Publication statistics

Pub. period:1990-2012
Pub. count:116
Number of co-authors:188



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Shwetak N. Patel:21
Gillian R. Hayes:15
Khai N. Truong:15

 

 

Productive colleagues

Gregory D. Abowd's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Scott E. Hudson:113
Alan Dix:107
Alan J. Dix:107
 
 
 

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Gregory D. Abowd

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Has also published under the name of:
"Gregory Abowd"

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http://www.gregoryabowd.com/

Gregory D. Abowd (pronounced AY-bowd) is the Distinguished Professor in the School of Interactive Computing at Georgia Tech. His research interests concern how the advanced information technologies of ubiquitous computing (or ubicomp) impact our everyday lives when they are seamlessly integrated into our living spaces. Dr. Abowd's work has involved schools and homes, with a recent focus on healthcare delivery. He is a member of the GVU Center. Dr. Abowd currently serves as the Director of the Health Systems Institute, a joint Georgia Tech/Emory University research institute investigating the impact of technologies on healthcare delivery. This extends his own work over the past decade on information technologies and autism. Dr. Abowd directs the Ubiquitous Computing Research Group in the School of Interactive Computing. This effort started with the Future Computing Environments research group in 1995, and has since matured into a collection of research groups, including Dr. Abowd's own group. One of the major research efforts that Dr. Abowd initated is the Aware Home Research Initiative, which he founded in 2000 and directed until 2008. Dr. Abowd received the degree of B.S. in Mathematics in 1986 from the University of Notre Dame. He then attended the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom on a Rhodes Scholarship, earning the degrees of M.Sc. (1987) and D.Phil. (1991) in Computation from the Programming Research Group in the Computing Laboratory. From 1989-1992 he was a Research Associate/Postdoc with the Human-Computer Interaction Group in the Department of Computer Science at the University of York in England. From 1992-1994, he was a Postdoctoral Research Associate with the Software Engineering Institute and the Computer Science Department at Carnegie Mellon University. In the Fall of 1999, the Georgia Tech Alumni Magazine did a profile on Dr. Abowd and some of his research from the 1990's. You can read the article here. Much more news about his research group, both personal and professional, can be found here.

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Publications by Gregory D. Abowd (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Hong, Hwajung, Kim, Jennifer G., Abowd, Gregory D. and Arriaga, Rosa I. (2012): Designing a social network to support the independence of young adults with autism. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 627-636.

Independence is key to a successful transition to adulthood for individuals with autism. Social support is a crucial factor for achieving adaptive self-help life skills. In this paper we describe the results of a formative design exercise with young adults with autism and their caregivers to uncover opportunities for social networks to promote independence and facilitate coordination. We propose the concept of SocialMirror, a device connected to an online social network that allows the young adult to seek advice from a trusted and responsive network of family, friends and professionals. Focus group discussions reveal the potential for SocialMirror to increase motivation to learn everyday life skills among young adults with autism and to foster collaboration among a distributed care network. We present design considerations to leverage a small trusted network that balances quick response with safeguards for privacy and security of young adults with autism.

© All rights reserved Hong et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hong, Hwajung, Kim, Jennifer G., Abowd, Gregory D. and Arriaga, Rosa I. (2012): SocialMirror: motivating young adults with autism to practice life skills in a social world. In: Companion Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 41-42.

In this video, we present SocialMirror [1], an interactive mirror connected to an online social network that allows young adults with autism to seek advice from a trusted and responsive network of family, friends and professionals. We depict three social scenarios that show the feasibility and applicability of SocialMirror.

© All rights reserved Hong et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Abowd, Gregory D. (2012): What next, ubicomp?: celebrating an intellectual disappearing act. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 31-40.

Weiser's landmark Scientific American article inspired many researchers to explore an exciting socio-technical vision of a third generation of computing. At the 21st anniversary of that published vision, I want to assess ubicomp's maturity and explore the identity challenge it faces. Today, ubicomp as a niche research topic no longer makes sense; we must celebrate its "disappearance" as a well-scoped research agenda because it has become a profound agenda across most of computing, and beyond. This should not be surprising; the 2nd generation of computing, the personal computer revolution, experienced the same profound disappearance. In celebration of this imminent disappearance, I will highlight the unique contributions of the ubicomp community, express some remaining intellectual challenges, and speculate on how to formulate new visions of computing that might succeed this third generation.

© All rights reserved Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Thomaz, Edison, Bettadapura, Vinay, Reyes, Gabriel, Sandesh, Megha, Schindler, Grant, Plotz, Thomas, Abowd, Gregory D. and Essa, Irfan (2012): Recognizing water-based activities in the home through infrastructure-mediated sensing. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 85-94.

Activity recognition in the home has been long recognized as the foundation for many desirable applications in fields such as home automation, sustainability, and healthcare. However, building a practical home activity monitoring system remains a challenge. Striking a balance between cost, privacy, ease of installation and scalability continues to be an elusive goal. In this paper, we explore infrastructure-mediated sensing combined with a vector space model learning approach as the basis of an activity recognition system for the home. We examine the performance of our single-sensor water-based system in recognizing eleven high-level activities in the kitchen and bathroom, such as cooking and shaving. Results from two studies show that our system can estimate activities with overall accuracy of 82.69% for one individual and 70.11% for a group of 23 participants. As far as we know, our work is the first to employ infrastructure-mediated sensing for inferring high-level human activities in a home setting.

© All rights reserved Thomaz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Ye, Zhefan, Li, Yin, Fathi, Alireza, Han, Yi, Rozga, Agata, Abowd, Gregory D. and Rehg, James M. (2012): Detecting eye contact using wearable eye-tracking glasses. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 699-704.

We describe a system for detecting moments of eye contact between an adult and a child, based on a single pair of gaze-tracking glasses which are worn by the adult. Our method utilizes commercial gaze tracking technology to determine the adult's point of gaze, and combines this with computer vision analysis of video of the child's face to determine their gaze direction. Eye contact is then detected as the event of simultaneous, mutual looking at faces by the dyad. We report encouraging findings from an initial implementation and evaluation of this approach.

© All rights reserved Ye et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Plotz, Thomas, Hammerla, Nils Y., Rozga, Agata, Reavis, Andrea, Call, Nathan and Abowd, Gregory D. (2012): Automatic assessment of problem behavior in individuals with developmental disabilities. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 391-400.

Severe behavior problems of children with developmental disabilities often require intervention by specialists. These specialists rely on direct observation of the behavior, usually in a controlled clinical environment. In this paper, we present a technique for using on-body accelerometers to assist in automated classification of problem behavior during such direct observation. Using simulated data of episodes of severe behavior acted out by trained specialists, we demonstrate how machine learning techniques can be used to segment relevant behavioral episodes from a continuous sensor stream and to classify them into distinct categories of severe behavior (aggression, disruption, and self-injury). We further validate our approach by demonstrating it produces no false positives when applied to a publicly accessible dataset of activities of daily living. Finally, we show promising classification results when our sensing and analysis system is applied to data from a real assessment session conducted with a child exhibiting problem behaviors.

© All rights reserved Plotz et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Yarosh, Svetlana and Abowd, Gregory D. (2011): Mediated parent-child contact in work-separated families. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1185-1194.

Parents and children in families living with regular separation due to work develop strategies to manage being apart. We interviewed 14 pairs of parents and children (ages 7-13) from work-separated families to understand their experiences and the strategies that they use to keep their family together. Parents focus on combining scheduled synchronous and spontaneous asynchronous communication to maintain a constant presence in the life of the child. Children, on the other hand, focus on other sources of support, on other activities, and on the eventual reunion. Both the remote parent and the child rely heavily on a collocated adult to maintain awareness and contact. We compare work-separated families with other types of separation and highlight opportunities for new designs.

© All rights reserved Yarosh and Abowd and/or their publisher

 
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Boujarwah, Fatima A., Nazneen, A, Hong, Hwajung, Abowd, Gregory D. and Arriaga, Rosa I. (2011): Towards a framework to situate assistive technology design in the context of culture. In: Thirteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2011. pp. 19-26.

We present the findings from a cross-cultural study of the expectations and perceptions of individuals with autism and other intellectual disabilities (AOID) in Kuwait, Pakistan, South Korea, and the United States. Our findings exposed cultural nuances that have implications for the design of assistive technologies. We develop a framework, based on three themes; 1) lifestyle; 2) socio-technical infrastructure; and 3) monetary and informational resources within which the cultural implications and opportunities for assistive technology were explored. The three key contributions of this work are: 1) the development of a framework that outlines how culture impacts perceptions and expectations of individuals with social and intellectual disabilities; 2) a mapping of how this framework leads to implications and opportunities for assistive technology design; 3) the presentation of concrete examples of how these implications impact the design of three emerging assistive technologies.

