Publication statistics

Pub. period:1985-2014
Pub. count:72
Number of co-authors:71



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Alan Woolrych:8
Darryn Lavery:6
Chris Bloor:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Gilbert Cockton's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

John M. Carroll:209
Alistair G. Sutcli..:148
Jean M. Vanderdonc..:93
 
 
 

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Gilbert Cockton

MA (Cantab) PGCE PhD CITP FBCS FRSA

Picture of Gilbert Cockton.
Update pic
Has also published under the name of:
"G. Cockton"

Personal Homepage:
designsituations.blogspot.com/

Current place of employment:
Northumbria University

I'm Professor of Design Theory in the School of Design at Northumbria University, which has roots back to 1844 as one of the original British Government Schools of Design. I'm an Interaction Designer who occasionally dabbles in product and service design. I have a multi-disciplinary background in humanities (History), applied human sciences (Education), and engineering design (Computer Science, old school HCI). In 2005 I was awarded a UK NESTA fellowship to work on value-centred approaches to design. As a first result, I moved beyond value (to worth) and beyond centredness (to multiple design foci). As a second result, my research has developed a more general design focus, and I moved from Computing (Sunderland) to Design (Northumbria) in September 2009. I now work alongside very talented design educators and researchers with a broad range of craft skills and design philosophies. I increasingly find the user-centred positions of 1980s HCI naive and uninformed. When I'm not supporting an amazing group of colleagues in my role as Associate Dean for Research and Innovation, my research focuses on balanced, integrated and generous (BIG!) fusions of the main design paradigms (Applied Arts, Engineering, User-Centred). Examples of such fusions include leveraging crafted forms within user research, focusing evaluation practices on achieved worth, combining engineering specification with humane design purposes, and blending tacit creative and explicit systematic design work. I have developed the Working to Choose (W2C) framework to provide an overarching structure for co-ordinating research on re-usable resources in design practice.

 

Publications by Gilbert Cockton (bibliography)

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2014

Cockton, Gilbert (2013): Usability Evaluation. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html

2012
 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Woolrych, Alan, Hornbaek, Kasper and Froekjaer, Erik (2012): Inspection-based methods. In: Sears, Andrew and Jacko, Julie A. (eds.). "The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications, Third Edition". pp. 1275-1293

2011
 
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EL-Qirem, Fuad Ali and Cockton, Gilbert (2011): Computer Usage and User Experience in Jordan: Development and Application of the Diamond Model of Territorial Factors. In: Human Computer Interaction International HCII2011 July 9-14, 2011, Orlando, Florida, USA. .

This paper reports research which had the objective of improving understanding of the factors that influence computer usage and user experience in developing countries. The significance of the research is that it integrates approaches to cultural HCI (culturability') and HCI for Development (HCI4D) through an initial literature survey and three studies of computer usage in Jordan.

© All rights reserved EL-Qirem and Cockton and/or their publisher

 
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Woolrych, Alan, Hornbaek, Kasper, Froekjaer, Erik and Cockton, Gilbert (2011): Ingredients and Meals Rather Than Recipes: a Proposal for Research That Does Not Treat Usability Evaluation Methods As Indivisible Wholes. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 99999 (1) pp. 1-1.

 
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Woolrych, Alan, Hornb�k, Kasper, Fr�kj�r, Erik and Cockton, Gilbert (2011): Ingredients and Meals Rather Than Recipes: a Proposal for Research That Does Not Treat Usability Evaluation Methods As Indivisible Wholes. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 27 (10) pp. 940-970

