic evaluation, and "double experts" with specific expertise in the kind of interface being evaluated performed even better. Major usability problems have a higher probability than minor problems of being found in a heuristic evaluation, but more minor problems are found in absolute numbers. Usability heuristics relating to exits and user errors were more difficult to apply than the rest, and additional measures should be taken to find problems relating to these heuristics. Usability problems that relate to missing interface elements that ought to be introduced were more difficult to find by heuristic evaluation in interfaces implemented as paper prototypes but were as easy as other problems to find in running systems.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob, Bush, Rita M., Dayton, Tom, Mond, Nancy E., Muller, Michael J. and Root, Robert W. (1992): Teaching Experienced Developers to Design Graphical User Interfaces. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 557-564. Available online

Five groups of developers with experience in the design of character-based user interfaces were taught graphical user interface design through a short workshop with a focus on practical design exercises using low-tech tools derived from the PICTIVE method. Several usability problems were found in the designs by applying the heuristic evaluation method, and feedback on these problems constituted a way to make the otherwise abstract usability principles concrete for the designers at the workshop. Based on these usability problems and on observations of the design process, we conclude that object-oriented interactions are especially hard to design and that the developers were influenced by the graphical interfaces of personal computers with which they had interacted as regular users.

© All rights reserved Nielsen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Brothers, L., Hollan, James D., Nielsen, Jakob, Stornetta, Scott, Abney, Steve, Furnas, George W. and Littman, Michael (1992): Supporting Informal Communication via Ephemeral Interest Groups. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 84-90. Available online

In this paper, we introduce ephemeral interest groups for supporting informal communication. Ephemeral interest groups are electronic discussion groups that, in contrast to bulletin boards and the like, are short-lived and ad hoc. They are designed as a medium for informal discussions of items broadcast to a wider community. We have implemented a prototype system to explore ephemeral interest groups. We discuss the goals of the system, characterize its evolution over the last ten months of deployment, and sketch our plans for future developments.

© All rights reserved Brothers et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dumais, Susan and Nielsen, Jakob (1992): Automating the Assignment of Submitted Manuscripts to Reviewers. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 1992. pp. 233-244. Available online

The 117 manuscripts submitted for the Hypertext'91 conference were assigned to members of the review committee, using a variety of automated methods based on information retrieval principles and Latent Semantic Indexing. Fifteen reviewers provided exhaustive ratings for the submitted abstracts, indicating how well each abstract matched their interests. The automated methods do a fairly good job of assigning relevant papers for review, but they are still some what poorer than assignments made manually by human experts and substantially poorer than an assignment perfectly matching the reviewers' own ranking of the papers. A new automated assignment method called "n of 2n" achieves better performance than human experts by sending reviewers more papers than they actually have to review and then allowing them to choose part of their review load themselves.

© All rights reserved Dumais and Nielsen and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1992): The Usability Engineering Life Cycle. In IEEE Computer, 25 (3) pp. 12-22.

1991
 
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Thovtrup, Henrik and Nielsen, Jakob (1991): Assessing the Usability of a User Interface Standard. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 335-341. Available online

User interface standards can be hard to use for developers. In a laboratory experiment, 26 students achieved only 71% compliance with a two page standard; many violations were due to influence from previous experience with non-standard systems. In a study of a real company's standard, developers were only able to find 4 to 12 actual deviations in a sample system, and three real products broke between 7 and 12 of the 22 mandatory rules in the standard. Designers were found to rely heavily on the examples in the standard and their experience with other user interfaces.

© All rights reserved Thovtrup and Nielsen and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob, Hardman, Lynda, Nicol, Anne and Yankelovich, Nicole (1991): The Nielsen Ratings: Hypertext Reviews. In: Walker, Jan (ed.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 91 Conference December 15-18, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. pp. 359-360. Available online

 
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Nielsen, Jakob, Frehr, Ida and Nymand, Hans Olav (1991): The Learnability of HyperCard as an Object-Oriented Programming System. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 10 (2) pp. 111-120.

Computer science students are able to learn HyperCard programming in between to and three days using an incremental learning approach. They have several problems in understanding the layered object hierarchy in the system.

© All rights reserved Nielsen et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1991): Usability Metrics and Methodologies British Computer Society, London, U.K., 21 May 1990. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 23 (2) pp. 37-39.

1990
 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Molich, Rolf (1990): Heuristic evaluation of user interfaces. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 249-256.