© All rights reserved Boujarwah et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Romero, Mario, Frey, Brian, Southern, Caleb and Abowd, Gregory D. (2011): BrailleTouch: designing a mobile eyes-free soft keyboard. In: Proceedings of 13th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2011. pp. 707-709.

Texting is the essence of mobile communication and connectivity, as evidenced by today's teenagers, tomorrow's workforce. Fifty-four percent of American teens contact each other daily by texting, as compared to face-to-face

© All rights reserved Romero et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Cohn, Gabe, Stuntebeck, Erich, Pandey, Jagdish, Otis, Brian, Abowd, Gregory D. and Patel, Shwetak N. (2010): SNUPI: sensor nodes utilizing powerline infrastructure. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2010. pp. 159-168.

A persistent concern of wireless sensors is the power consumption required for communication, which presents a significant adoption hurdle for practical ubiquitous computing applications. This work explores the use of the home powerline as a large distributed antenna capable of receiving signals from ultra-low-power wireless sensor nodes and thus allowing nodes to be detected at ranges that are otherwise impractical with traditional over-the-air reception. We present the design and implementation of small ultra-low-power 27 MHz sensor nodes that transmit their data by coupling over the powerline to a single receiver attached to the powerline in the home. We demonstrate the ability of our general purpose wireless sensor nodes to provide whole-home coverage while consuming less than 1 mW of power when transmitting (65 W consumed in our custom CMOS transmitter). This is the lowest power transmitter to date compared to those found in traditional whole-home wireless systems.

© All rights reserved Cohn et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tsujita, Hitomi, Yarosh, Svetlana and Abowd, Gregory D. (2010): CU-Later: a communication system considering time difference. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2010. pp. 435-436.

Despite the widespread use of technology for social communication across distance, a number of barriers to such contact still exist. One such barrier is the problem of communicating with people in different time zones. To address this problem, we propose the CU-Later system which considers the time difference between two locations. CU-Later is a system which allows synchronizing activities across time zones by displaying recorded video of a remote activity after a time shift. As one example of its use, the system connects two remote dining tables and lets users see and hear each other having dinner despite actually having done so at different times. We discuss the design of this system and a preliminary field test of time-shifted video.

© All rights reserved Tsujita et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tsujita, Hitomi and Abowd, Gregory D. (2010): SocialMedicineBox: a communication system for the elderly using medicine box. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2010. pp. 437-438.

With a growing aging population, it has become a very important issue to monitor elderly people who are increasingly living alone and away from their families. Many research projects have explored this issue. However, these are mainly focused on one-way communication. In this paper, we proposed a new communication system for the elderly using a medicine chest. The "Social Medicine Box" is a system which notifies the status of the elderly taking medicines as well as their feeling a picture sent automatically to their family. The elderly can also get feedback and communicate with their family as well as their social network (e.g. Twitter and Facebook). In addition, it allows family members living apart to seamlessly share the information without the annoyance of having to initiate conversation.

© All rights reserved Tsujita and Abowd and/or their publisher

 
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Kinnaird, Peter, Romero, Mario and Abowd, Gregory D. (2010): Connect 2 congress: visual analytics for civic oversight. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2853-2862.

Strong representative democracies rely on educated, informed, and active citizenry to provide oversight of the government. We present Connect 2 Congress (C2C), a novel, high temporal-resolution and interactive visualization of legislative behavior. We present the results of focus group and domain expert interviews that demonstrate how different stakeholders use C2C for a variety of investigative activities. The evaluation provided evidence that users are able to support or reject claims made by candidates and conduct free-form, low-cost, exploratory analysis into the legislative behavior of representatives across time periods.

© All rights reserved Kinnaird et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Hong, Hwajung, Jeong, Hee Young, Arriaga, Rosa I. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2010): TriggerHunter: designing an educational game for families with asthmatic children. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3577-3582.

In this paper, we propose a collaborative and educational game for families with asthmatic children to improve their health. This paper describes design approaches and specifications of a game called TriggerHunter that enables asthmatic children to see asthma triggers in their home environment through an augmented reality technology. The goal of designing a game for tracking asthma triggers in the real world is to educate asthmatic children and their parents about triggers that may cause asthma attacks or worsen symptoms. By providing tailored learning experience that is enjoyable, this interactive game aims to increase awareness of asthma triggers and changes behaviors as to improve pediatric asthma management.

© All rights reserved Hong et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lee, Hee Rin, Panont, Wassa R., Plattenburg, Brian, Croix, Jean-Pierre de la, Patharachalam, Dilip and Abowd, Gregory D. (2010): Asthmon: empowering asthmatic children's self-management with a virtual pet. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3583-3588.

Asthma is a common chronic childhood disease. Children spend a majority of their time in schools, and barriers to on-site asthma management have been reported. Previous forms of clinical intervention have regarded patients as passive subjects. However, self-management plays a significant role in caring for asthmatics. We consider asthmatic children and their parents, primary caregivers, as active participants in their treatment and care. To achieve this, we created Asthmon, a portable virtual pet that measures the lung capacity, and instructs appropriate actions to take.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Ganesan, Manohar, Russell, Neil W., Rajan, Rahul, Welch, Nathan, Westeyn, Tracy L. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2010): Grip sensing in smart toys: a formative design method for user categorization. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3745-3750.

Modern toys are interactive, motivate play, and can be used to aid detection and analysis of play behavior. Our research has investigated the use of wireless sensors embedded in toys to aid in the automatic detection and analysis of children's playtime activities. In order to guide age appropriate interaction style and facilitate data collection (adult vs. child), we need to identify who is playing with the toy. This becomes especially challenging when these smart toys are deployed into everyday play areas. In this paper we describe a formative design methodology to inform the creation of a smart toy that could allow differentiation between a child and adult. We also describe an evaluation of our prototype design from a pilot study that shows promise for future research.

© All rights reserved Ganesan et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Nazneen, Fnu, Boujarwah, Fatima A., Sadler, Shone, Mogus, Amha, Abowd, Gregory D. and Arriaga, Rosa I. (2010): Understanding the challenges and opportunities for richer descriptions of stereotypical behaviors of children with ASD: a concept exploration and validation. In: Twelfth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2010. pp. 67-74.

Individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) often engage in stereotypical behaviors. In some individuals these behaviors occur with very high frequency and can be disruptive and at times self-injurious. We propose a system that can tacitly collect contextual data related to the individual's physiological state and their external environment, and map it to occurrences of stereotypies. A user study was conducted with children with ASD, parents, and caregivers to explore and validate this concept. A prototype of the system, developed through participatory design, was used in the study as a probe to elicit the information needs of these stakeholders, and provide a better understanding of the nuances involved in supporting those needs. Here we present the findings of this study, and four design recommendations; promoting ecological integration, addressing privacy concerns, supporting inference, and enabling customization.

© All rights reserved Nazneen et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Kientz, Julie A., Arriaga, Rosa I. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2009): Baby steps: evaluation of a system to support record-keeping for parents of young children. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1713-1722.

Parents of young children often want to keep a variety of records on their children's early years, for the purposes of preservation of memories or at the request of their pediatrician. However, time constraints, motivation, and forgetfulness may hinder their ability to keep consistent records. We developed a system, Baby Steps, which is designed to improve the record-keeping process. In this paper, we present the results of a 3-month deployment study of this technology with 8 families and their pediatricians. The study showed that when compared to a control condition, experimental design features of Baby Steps encouraged parents to more frequently collect and review records, provided higher confidence in reporting, and improved parent-pediatrician communication.

© All rights reserved Kientz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Intille, Stephen S., Nawyn, Jason, Logan, Beth and Abowd, Gregory D. (2009): Developing shared home behavior datasets to advance HCI and ubiquitous computing research. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4763-4766.

Researchers in human-computer interaction and allied fields are increasingly interested in using new sensing capabilities to create context-aware interfaces and devices for the home. Data from sensors worn on the body or installed in an environment can be used by algorithms to infer what activities the home occupant may be engaged in and enable applications to respond accordingly. This one-day CHI'09 workshop would convene a multidisciplinary group of researchers to discuss strategies for creating community resources that might accelerate research on development of home technologies. In particular, the participants will discuss how to collaboratively gather high quality synchronized data streams from real homes, as well as qualitative material about home occupants and their behaviors. The resultant datasets could facilitate work on context modeling and enable researchers in other areas of HCI to explore contextual factors influencing the use of technology in naturalistic settings. The outcome of the workshop will be a community index of existing shared datasets of home behavior and guidelines for those interested in creating and disseminating new datasets.