To better support usability practice, most usability research focuses on evaluation methods. New ideas in usability research are mostly proposed as new evaluation methods. Many publications describe experiments that compare methods. Comparisons may indicate that some methods have important deficiencies, and thus often advise usability practitioners to prefer a specific method in a particular situation. An expectation persists in human–computer interaction (HCI) that results about evaluation methods should be the standard “unit of contribution” rather than favoring larger units (e.g., usability work as a whole) or smaller ones (e.g., the impact of specific aspects of a method). This article argues that these foci on comparisons and method innovations ignore the reality that usability evaluation methods are loose incomplete collections of resources, which successful practitioners configure, adapt, and complement to match specific project circumstances. Through a review of existing research on methods and resources, resources associated with specific evaluation methods, and ones that can complement existing methods, or be used separately, are identified. Next, a generic classification scheme for evaluation resources is developed, and the scheme is extended with project specific resources that impact the effective use of methods. With these reviews and analyses in place, implications for research, teaching, and practice are derived. Throughout, the article draws on culinary analogies. A recipe is nothing without its ingredients, and just as the quality of what is cooked reflects the quality of its ingredients, so too does the quality of usability work reflect the quality of resources as configured and combined. A method, like a recipe, is at best a guide to action for those adopting approaches to usability that are new to them. As with culinary dishes, HCI needs to focus more on what gets cooked, and how it gets cooked, and not just on how recipes suggest that it could be cooked.

© All rights reserved Woolrych et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2010
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2010): Design situations and methodological innovation in interaction design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2745-2754. Available online

This juried alt.chi paper argues that philosophy can seed HCI innovations. Recent developments in ontology open up novel methodological opportunities. Alain Badiou's situational ontology breaks an apparent impasse between essentialism and relationalism. For Badiou, the essence of any entity is a multiplicity formed from what is counted-as-one, but its parts bring potentials for change. These can exploited through the concept of design situations that contain infinite opportunities for designing as connecting. Far from being a barren abstraction, this opens up new spaces for demonstrable practical methodological innovation in Interaction Design.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or his/her publisher

 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Bardzell, Shaowen, Blythe, Mark and Bardzell, Jeffrey (2010): Can we all stand under our umbrella: the arts and design research in HCI. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3163-3166. Available online

The Arts (i.e., all liberal, cultural, literary, visual and performing arts disciplines) are becoming more prominent at CHI. This SIG will take stock of what they can contribute, and how and why, and what the CHI community needs to do to more fully embrace The Arts to advance the leading edge of design research.

© All rights reserved Cockton et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2009): Getting there: six meta-principles and interaction design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2223-2232. Available online

Principled knowledge is a mark of any established disciplinary practice. Its derivation and validation of varies across disciplines, but HCI has tended towards posthoc ('a posteriori') syntheses. We present an alternative a priori approach that is relatively compact and open to inspection. We use John Heskett's position on the origins of design outcomes to derive six metaprinciples for all design processes: receptiveness, expressivity, committedness, credibility, inclusiveness and improvability. Although very abstract, these meta-principles generate critical insights into existing HCI approaches, identifying gaps in suitability and coverage. Practical value is increased by progressive instantiation of meta-principles to create first craft-specific, and ultimately project-specific, Interaction Design principles. A worth-centred approach is adopted to illustrate progressive instantiation towards a framework of adapted and novel HCI approaches. The internal coherence of the six metaprinciples is shown to provide direct effective support for synergistic progressive instantiation.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or ACM Press

 
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Gnanayutham, Paul and Cockton, Gilbert (2009): Adaptive personalisation for researcher-independent brain body interface usage. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3003-3018. Available online

In this case study, we report what we believe to be the first prolonged in-situ use of a brain-body interface for rehabilitation of individuals with severe neurological impairment due to traumatic brain injury with no development researchers present. We attribute this success to the development of an adaptive cursor acceleration algorithm based on screen tiling, which we combined with an adaptable user interface to achieve inclusive design through personalisation for each individual. A successful evaluation of this approach encouraged us to leave our Brain-Body Interface in the care settings of our evaluation participants with traumatic brain injury, where it was used with support from health care professionals and other members of participants' care circles.