 Cited in the following chapter:

3D User Interfaces: [/encyclopedia/3d_user_interfaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

3D User Interfaces: [/encyclopedia/3d_user_interfaces.html]


 
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): Hypertext and Hypermedia. San Diego, CA, Academic Press

 
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Perlman, Gary, Egan, Dennis E., Ehrlich, Kate, Marchionini, Gary, Nielsen, Jakob and Shneiderman, Ben (1990): Evaluating Hypermedia Systems. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 387-390. Available online

Hypermedia systems provide online access to complex networks of information with the goal of making it easier to find and use information. To validate the utility of their systems, several researchers and system developers have attempted to collect evaluation data on the usability and effectiveness of their systems and the features in their systems. Because of the potential complexity of hypermedia systems and the information structures they may represent, a variety of evaluation measures and methods have been used. These trade off the need for timely feedback in the development of new technology, the difficulty of controlling one or two variables in systems with dozens or hundreds of components, and the goal of gaining an understanding of hypermedia systems. The key issues discussed by the panel include: Ecological Evaluation of New Technologies Embedded in Complex Systems: How can the utility of new technologies be evaluated validly when they must be embedded in complex software systems that include a hardware platform, underlying user interface, and a myriad of functions? Are controlled experiments necessary and can they be performed economically? What problems can occur in naturalistic settings? Measures of Learnability, Usability and Effectiveness: What performance measures are most useful? How does the choice of measure depend on the maturity of a system? on the tasks to be done with a system? Application to Human-Computer System Evaluation in General: What have been some results about hypermedia systems as a result of empirical evaluation? How does the evaluation of hypermedia systems apply to the evaluation of general systems? What guidance can be given to designers and users of hypermedia systems?

© All rights reserved Perlman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob, Galdo, Elisa M. del, Sprung, Robert C. and Sukaviriya, Piyawadee (1990): Designing for International Use. In: Carrasco, Jane and Whiteside, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 90 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference 1990, Seattle, Washington,USA. pp. 291-294.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): Miniatures versus Icons as a Visual Cache for Videotex Browsing. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 9 (6) pp. 441-449.

Miniatures are an alternative to icons for the representation of a large graphical object such as a window in a reduced format. A front end user interface to an existing videotex system was implemented using icons as well as miniatures to represent previously seen frames in a visual cache, and an empirical comparison showed that users had the same performance with the two representations but subjectively preferred icons.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): Paper versus Computer Implementations as Mockup Scenarios for Heuristic Evaluation. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 315-320.

A taxonomy of the various forms of scenarios in the user interface field is given, including a discussion of different forms of mockups. A single interface design for a videotex system was implemented as a mockup in two different mediums: As a paper mockup and as a running prototype using HyperCard. These two versions of the same design were then subjected to heuristic evaluation by two similar groups of evaluators. Both versions contained the same fifty usability problems, but there were great differences in the types of problems found by the two groups of evaluators. This indicates that the medium in which a design is presented will have a major impact on what kind of usability problems can be discovered using heuristic evaluation.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or North-Holland

 
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Nielsen, Jakob, Dray, Susan M., Foley, James D., Walsh, Paul and Wright, Peter C. (1990): Usability Engineering on a Budget. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 1067-1070.

This panel will discuss how to get the "most bang for the buck" in usability engineering. What should one do when the budget is restricted and it is impossible to do everything by the book? How can one introduce usability methods in companies that currently have no systematic usability efforts?

© All rights reserved Nielsen et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): A Meta-model for Interacting with Computers. In Interacting with Computers, 2 (2) pp. 147-160.

A large number of models and definitions of the term 'model' are used in the field of human-computer interaction. A taxonomy of the relevant models together with a proposed set of names for the most commonly used types of models is presented. This framework offers a more systematic approach to the use of HCI models than the patchwork of different definitions currently used. Further, a notation is introduced to classify the different kinds of models in a systematic and readable way. The basis for this taxonomy is the definition of the actors of interest in building the models: the user, the designer, the computer system, the researcher, the task domain, the world, and the manual. Each model has one subject (owner) which is one of these actors. Each model also has an object which may be either an actor, a combination of actors, or another model. For example, a metaphor may be considered as a model of the user's actual conceptual model of the computer system (i.e. a class UUC-model: a user's model of a user's model of a computer)

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): "Ecodisc," by BBC Interactive Television Unit. In Hypermedia, 2 (2) pp. 176-182.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): International User Interfaces: An Exercise. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (4) pp. 50-51.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): Hypertext'89. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (4) pp. 52-61.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): CHI'90: Seattle, Washington, April 1-5, 1990. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 22 (2) pp. 20-25.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (ed.) (1990): Designing User Interfaces for International Use. Amsterdam, The Netherlands, Elsevier Science Publishers

 
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Molich, Rolf and Nielsen, Jakob (1990): Improving a Human-Computer Dialogue. In Communications of the ACM, 33 (3) pp. 338-348.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): The Art of Navigating through Hypertext. In Communications of the ACM, 33 (3) pp. 296-310.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1990): Traditional Dialogue Design Applied to Modern User Interfaces. In Communications of the ACM, 33 (10) pp. 109-118.