© All rights reserved Intille et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Yarosh, Svetlana, Cuzzort, Stephen, Mller, Hendrik and Abowd, Gregory D. (2009): Developing a media space for remote synchronous parent-child interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 97-105.

While supporting family communication has traditionally been a domain of interest for interaction designers, few research initiatives have explicitly investigated remote synchronous communication between children and parents. We discuss the design of the ShareTable, a media space that supports synchronous interaction with children by augmenting videoconferencing with a camera-projector system to allow for shared viewing of physical artifacts. We present an exploratory evaluation of this system, highlighting how such a media space may be used by families for learning and play activities. The ShareTable was positively received by our participants and preferred over standard videoconferencing. Informed by the results of our exploratory evaluation, we discuss the next design iteration of the ShareTable and directions for future investigations in this area.

© All rights reserved Yarosh et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Yarosh, Svetlana, Chieh, Yee and Abowd, Gregory D. (2009): Supporting parent-child communication in divorced families. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (2) pp. 192-203.

Divorce affects a significant number of children and parents worldwide. We interviewed 10 parents and five children to get a qualitative understanding of the challenges faced by these families and the role of technology in maintaining contact. We found that both parents had a strong need to maintain autonomy in raising the child, though the residential parent had more opportunities to be instrumentally involved. Both parents and children sought to manage tensions between the two households -- parents by reducing interruption of the other household, children by trying to keep contact with the other parent as private as possible. Our participants used the telephone as the primary means to stay in touch while apart but expressed dissatisfaction with the limits of audio-only communication. It was difficult to keep a phone conversation engaging -- both parents and children instead sought ways to maintain contact through shared activities and routines but found little technological support to do so while separated. Situated in these results, we present implications for design that may aid in creating technologies for communication between parents and young children in divorced families.

© All rights reserved Yarosh et al. and/or Academic Press

2008
 
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Hayes, Gillian R., Gardere, Lamar M., Abowd, Gregory D. and Truong, Khai N. (2008): CareLog: a selective archiving tool for behavior management in schools. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 685-694.

Identifying the function of problem behavior can lead to the development of more effective interventions. One way to identify the function is through functional behavior assessment (FBA). Teachers conduct FBA in schools. However, the task load of recording the data manually is high, and the challenge of accurately identifying antecedents and consequences is significant while interacting with students. These issues often result in imperfect information capture. CareLog allows teachers more easily to conduct FBAs and enhances the capture of relevant information. In this paper, we describe the design process that led to five design principles that governed the development of CareLog. We present results from a five-month, quasi-controlled study aimed at validating those design principles. We reflect on how various constraints imposed by special education settings impact the design and evaluation process for HCI practitioners and researchers.

© All rights reserved Hayes et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kientz, Julie and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): When the designer becomes the user: designing a system for therapists by becoming a therapist. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2071-2078.

In this paper, we present the design process for developing a technology to support therapists for children with autism. To learn about the domain for which we were designing, one researcher became trained as a therapist and worked as one part time for over 10 months. This case study outlines the process by which the researcher was trained, the ways in which it was helpful in the design and evaluation of a technology system, and the aspects of the experience that we feel led to a better and more successful design.

© All rights reserved Kientz and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Kientz, Julie, Patel, Shwetak N., Jones, Brian, Price, Ed, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): The Georgia Tech aware home. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3675-3680.

The Aware Home Research Initiative (AHRI) at Georgia Tech is devoted to the multidisciplinary exploration of emerging technologies and services based in the home. Starting in 1998, our collection of faculty and students has created a unique research facility that allows us to simulate and evaluate user experiences with off-the-shelf and state-of-the-art technologies. With specific expertise in health, education, entertainment and usable security, we are able to apply our research to problems of significant social and economic impact.

© All rights reserved Kientz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kim, Sunyoung, Kientz, Julie A., Patel, Shwetak N. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): Are you sleeping?: sharing portrayed sleeping status within a social network. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 619-628.

Within a group of peers, it is often useful or interesting to know whether someone in the group has gone to bed or whether they have awakened in the morning. This information, naturally integrated as a peripheral augmentation of an alarm clock, allows people to know whether it is appropriate to make a call or feel more connected with someone living remotely. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of such an alarm clock, the BuddyClock, and describe how it enables users in a small social network to automatically share information about their sleeping behaviors with one another. Through 3-6 week deployment studies of this technology with five different social networks, we found that the alarm clock affected participant behaviors and allowed them to feel more connected to those with whom they shared their sleeping behaviors.

© All rights reserved Kim et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Westeyn, Tracy L., Kientz, Julie A., Starner, Thad E. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): Designing toys with automatic play characterization for supporting the assessment of a child's development. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC08 Interaction Design and Children 2008. pp. 89-92.

In this paper, we describe the design considerations and implementation of the Child'sPlay system, a technology for supporting the automatic recording, recognition, and quantification of a child's object play behaviors for retrospective analysis. Our prototype system consists of six varieties of toys augmented with wireless sensing capabilities and a mobile computing platform which uses statistical pattern recognition techniques to automatically classify sensed play behaviors. This paper discusses our choices in toy design both in form factor as well as sensing capabilities. In addition, we also describe the play activities the system supports and provide an overview of our initial recognition algorithms.

© All rights reserved Westeyn et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Iachello, Giovanni and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): From privacy methods to a privacy toolbox: Evaluation shows that heuristics are complementary. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 15 (2) p. 8.

We describe the two-year-long development and evaluation of the Proportionality Method, a design method intended to aid HCI practitioners in designing advanced IT applications with complex privacy implications. The method is inspired by Data Protection Authorities' (DPA) and Courts' practice and proposes to balance the impact on privacy of IT applications with their usefulness. We discuss the results of an evaluation of the design method to verify its usability, usefulness and effectiveness vis-a-vis other design methods proposed in the HCI literature to address similar issues. Results suggest that different design methods for privacy highlight different sets of issues and a combination of methods should be employed in a comprehensive design process. We propose to judge design methods based on their overall quantitative and qualitative merits, including the type of application and technology for which they are most fit and their methodological approach. We finally propose to develop a privacy toolbox, that is, a set of heuristic methods that designers can choose from with knowledge and understanding of their relative advantages and limitations.

© All rights reserved Iachello and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Yun, Jaeseok, Patel, Shwetak N., Reynolds, Matthew S. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): A quantitative investigation of inertial power harvesting for human-powered devices. In: Youn, Hee Yong and Cho, We-Duke (eds.) UbiComp 2008 Ubiquitous Computing - 10th International Conference September 21-24, 2008, Seoul, Korea. pp. 74-83.

 
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Stuntebeck, Erich P., Patel, Shwetak N., Robertson, Thomas, Reynolds, Matthew S. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): Wideband powerline positioning for indoor localization. In: Youn, Hee Yong and Cho, We-Duke (eds.) UbiComp 2008 Ubiquitous Computing - 10th International Conference September 21-24, 2008, Seoul, Korea. pp. 94-103.

 
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Lipford, Heather Richter and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): Reviewing Meetings in TeamSpace. In Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (4) pp. 406-432.

A number of prototype meeting capture applications have been created in the past decade, yet relatively little research has focused on the review and long-term use of real captured meeting information. To that end, we have implemented a system called TeamSpace for capturing and reviewing general meetings. In this article, we describe the long-term deployment of TeamSpace to a university research group, along with a pseudo-controlled study involving the same group of users and their meetings. We gained a detailed understanding of the behavioral patterns involved in reviewing meeting content and how to improve on the experience. Our evaluations also demonstrate several of the barriers and challenges in realizing the potential benefits of meeting capture.

© All rights reserved Lipford and Abowd and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Hayes, Gillian R., Abowd, Gregory D., Davis, John S., Blount, Marion, Ebling, Maria and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2008): Opportunities for Pervasive Computing in Chronic Cancer Care. In: Indulska, Jadwiga, Patterson, Donald J., Rodden, Tom and Ott, Max (eds.) Pervasive 2008 - Pervasive Computing, 6th International Conference May 19-22, 2008, Sydney, Australia. pp. 262-279.

 
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Patel, Shwetak N., Reynolds, Matthew S. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): Detecting Human Movement by Differential Air Pressure Sensing in HVAC System Ductwork: An Exploration in Infrastructure Mediated Sensing. In: Indulska, Jadwiga, Patterson, Donald J., Rodden, Tom and Ott, Max (eds.) Pervasive 2008 - Pervasive Computing, 6th International Conference May 19-22, 2008, Sydney, Australia. pp. 1-18.

2007
 
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Kientz, Julie, Arriaga, Rosa I., Chetty, Marshini, Hayes, Gillian R., Richardson, Jahmeilah, Patel, Shwetak N. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2007): Grow and know: understanding record-keeping needs for tracking the development of young children. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1351-1360.

From birth through age five, children undergo rapid development and learn skills that will influence them their entire lives. Regular visits to the pediatrician and detailed record-keeping can ensure that children are progressing and can identify early warning signs of developmental delay or disability. However, new parents are often overwhelmed with new responsibilities, and we believe there is an opportunity for computing technology to assist in this process. In this paper, we present a qualitative study aimed at uncovering some specific needs for record-keeping and analysis for new parents and their network of caregivers. Through interviews and focus groups, we have confirmed assumptions about the rationales parents have and the functions required for using technology for record-keeping. We also identify new themes, potential prototypes, and design guidelines for this domain.

© All rights reserved Kientz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Krumm, John, Abowd, Gregory D., Seneviratne, Aruna and Strang, Thomas (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing September 16-19, 2007, Innsbruck, Austria.

 
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Patel, Shwetak N. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2007): Blui: low-cost localized blowable user interfaces. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 217-220.

We describe a unique form of hands-free interaction that can be implemented on most commodity computing platforms. Our approach supports blowing at a laptop or computer screen to directly control certain interactive applications. Localization estimates are produced in real-time to determine where on the screen the person is blowing. Our approach relies solely on a single microphone, such as those already embedded in a standard laptop or one placed near a computer monitor, which makes our approach very cost-effective and easy-to-deploy. We show example interaction techniques that leverage this approach.

© All rights reserved Patel and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Krumm, John, Abowd, Gregory D., Seneviratne, Aruna and Strang, Thomas (eds.) UbiComp 2007 Ubiquitous Computing - 9th International Conference September 16-19, 2007, Innsbruck, Austria.

 
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Patel, Shwetak N., Robertson, Thomas, Kientz, Julie A., Reynolds, Matthew S. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2007): At the Flick of a Switch: Detecting and Classifying Unique Electrical Events on the Residential Power Line (Nominated for the Best Paper Award). In: Krumm, John, Abowd, Gregory D., Seneviratne, Aruna and Strang, Thomas (eds.) UbiComp 2007 Ubiquitous Computing - 9th International Conference September 16-19, 2007, Innsbruck, Austria. pp. 271-288.

 
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Nagel, Kristine S., Sung, Ja-Young and Abowd, Gregory D. (2007): Designing home availability services. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 11 (5) pp. 361-372.

 
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Hayes, Gillian R., Poole, Erika Shehan, Iachello, Giovanni, Patel, Shwetak N., Grimes, Andrea, Abowd, Gregory D. and Truong, Khai N. (2007): Physical, Social, and Experiential Knowledge in Pervasive Computing Environments. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 6 (4) pp. 56-63.

 
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Kientz, Julie A., Hayes, Gillian R., Westeyn, Tracy L., Starner, Thad and Abowd, Gregory D. (2007): Pervasive Computing and Autism: Assisting Caregivers of Children with Special Needs. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 6 (1) pp. 28-35.

 
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Kohler, Moritz, Patel, Shwetak N., Summet, Jay, Stuntebeck, Erich P. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2007): TrackSense: Infrastructure Free Precise Indoor Positioning Using Projected Patterns. In: LaMarca, Anthony, Langheinrich, Marc and Truong, Khai N. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2007 - Pervasive Computing 5th International Conference May 13-16, 2007, Toronto, Canada. pp. 334-350.

2006
 
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Hayes, Gillian R. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2006): Tensions in designing capture technologies for an evidence-based care community. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 937-946.

Evidence-based care is an increasingly popular process for long term diagnosis and monitoring of education and healthcare disabilities. Because this evidence must also be collected in everyday life, it is a technique that can greatly benefit from automated capture technologies. These solutions, however, can raise significant concerns about privacy, control, and surveillance. In this paper, we present an analysis of these concerns with regard to evidence-based care. This analysis underscores the need to consider community-based risk and reward analyses in addition to the traditionally used analyses for individual users when designing socially appropriate technologies.

© All rights reserved Hayes and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Iachello, Giovanni, Truong, Khai N., Abowd, Gregory D., Hayes, Gillian R. and Stevens, Molly (2006): Prototyping and sampling experience to evaluate ubiquitous computing privacy in the real world. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1009-1018.

We developed an inquiry technique, which we called "paratype," based on experience prototyping and event-contingent experience sampling, to survey people in real-life situations about ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) technology. We used this tool to probe the opinions of the conversation partners of users of the Personal Audio Loop, a memory aid that can have a strong impact on their privacy. We present the findings of this study and their implications, specifically the need to broaden public awareness of ubicomp applications and the unfitness of traditional data protection guidelines for tackling the privacy issues of many ubicomp applications. We also point out benefits and methodological issues of paratypes and discuss why they are particularly fit for studying certain classes of mobile and ubicomp applications.

© All rights reserved Iachello et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kientz, Julie, Patel, Shwetak N., Tyebkhan, Arwa Z., Gane, Brian, Wiley, Jennifer and Abowd, Gregory D. (2006): Where's my stuff?: design and evaluation of a mobile system for locating lost items for the visually impaired. In: Eighth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2006. pp. 103-110.

Finding lost items is a common problem for the visually impaired and is something that computing technology can help alleviate. In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a mobile solution, called FETCH, for allowing the visually impaired to track and locate objects they lose frequently but for which they do not have a specific strategy for tracking. FETCH uses devices the user already owns, such as their cell phone or laptop, to locate objects around their house. Results from a focus group with visually impaired users informed the design of the system. We then studied the usability of a laptop solution in a laboratory study and studied the usability and usefulness of the system through a one-month deployment and diary study. These studies demonstrate that FETCH is usable and useful, but there is still room for improvement.

© All rights reserved Kientz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kientz, Julie, Hayes, Gillian R., Abowd, Gregory D. and Grinter, Rebecca E. (2006): From the war room to the living room: decision support for home-based therapy teams. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 209-218.

Teams of therapists often provide targeted interventions for children with developmental disabilities. A common practice in these cases is one-on-one interaction between a therapist and the child together with occasional group meetings of the therapists to discuss progress and make informed decisions to modify the intervention plan. We designed a system called Abaris to support this form of collaborative decision-making for a particular intervention popular in the treatment of children with autism. Our system allows for the simultaneous use of trending data across therapy sessions and detailed session data that is automatically integrated with highly indexed video. We discuss the impact this system had on the team dynamics, the amount of collaboration, and the effect it had on the team using evidence and videos to make decisions about the care of the child.

© All rights reserved Kientz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Truong, Khai N., Hayes, Gillian R. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2006): Storyboarding: an empirical determination of best practices and effective guidelines. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 12-21.

Storyboarding is a common technique in HCI and design for demonstrating system interfaces and contexts of use. Despite its recognized benefits, novice designers still encounter challenges in the creation of storyboards. Furthermore, as computing becomes increasingly integrated into the environment, blurring the distinction between the system and its surrounding context, it is imperative to depict context explicitly in storyboards. In this paper, we present two formative studies designed to uncover the important elements of storyboards. These elements include the use of text, inclusion of people, level of detail, number of panels, and representation of the passage of time. We further present an empirical study to assess the effects of these elements on the understanding and enjoyment of storyboard consumers. Finally, we demonstrate how these guidelines were successfully used in an undergraduate HCI class.

© All rights reserved Truong et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design 4 All: [/encyclopedia/design_4_all.html]


 
 
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Saponas, T. Scott, Prabaker, Madhu K., Abowd, Gregory D. and Landay, James A. (2006): The impact of pre-patterns on the design of digital home applications. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 189-198.

Recent research suggests design pre-patterns, structured collections of evidence-based research and design knowledge, provide a useful resource for design activities in emerging application domains. This paper extends previous research by exploring the impact of pre-patterns and tools to support pre-pattern exploration for the domain of ubiquitous computing in the home. We conducted an empirical study of 44 designers engaged in a two hour concentrated brainstorming and design task for the home of the future. Our results show pre-patterns are an easily adopted resource for designers that can impact even the earliest of design activities. We also provide insights for future development of pre-patterns based on designer feedback.

© All rights reserved Saponas et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Patel, Shwetak N., Kientz, Julie A., Hayes, Gillian R., Bhat, Sooraj and Abowd, Gregory D. (2006): Farther Than You May Think: An Empirical Investigation of the Proximity of Users to Their Mobile Phones. In: Dourish, Paul and Friday, Adrian (eds.) UbiComp 2006 Ubiquitous Computing - 8th International Conference September 17-21, 2006, Orange County, CA, USA. pp. 123-140.