1989
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): The Matters that Really Matter for Hypertext Usability. In: Halasz, Frank and Meyrowitz, Norman (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 89 Conference November 5-8, 1989, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 239-248.

We compare 92 benchmark measurements of various usability issues related to hypertext which have been published in the hypertext literature in order to find which ones have shown the largest effects.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or ACM Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): What Do Users Really Want?. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (2) pp. 137-147.

A group of users in Copenhagen were asked to evaluate how important a number of user interface characteristics were for them. The results show high importance of efficient daily use and of possibilities for exploratory learning while tutorial materials were of less importance. Users also were asked to evaluate four usability aspects of a number of popular programs. Results show that the quality pleasant to work with has the largest impact on evaluations of overall user-friendliness while users seem able to view usability independently from the number of features in an application.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): Hypertext Bibliography. In Hypermedia, 1 (1) pp. 74-91.

 
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Anderson, Michael H., Nielsen, Jakob and Rasmussen, Henrik (1989): A Similarity-Based Hypertext Browser for Reading the Unix Network News. In Hypermedia, 1 (3) pp. 255-265.

HyperNews is a prototype user interface to reading the articles coming in over the Unix network news. HyperNews automatically constructs hypertext links between articles which are part of a stream of articles commenting on each other, and it also constructs links to articles outside these streams if they are considered related to the current article according to a similarity rating based on an information retrieval formula.

© All rights reserved Anderson et al. and/or Taylor Graham

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): Coordinating User Interfaces for Consistency. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (3) pp. 63-65.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): HCI'88 British Computer Society Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Manchester, United Kingdom, 5-9 September 1988. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (3) pp. 90-93.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Molich, Rolf (1989): Teaching User Interface Design Based on Usability Engineering. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (1) pp. 45-48.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): HyperHyper: Developments Across the Field of Hypermedia -- A Mini Trip Report: BCS Workshop, London, UK, 23 February 1989. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (1) pp. 65-67.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): International Conference on Fifth Generation Computer Systems 1988, Tokyo, Japan, 28 November - 2 December 1988. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (1) pp. 68-71.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): CHI'89. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (2) pp. 28-40.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): Hypertext II. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 21 (2) pp. 41-47.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (ed.) (1989): Coordinating User Interfaces for Consistency. New York, Academic Press

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1989): Usability Engineering at a Discount. In: Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 1989. pp. 394-401.

The "discount usability engineering," method consists of scenarios, simplified thinking aloud, and heuristic evaluation and is intended to alleviate the current problem where usability work is seen as too expensive and difficult by many developers.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1988
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1988): The HCI Situation in Europe. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (3) pp. 48-50.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1988): Hypertext'87, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, 13-15 November 1987. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (4) pp. 27-35.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1988): INTERACT'87, Stuttgart, West Germany, 1-4 September 1987. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (4) pp. 36-42.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1988): CHI'88, Washington, D.D., 15-19 May 1988. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 20 (2) pp. 58-66.

1987
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1987): Computer-Supported Cooperative Work: Trip Report from the Conference in Austin, December 3-5, 1986. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (1) pp. 54-61.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1987): Classification of Dialog Techniques: A CHI+GI'87 Workshop, Toronto, April 6, 1987. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (2) pp. 30-35.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1987): CHI+GI'87, Toronto, April 5-9, 1987. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 19 (2) pp. 58-66.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1987): A User Interface Case Study of the Macintosh. In: Salvendy, Gavriel (ed.) HCI International 1987 - Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction - Volume 2 August 10-14, 1987, Honolulu, Hawaii. pp. 241-248.

1986
 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1986): "Fundamentals of Human-Computer Interaction," edited by Andrew Monk. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 5 (3) pp. 291-298.

 
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Nielsen, Jakob (1986): A Virtual Protocol Model for Computer-Human Interaction. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 24 (3) pp. 301-312.

A model of computer-human interaction is presented, viewing the interaction as a hierarchy of virtual protocol dialogues. Each virtual protocol realizes the dialogue on the level above itself and is in turn supported by a lower-level protocol. This model is inspired by the OSI-model for computer networks from the International Standards Organization. The virtual dialogue approach enables the separation of technical features of new devices (e.g. a mouse or a graphical display) from the conceptual features (e.g. menus or windows). Also, it is possible to analyse error messages and other feedback as part of the different protocols.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and/or Academic Press

 
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