 
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Patel, Shwetak N., Truong, Khai N. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2006): PowerLine Positioning: A Practical Sub-Room-Level Indoor Location System for Domestic Use. In: Dourish, Paul and Friday, Adrian (eds.) UbiComp 2006 Ubiquitous Computing - 8th International Conference September 17-21, 2006, Orange County, CA, USA. pp. 441-458.

 
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Modahl, Martin, Agarwalla, Bikash, Saponas, T. Scott, Abowd, Gregory D. and Ramachandran, Umakishore (2006): UbiqStack: a taxonomy for a ubiquitous computing software stack. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 10 (1) pp. 21-27.

 
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Kim, Kihwan, Essa, Irfan A. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2006): Interactive mosaic generation for video navigation. In: Nahrstedt, Klara, Turk, Matthew, Rui, Yong, Klas, Wolfgang and Mayer-Patel, Ketan (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Multimedia October 23-27, 2006, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. pp. 655-658.

 
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Summet, Jay, Flagg, Matthew, Rehg, James M., Abowd, Gregory D. and Weston, Neil (2006): GVU-PROCAMS: enabling novel projected interfaces. In: Nahrstedt, Klara, Turk, Matthew, Rui, Yong, Klas, Wolfgang and Mayer-Patel, Ketan (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th ACM International Conference on Multimedia October 23-27, 2006, Santa Barbara, CA, USA. pp. 141-144.

 
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Patel, Shwetak N., Rekimoto, Jun and Abowd, Gregory D. (2006): iCam: Precise at-a-Distance Interaction in the Physical Environment. In: Fishkin, Kenneth P., Schiele, Bernt, Nixon, Paddy and Quigley, Aaron J. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2006 - Pervasive Computing 4th International Conference May 7-10, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 272-287.

2005
 
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Richter, Heather, Miller, Chris, Abowd, Gregory D. and Hsi, Idris (2005): An empirical investigation of capture and access for software requirements activities. In: Graphics Interface 2005 May 9-11, 2005, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 121-128.

Researchers have been exploring the ubiquitous capture and access of meetings for the past decade. Yet, few evaluations of these systems have demonstrated the benefits from using recorded meeting information. We are exploring the capture and access of Knowledge Acquisition sessions, discussions to understand the problems and requirements that feed systems development. In this paper, we evaluate the use of these recordings in creating a requirements document. We show that recordings of discussions will not be utilized without appropriate structure and indexing. Our study demonstrates how captured information can be used in such a task and the potential benefits that use may afford.

© All rights reserved Richter et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Iachello, Giovanni and Abowd, Gregory D. (2005): Privacy and proportionality: adapting legal evaluation techniques to inform design in ubiquitous computing. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 91-100.

We argue that an analytic proportionality assessment balancing usefulness and burden on individual or group privacy must be conducted throughout the design process to create acceptable ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) applications and services. We introduce the principle of proportionality, which originates within the legal and data protection communities. Inspired by this principle, we develop a design method for ubicomp applications, based on our own experience, and aimed at HCI practitioners and designers. We discuss the method in relation to real-world examples, user inquiry techniques and requirements engineering models. Finally, we report a sample application of the method, involving a ubiquitous, personal memory aid tool.

© All rights reserved Iachello and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Hayes, Gillian R., Truong, Khai N., Abowd, Gregory D. and Pering, Trevor (2005): Experience buffers: a socially appropriate, selective archiving tool for evidence-based care. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1435-1438.

Diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of interventions for children with autism can profit most when caregivers have substantial amounts of data they can easily record and review as evidence of specific observed behaviors over time. Through our work with one prototype system and interviews with caregivers, we have recognized the importance of socially appropriate ways to add rich data to the information recorded by caregivers. Analysts must be able to view incidents as they occurred without unnecessarily burdening caregivers and other children with always-on recording of data about them. In this paper, we introduce experience buffers, a collection of capture services embedded in an environment that, though always on and available, require explicit user action to store an experience.. This creates a way to balance the social, technical, and practical concerns of capture applications.

© All rights reserved Hayes et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Richter, Heather, Skaggs, Andrew and Abowd, Gregory D. (2005): Indexing unstructured activities with peripheral cues. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1737-1740.

A variety of ubiquitous computing systems have been built to automatically capture everyday activities in a number of domains. Many capture systems record streams of information that structure and form indices into the recording, providing users easy access to portions of interest. But this is challenging in very unstructured situations or unpredictable environments. In this paper, we explore introducing structure into the activity through the use of an artificial, unrelated, peripheral stream of information. We investigate the feasibility of this idea by integrating a stream of images into an existing meeting capture system. Our study suggests that this technique may be used effectively in some situations, and reveals similar methods of capturing and using indices that could be explored.

© All rights reserved Richter et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Summet, Jay, Abowd, Gregory D., Corso, Gregory M. and Rehg, James M. (2005): Virtual rear projection: do shadows matter?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1997-2000.

Rear projection of large-scale upright displays is often preferred over front projection because of the lack of shadows that occlude the projected image. However, rear projection is not always a feasible option for space and cost reasons. Recent research suggests that many of the desirable features of rear projection, in particular shadow elimination, can be reproduced using new front projection techniques. We report on the results of an empirical study comparing two new projection techniques with traditional rear projection and front projection.

© All rights reserved Summet et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Iachello, Giovanni, Smith, Ian, Consolvo, Sunny, Chen, Mike and Abowd, Gregory D. (2005): Developing privacy guidelines for social location disclosure applications and services. In: Proceedings of the 2005 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2005. pp. 65-76.

In this article, we describe the design process of Reno, a location-enhanced, mobile coordination tool and person finder. The design process included three field experiments: a formative Experience Sampling Method (ESM) study, a pilot deployment and an extended user study. These studies were targeted at the significant personal security, privacy and data protection concerns caused by this application. We distill this experience into a small set of guidelines for designers of social mobile applications and show how these guidelines can be applied to a different application, called Boise. These guidelines cover issues pertaining to personal boundary definition, control, deception and denial, and group vs. individual communication. We also report on lessons learned from our evaluation experience, which might help practitioners in designing novel mobile applications, including the choice and characterization of users for testing security and privacy features of designs, the length of learning curves and their effect on evaluation and the impact of peculiar deployment circumstances on the results of these finely tuned user studies.

© All rights reserved Iachello et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Iachello, Giovanni, Smith, Ian E., Consolvo, Sunny, Abowd, Gregory D., Hughes, Jeff, Howard, James, Potter, Fred, Scott, James, Sohn, Timothy, Hightower, Jeffrey and LaMarca, Anthony (2005): Control, Deception, and Communication: Evaluating the Deployment of a Location-Enhanced Messaging Service. In: Beigl, Michael, Intille, Stephen S., Rekimoto, Jun and Tokuda, Hideyuki (eds.) UbiComp 2005 Ubiquitous Computing - 7th International Conference September 11-14, 2005, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 213-231.

 
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Kientz, Julie A., Boring, Sebastian, Abowd, Gregory D. and Hayes, Gillian R. (2005): Abaris: Evaluating Automated Capture Applied to Structured Autism Interventions. In: Beigl, Michael, Intille, Stephen S., Rekimoto, Jun and Tokuda, Hideyuki (eds.) UbiComp 2005 Ubiquitous Computing - 7th International Conference September 11-14, 2005, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 323-339.

 
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Truong, Khai N., Patel, Shwetak N., Summet, Jay and Abowd, Gregory D. (2005): Preventing Camera Recording by Designing a Capture-Resistant Environment. In: Beigl, Michael, Intille, Stephen S., Rekimoto, Jun and Tokuda, Hideyuki (eds.) UbiComp 2005 Ubiquitous Computing - 7th International Conference September 11-14, 2005, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 73-86.

 
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Smith, Ian E., Consolvo, Sunny, LaMarca, Anthony, Hightower, Jeffrey, Scott, James, Sohn, Timothy, Hughes, Jeff, Iachello, Giovanni and Abowd, Gregory D. (2005): Social Disclosure of Place: From Location Technology to Communication Practices. In: Gellersen, Hans-Werner, Want, Roy and Schmidt, Albrecht (eds.) PERVASIVE 2005 - Pervasive Computing, Third International Conference May 8-13, 2005, Munich, Germany. pp. 134-151.

 
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Bian, Xuehai, Abowd, Gregory D. and Rehg, James M. (2005): Using Sound Source Localization in a Home Environment. In: Gellersen, Hans-Werner, Want, Roy and Schmidt, Albrecht (eds.) PERVASIVE 2005 - Pervasive Computing, Third International Conference May 8-13, 2005, Munich, Germany. pp. 19-36.

 
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Abowd, Gregory D., Hayes, Gillian R., Iachello, Giovanni, Kientz, Julie A., Patel, Shwetak N., Stevens, Molly M. and Truong, Khai N. (2005): Prototypes and paratypes: designing mobile and ubiquitous computing applications. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (4) pp. 67-73.

 
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Abowd, Gregory D., Iftode, Liviu and Mitchell, H. (2005): Guest Editors' Introduction: The Smart Phone--A First Platform for Pervasive Computing. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (2) pp. 18-19.

2004
 
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Patel, Shwetak N., Pierce, Jeffrey S. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2004): A gesture-based authentication scheme for untrusted public terminals. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 157-160.

Powerful mobile devices with minimal I/O capabilities increase the likelihood that we will want to annex these devices to I/O resources we encounter in the local environment. This opportunistic annexing will require authentication. We present a sensor-based authentication mechanism for mobile devices that relies on physical possession instead of knowledge to setup the initial connection to a public terminal. Our solution provides a simple mechanism for shaking a device to authenticate with the public infrastructure, making few assumptions about the surrounding infrastructure while also maintaining a reasonable level of security.

© All rights reserved Patel et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Nagel, Kristine S., Hudson, James M. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2004): Predictors of availability in home life context-mediated communication. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 497-506.

A number of studies have explored issues of interruption and availability in workplace environments, but few have examined how attitudes toward availability play out in home life. In this paper, we begin to explore factors in the home that might be useful for signaling availability to close friends and family. In particular, we use the Experience Sampling Method (ESM) to measure subjects' current activities and self-reported availability to interruption. Based on follow-up interviews, we develop a number of hypotheses that we test through a hierarchical linear regression analysis. Results indicate that individual differences, certain home locations, and leisure activities play an important role in determining patterns of availability. This study has implications for the development of CSCW systems with automatic sensing of activity to deal with interruption and activity recognition both inside and out of the home.

© All rights reserved Nagel et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Brotherton, Jason A. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2004): Lessons learned from eClass: Assessing automated capture and access in the classroom. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11 (2) pp. 121-155.

This article presents results from a study of an automated capture and access system, eClass, which was designed to capture the materials presented in college lectures for later review by students. In this article, we highlight the lessons learned from our three-year study focusing on the effect of capture and access on grades, attendance, and use of the captured notes and media. We then present suggestions for building future systems discussing improvements from our system in the capture, integration, and access of college lectures.

© All rights reserved Brotherton and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Hayes, Gillian R., Patel, Shwetak N., Truong, Khai N., Iachello, Giovanni, Kientz, Julie A., Farmer, Rob and Abowd, Gregory D. (2004): The Personal Audio Loop: Designing a Ubiquitous Audio-Based Memory Aid. In: Brewster, Stephen A. and Dunlop, Mark D. (eds.) Mobile Human-Computer Interaction - Mobile HCI 2004 - 6th International Symposium September 13-16, 2004, Glasgow, UK. pp. 168-179.

 
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Hayes, Gillian R., Kientz, Julie A., Truong, Khai N., White, David R., Abowd, Gregory D. and Pering, Trevor (2004): Designing Capture Applications to Support the Education of Children with Autism. In: Davies, Nigel, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Siio, Itiro (eds.) UbiComp 2004 Ubiquitous Computing 6th International Conference September 7-10, 2004, Nottingham, UK. pp. 161-178.

 
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Patel, Shwetak N. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2004): The ContextCam: Automated Point of Capture Video Annotation. In: Davies, Nigel, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Siio, Itiro (eds.) UbiComp 2004 Ubiquitous Computing 6th International Conference September 7-10, 2004, Nottingham, UK. pp. 301-318.

 
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Truong, Khai N., Huang, Elaine M. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2004): CAMP: A Magnetic Poetry Interface for End-User Programming of Capture Applications for the Home. In: Davies, Nigel, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Siio, Itiro (eds.) UbiComp 2004 Ubiquitous Computing 6th International Conference September 7-10, 2004, Nottingham, UK. pp. 143-160.

 
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Abowd, Gregory D., Borriello, Gaetano and Kortuem, Gerd (2004): Ubicomp Education: Current Status and Future Directions. In: 2nd IEEE Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops PerCom 2004 Workshops 14-17 March, 2004, Orlando, FL, USA. pp. 227-230.

 
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Truong, Khai N. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2004): INCA: A Software Infrastructure to Facilitate the Construction and Evolution of Ubiquitous Capture & Access Applications. In: Ferscha, Alois and Mattern, Friedemann (eds.) PERVASIVE 2004 - Pervasive Computing, Second International Conference April 21-23, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 140-157.

 
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Harvel, Lonnie D., Liu, Ling, Abowd, Gregory D., Lim, Yu-Xi, Scheibe, Chris and Chatham, Chris (2004): Context Cube: Flexible and Effective Manipulation of Sensed Context Data. In: Ferscha, Alois and Mattern, Friedemann (eds.) PERVASIVE 2004 - Pervasive Computing, Second International Conference April 21-23, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 51-68.

 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (2004): Human-Computer Interaction (3rd Edition). Prentice Hall

 Cited in the following chapters:

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
2003
 
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Ruddarraju, Ravikrishna, Haro, Antonio, Nagel, Kris, Tran, Quan T., Essa, Irfan A., Abowd, Gregory D. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2003): Perceptual user interfaces using vision-based eye tracking. In: Oviatt, Sharon L., Darrell, Trevor, Maybury, Mark T. and Wahlster, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2003 November 5-7, 2003, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 227-233.

 
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Patel, Shwetak N. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2003): A 2-Way Laser-Assisted Selection Scheme for Handhelds in a Physical Environment. In: Dey, Anind K., Schmidt, Albrecht and McCarthy, Joseph F. (eds.) UbiComp 2003 Ubiquitous Computing - 5th International Conference October 12-15, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. pp. 200-207.

 
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Stevens, Molly M., Abowd, Gregory D., Truong, Khai N. and Vollmer, Florian (2003): Getting into the Living Memory Box: Family archives & holistic design. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 7 (3) pp. 210-216.

 
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Dix, Alan, Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (2003): Human-Computer Interaction (3rd Edition). Prentice Hall

The second edition of Human-Computer Interaction established itself as one of the classic textbooks in the area, with its broad coverage and rigorous approach, this new edition builds on the existing strengths of the book, but giving the text a more student-friendly slant and improving the coverage in certain areas. The revised structure, separating out the introductory and more advanced material will make it easier to use the book on a variety of courses. This new edition now includes chapters on Interaction Design, Universal Access and Rich Interaction, as well as covering the latest developments in ubiquitous computing and Web technologies, making it the ideal text to provide a grounding in HCI theory and practice.

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or Prentice Hall

 
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Dix, Alan, Finlay, Janet, Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (2003): Human-computer Interaction (3rd Ed.). In: (ed.). "". p. 86

Hermes: Case study

© All rights reserved Dix et al. and/or their publisher

2002
 
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Dey, Anind K., Mankoff, Jennifer, Abowd, Gregory D. and Carter, Scott (2002): Distributed mediation of ambiguous context in aware environments. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 121-130.

Many context-aware services make the assumption that the context they use is completely accurate. However, in reality, both sensed and interpreted context is often ambiguous. A challenge facing the development of realistic and deployable context-aware services, therefore, is the ability to handle ambiguous context. In this paper, we describe an architecture that supports the building of context-aware services that assume context is ambiguous and allows for mediation of ambiguity by mobile users in aware environments. We illustrate the use of our architecture and evaluate it through three example context-aware services, a word predictor system, an In/Out Board, and a reminder tool.

© All rights reserved Dey et al. and/or ACM Press

2001
 
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Dey, Anind K., Abowd, Gregory D. and Salber, Daniel (2001): A Conceptual Framework and a Toolkit for Supporting the Rapid Prototyping of Context-Aware Applications. In Human-Computer Interaction, 16 (2) pp. 97-166.

Computing devices and applications are now used beyond the desktop, in diverse environments, and this trend toward ubiquitous computing is accelerating. One challenge that remains in this emerging research field is the ability to enhance the behavior of any application by informing it of the context of its use. By context, we refer to any information that characterizes a situation related to the interaction between humans, applications, and the surrounding environment. Context-aware applications promise richer and easier interaction, but the current state of research in this field is still far removed from that vision. This is due to 3 main problems: (a) the notion of context is still ill defined, (b) there is a lack of conceptual models and methods to help drive the design of context-aware applications, and (c) no tools are available to jump-start the development of context-aware applications. In this anchor article, we address these 3 problems in turn. We first define context, identify categories of contextual information, and characterize context-aware application behavior. Though the full impact of context-aware computing requires understanding very subtle and high-level notions of context, we are focusing our efforts on the pieces of context that can be inferred automatically from sensors in a physical environment. We then present a conceptual framework that separates the acquisition and representation of context from the delivery and reaction to context by a context-aware application. We have built a toolkit, the Context Toolkit, that instantiates this conceptual framework and supports the rapid development of a rich space of context-aware applications. We illustrate the usefulness of the conceptual framework by describing a number of context-aware applications that have been prototyped using the Context Toolkit. We also demonstrate how such a framework can support the investigation of important research challenges in the area of context-aware computing.

© All rights reserved Dey et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Pimentel, Maria da Graca, Ishiguro, Yoshihide, Kerimbaev, Bolot, Abowd, Gregory D. and Guzdial, Mark (2001): Supporting Educational Activities through Dynamic Web Interfaces. In Interacting with Computers, 13 (3) pp. 353-374.

The Web is used for many purposes in education, such as the publication of course management information, centralized distribution of course materials, and supporting on-line discussions between instructors and students or among the students themselves. Leveraging off the Web for educational activities both inside and outside the classroom produces a dynamic educational repository. In this paper, we present work that explicitly attempts to connect in-class activity, in the form of multimedia, Web-accessible captured lectures, with collaborative discussion spaces. Flexible and dynamic interfaces for the captured lectures and the discussion spaces are presented, as well as specialized interfaces that connect the two. We discuss our experience in a recent course taught using this integrated and dynamic educational repository and explain how our experience has lead to some solutions for visualizing the changes that occur over this rich space.

© All rights reserved Pimentel et al. and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

 
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Nagel, Kris, Kidd, Cory D., O'Connell, Thomas, Dey, Anind K. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2001): The Family Intercom: Developing a Context-Aware Audio Communication System. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 176-183.

 
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Richter, Heather A., Abowd, Gregory D., Geyer, Werner, Fuchs, Ludwin, Daijavad, Shahrokh and Poltrock, Steven (2001): Integrating Meeting Capture within a Collaborative Team Environment. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 123-138.

 
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Truong, Khai N., Abowd, Gregory D. and Brotherton, Jason A. (2001): Who, What, When, Where, How: Design Issues of Capture & Access Applications. In: Abowd, Gregory D., Brumitt, Barry and Shafer, Steven A. (eds.) Ubicomp 2001 Ubiquitous Computing - Third International Conference September 30 - October 2, 2001, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 209-224.

2000
 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Hudson, Scott E. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2000): Providing Integrated Toolkit-Level Support for Ambiguity in Recognition-Based Interfaces. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 368-375.

Interfaces based on recognition technologies are used extensively in both the commercial and research worlds. But recognizers are still error-prone, and this results in human performance problems, brittle dialogues, and other barriers to acceptance and utility of recognition systems. Interface techniques specialized to recognition systems can help reduce the burden of recognition errors, but building these interfaces depends on knowledge about the ambiguity inherent in recognition. We have extended a user interface toolkit in order to model and to provide structured support for ambiguity at the input event level. This makes it possible to build re-usable interface components for resolving ambiguity and dealing with recognition errors. These interfaces can help to reduce the negative effects of recognition errors. By providing these components at a toolkit level, we make it easier for application writers to provide good support for error handling. Further, with this robust support, we are able to explore new types of interfaces for resolving a more varied range of ambiguity.

© All rights reserved Mankoff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Hudson, Scott E. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2000): Interaction Techniques for Ambiguity Resolution in Recognition-Based Interfaces. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 11-20.

 
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Pimentel, Maria da Graca, Abowd, Gregory D. and Ishiguro, Yoshihide (2000): Linking by Interacting: A Paradigm for Authoring Hypertext. In: Hypertext 00 - Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia May 30 - June 03, 2000, San Antonio, Texas, USA. pp. 39-48.

 
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Abowd, Gregory D. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2000): Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (1) pp. 29-58.

The proliferation of computing into the physical world promises more than the ubiquitous availability of computing infrastructure; it suggest new paradigms of interaction inspired by constant access to information and computational capabilities. For the past decade, application-driven research on ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) has pushed three interaction themes: natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. To chart a course for future research in ubiquitous computing, we review the accomplishments of these efforts and point to remaining research challenges. Research in ubiquitous computing implicitly requires addressing some notion of scale, whether in the number and type of devices, the physical space of distributed computing, or the number of people using a system. We posit a new area of applications research, everyday computing, focussed on scaling interaction with respect to time. Just as pushing the availability of computing away from the traditional desktop fundamentally changes the relationship between humans and computers, providing continuous interaction moves computing from a localized tool to a constant companion. Designing for continuous interaction requires addressing interruption and resumption of interaction, representing passages of time and providing associative storage models. Inherent in all of these interaction themes are difficult issues in the social implications of ubiquitous computing and the challenges of evaluating ubiquitous computing research. Although cumulative experience points to lessons in privacy, security, visibility, and control, there are no simple guidelines for steering research efforts. Akin to any efforts involving new technologies, evaluation strategies form a spectrum from technology feasibility efforts to long-term use studies -- but a user-centric perspective is always possible and necessary.

© All rights reserved Abowd and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Dey, Anind K. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2000): CybreMinder: A Context-Aware System for Supporting Reminders. In: Thomas, Peter J. and Gellersen, Hans-Werner (eds.) Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing - Second International Symposium - HUC 2000 September 25-27, 2000, Bristol, UK. pp. 172-186.

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer, Abowd, Gregory D. and Hudson, Scott E. (2000): OOPS: a toolkit supporting mediation techniques for resolving ambiguity in recognition-based interfaces. In Computers & Graphics, 24 (6) pp. 819-834.

1999
 
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Salber, Daniel, Day, Anind K. and Abowd, Gregory D. (1999): The Context Toolkit: Aiding the Development of Context-Enabled Applications. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 434-441.

Context-enabled applications are just emerging and promise richer interaction by taking environmental context into account. However, they are difficult to build due to their distributed nature and the use of unconventional sensors. The concepts of toolkits and widget libraries in graphical user interfaces has been tremendously successful, allowing programmers to leverage off existing building blocks to build interactive systems more easily. We introduce the concept of context widgets that mediate between the environment and the application in the same way graphical widgets mediate between the user and the application. We illustrate the concept of context widgets with the beginnings of a widget library we have developed for sensing presence, identity and activity of people and things. We assess the success of our approach with two example context-enabled applications we have built and an existing application to which we have added context-sensing capabilities.

© All rights reserved Salber et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Truong, Khai N., Abowd, Gregory D. and Brotherton, Jason (1999): Personalizing the Capture of Public Experiences. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 121-130.

In this paper, we describe our work on developing a system to support the personalization of a captured public experience. Specifically, we are interested in providing students with the ability to personalize the capture of the lecture experiences as part of the Classroom 2000 project. We discuss the issues and challenges involved in designing a system that performs live integration of personal streams of information with multiple other streams of information made available to it through an environment designed to capture public information.

© All rights reserved Truong et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Abowd, Gregory D., Dey, Anind K., Brown, Peter J., Davies, Nigel, Smith, Mark and Steggles, Pete (1999): Towards a Better Understanding of Context and Context-Awareness. In: Gellersen, Hans-Werner (ed.) Handheld and Ubiquitous Computing - First International Symposium - HUC99 September 27-29, 1999, Karlsruhe, Germany. pp. 304-307.

1998
 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (1998): Human-Computer Interaction (2nd Edition). Prentice Hall

 
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Abowd, Gregory D., Atkeson, Christopher, Brotherton, Jason, Enqvist, Tommy, Gulley, Paul and LeMon, Johan (1998): Investigating the Capture, Integration and Access Problem of Ubiquitous Computing in an Educational Setting. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 440-447.

In this paper, we describe efforts to develop and evaluate a large-scale experiment in ubiquitous computing applied to education. Specifically, we are concerned with the general problem of capturing a rich, multimedia experience, and providing useful access into the record of the experience by automatically integrating the various streams of captured information. We describe the Classroom 2000 project and two years of experience developing and using automated tools for the capture, integration and access to support university lecture courses. We will report on observed use of the system by both teachers and learners and how those observations have influenced and will influence the development of a capture, integration and access system for everyday use.

© All rights reserved Abowd et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mankoff, Jennifer and Abowd, Gregory D. (1998): Cirrin: A Word-Level Unistroke Keyboard for Pen Input. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 213-214.

We present a new system, called Cirrin, for pen input of ASCII characters using word-level unistrokes. Our system addresses the tradeoff between speed and accuracy of pen-based text entry by substituting precision on the part of the user for ease of recognition on the part of the computer. Cirrin supports ease of recognition by the computer combined with natural, script-like input. This paper discusses the design space of word-level, unistroke input, focusing on the choices made in the circular model of Cirrin that is currently in daily use by the first author.

© All rights reserved Mankoff and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Dey, Anind K., Abowd, Gregory D. and Wood, Andrew (1998): Cyberdesk: A Framework for Providing Self-Integrating Context-Aware Services. In: Marks, Joe (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1998 January 6-9, 1998, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 47-54.

Applications are often designed to take advantage of the potential for integration with each other via shared information. Current approaches for integration are limited, effecting both the programmer and end-user. In this paper, we present CyberDesk, a framework for self-integrating software in which integration is driven by user context. It relieves the burden on programmers by removing the necessity to predict how software should be integrated. It also relieves the burden from users by removing the need to understand how different software components work together.

© All rights reserved Dey et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (1998): Human-Computer Interaction. Prentice Hall

 
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Stirewalt, Kurt and Abowd, Gregory D. (1998): Practical Dialogue Refinement. In: Markopoulos, Panos and Johnson, Peter (eds.) DSV-IS 1998 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems98, Proceedings of the Fifth International Eurographics Workshop June 3-5, 1998, Abingdon, United Kingdom. pp. 191-205.

1997
 
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Woodruff, Allison, Dey, Anind K. and Abowd, Gregory D. (1997): CyberDesk: Automated Integration of Desktop and Network Services. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 552-553.

The CyberDesk project suggests a way to break the prevailing assumption in personal computing that the user must search out ways to integrate behavior between separate services. We present a technique and prototype system for automatic integration of desktop applications and network services that requires no effort by either the designer or the end-user.

© All rights reserved Woodruff et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Dey, Anind K., Abowd, Gregory D., Pinkerton, Mike and Wood, Andrew (1997): CyberDesk: A Framework for Providing Self-Integrating Ubiquitous Software Services. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 75-76.

Current software suites suffer from problems due to poor integration of their individual tools. They require the designer to think of all possible integrating behaviours and leave little flexibility to the user. CyberDesk is a component software framework that automatically integrates desktop and network services, reducing integrating decisions to be made by the tool designers and giving more control to the user. Simple extensions to CyberDesk have been made to obtain powerful integrating behaviours.

© All rights reserved Dey et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Dix, Alan J. and Abowd, Gregory D. (1996): Delays and Temporal Incoherence Due to Mediated Status-Status Mappings. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (2) pp. 47-49.

The paper describes how the identification of 'status-status mappings' early in the specification and design of an interactive system can highlight potential temporal problems in the interface. These problems arise because without infinitely fast computation and communication, any constraints between status in the interface are bound to be violated some of the time. This violation will at best be a slight lag between the source of a change and its display and at worst may lead to inconsistency between parts of the interface. We identify the ways in which status-status mappings are violated and the way in which they are mediated by events in the implementation of a system. This enables the designer to control the eventual behaviour of the system and avoid the worst pitfalls.

© All rights reserved Dix and Abowd and/or ACM Press

 
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Abowd, Gregory D. and Ton, Lein (1996): Automated Verification of Temporal Dialogue Properties. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 28 (2) pp. 50-52.

 
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Abowd, Gregory D. and Gram, Chr. (1996): How to make formal methods useful. In: Bass, Leonard J. and Unger, Claus (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, Proceedings of the IFIP TC2/WG2.7 Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction August, 1996, Yellowstone Park, USA. pp. 358-362.

 
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Abowd, Gregory D., Atkeson, Christopher G., Feinstein, Ami, Hmelo, Cindy E., Kooper, Rob, Long, Sue and Tani, Mikiya (1996): Teaching and Learning as Multimedia Authoring: The Classroom 2000 Project. In: ACM Multimedia 1996 1996. pp. 187-198.

1995
 
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Abowd, Gregory D., Wang, Hung-Ming and Monk, Andrew (1995): A Formal Technique for Automated Dialogue Development. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 219-226.

A number of notations exist by which a designer can specify the behavior of a human-computer interface in relatively formal terms. In this paper we show how many of the dialogue specifications described using these notations are amenable to automated analysis to detect potential problems such as user actions that are never enabled or have effects that are hard to reverse. In many situations, a dialogue specification can be thought of as a finite state machine in which the transition between states is signalled as an event from the user or system. The trouble with this state transition model is that states quickly multiply presenting two problems to the analyst: (i) how to easily describe all of the possible dialogue states and state transitions; and (ii) how to analyze a very large STN. This paper reviews possible solutions to both of these problems. A tabular interface to Olsen's Propositional Production System is described and goes some way towards solving the descriptive problem. This representation is also useful for simulating requirements scenarios in a validation exercise. For the analytic problem, we make use of finite state model checking technology that allows for automated analysis of very large state machines. We demonstrate how eight categories of dialogue verification properties can be analyzed with this approach. Together, dialogue simulation and automated verification leads to a more complete analytic framework for dialogue development.

© All rights reserved Abowd et al. and/or ACM Press

1994
 
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Young, Richard M. and Abowd, Gregory D. (1994): Multi-Perspective Modelling of Interface Design Issues: Undo in a Collaborative Editor. In: Cockton, Gilbert, Draper, Steven and Weir, George R. S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IX August 23-26, 1994, Glasgow, Scotland, UK. pp. 249-260.

Successful interface design respects constraints stemming from a number of diverse domains analysed by different disciplines. Modelling techniques exist within the individual disciplines, but there is a need for ways to weave together different techniques to provide an integrated analysis of interface design issues from multiple perspectives. We illustrate the relations and interplay between six different modelling techniques -- two for system modelling, two for user modelling, one for interaction modelling, and one for design modelling -- applied to a shared design scenario concerning the provision of an Undo facility for a collaborative editor. The resulting multi-perspective analysis provides a depth of understanding and a breadth of scope beyond what can be achieved by any one technique alone.

© All rights reserved Young and Abowd and/or Cambridge University Press

1993
 
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Dix, Alan J., Finlay, Janet E., Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (1993): Human-Computer Interaction. Prentice Hall

1992
 
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Abowd, Gregory D. and Dix, Alan J. (1992): Giving Undo Attention. In Interacting with Computers, 4 (3) pp. 317-342.

The problems associated with the provision of an undo support facility in the context of a synchronous shared or group editor are investigated. Previous work on the development of formal models of 'undo' has been restricted to single user systems and has focused on the functionality of undo, as opposed to discussing the support that users require from any error recovery facility. Motivated by new issues that arise in the context of computer supported co-operative work, the authors aim to integrate formal modelling of undo with an analysis of how users understand undo facilities. Together, these combined perspectives of the system and user lead to concrete design advice for implementing an undo facility. The special issues that arise in the context of shared undo also shed light on the emphasis that should be placed on single user undo. In particular, the authors regard undo not as a system command to be implemented, but as a user intention to be supported by the system.

© All rights reserved Abowd and Dix and/or Elsevier Science

 Cited in the following chapter:

Interaction Design Patterns: [/encyclopedia/interaction_design_patterns.html]


 
1991
 
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Abowd, Gregory D. and Beale, Russell (1991): Users, Systems and Interfaces: A Unifying Framework for Interaction. In: Diaper, Dan and Hammond, Nick (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VI August 20-23, 1991, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 73-87.

We introduce a basic framework for the analysis of existing interactive systems which will also serve for the principled design of more usable systems. We present a simple yet effective model of an interactive system that extends previous interaction frameworks. Within our framework, the user, system and interface are all represented equally. We also present several notions of distance as qualitative measurements of the interactive features of a system based on specific tasks. These notions of distance can be formalised to give an understandable quantitative approach required for principled design and analysis.

© All rights reserved Abowd and Beale and/or Cambridge University Press

1990
 
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Abowd, Gregory D. (1990): Agents: Communicating Interactive Processes. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 143-148.

In this paper we extend the theory of communicating interactive processes based on the formalisms of CSP and Z first presented by Sufrin and He. We then use this theory to show how specifications of complex interactive systems are composed from smaller and simpler components. The theory provides a formal foundation for the investigation of multiagent models and allows the precise formulation of design principles for the development of interactive systems. We view an interactive system as a closed collection of communicating interactive processes, or agents. An agent can represent both an application and its users. We develop an example of a mouse and keyboard input to a simple display manager. This will serve as a small but realistic example to explain the features of the model.

© All rights reserved Abowd and/or North-Holland

 
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