© All rights reserved Gnanayutham and Cockton and/or ACM Press

 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Kirk, Dave, Sellen, Abigail and Banks, Richard (2009): Evolving and augmenting worth mapping for family archives. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 329-338. Available online

We describe the process of developing worth maps from field research and initial design sketches for a digital Family Archive, which resulted in a more simple and flexible worth map format. Worth maps support designing as connecting by forming explicit associations between designs and human values. Two supporting worth-centred design resources were developed: one to organize field materials (a worth board) and another to simplify worth map structure (user experience frames). During this process, we identified and refined a range of design elements and relevant human values for initial conceptual exploration of an innovative table top computer application. We end with an evaluation of the process and outcomes, complemented with insights from subsequent applications of worth maps that support recommendations on worth mapping practices. The resulting worth maps and associated resources were (and still remain) valuable, but experiences during this and other uses indicate that further improvements are needed.

© All rights reserved Cockton et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Kujala, Sari, Nurkka, Piia and Holtt, Taneli (2009): Supporting Worth Mapping with Sentence Completion. In: Gross, Tom, Gulliksen, Jan, Kotze, Paula, Oestreicher, Lars, Palanque, Philippe A., Prates, Raquel Oliveira and Winckler, Marco (eds.) Human-Computer Interaction - INTERACT 2009, 12th IFIP TC 13 International Conference, Uppsala, Sweden, August 24-28, 2009, Proceedings, Part II 2009. pp. 566-581. Available online

Expectations for design and evaluation approaches are set by the development practices within which they are used. Worth-Centred Development (WCD) seeks to both shape and fit such practices. We report a study that combined two WCD approaches. Sentence completion gathered credible quantitative data on user values, which were used to identify relevant values and aversions of two player groups for an on-line gambling site. These values provided human value elements for a complementary WCD approach of worth mapping. Initial worth maps were extended in three workshops, which focused on outcomes and user experiences that could be better addressed in the current product and associated marketing materials. We describe how worth maps were prepared for, and presented in, workshops, and how product owners and associated business roles evaluated the combination of WCD approaches. Based on our experiences, we offer practical advice on this combinination.

© All rights reserved Cockton et al. and/or Springer

 
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Law, Effie Lai-Chong, Scapin, Dominique, Cockton, Gilbert, Springett, Mark, Stary, C. and Winckler, Marco (2009): Maturation of Usability Evaluation Methods: Retrospect and Prospect: Final Reports of COST294-MAUSE Working Groups.

 
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Cockton, Gilbert and Woolrych, Alan (2009): A. Comparing UEMs: Strategies and Implementation, Final Report of COST 294 Working Group 2. In: Law, Effie Lai-Chong, Scapin, Dominique, Cockton, Gilbert, Springett, Mark, Stary, C. and Winckler, Marco (eds.). "Maturation of Usability Evaluation Methods: Retrospect and Prospect: Final Reports of COST294-MAUSE Working Groups".

2008
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2008): Revisiting usability's three key principles. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2473-2484. Available online

The foundations of much HCI research and practice were elaborated over 20 years ago as three key principles by Gould and Lewis [7]: early focus on users and tasks; empirical measurement; and iterative design. Close reading of this seminal paper and subsequent versions indicates that these principles evolved, and that success in establishing them within software development involved a heady mix of power and destiny. As HCI's fourth decade approaches, we re-examine the origins and status of Gould and Lewis' principles, and argue that is time to move on, not least because the role of the principles in reported case studies is unconvincing. Few, if any, examples of successful application of the first or second principles are offered, and examples of the third tell us little about the nature of successful iteration. More credible, better grounded and more appropriate principles are needed. We need not so much to start again, but to start for the first time, and argue from first principles for apt principles for designing.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or ACM Press

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2008): Sketch worth, catch dreams, be fruity. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2579-2582. Available online

This Design Theatre uses method acting: we act out a method. It is didactic theatre: we must sketch designing, not just designs. We act out a sketching process to make maps that we can later act on.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or ACM Press

 
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Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert, Churchill, Elizabeth F., Kujala, Sari, Henderson, Austin and Hammontree, Monty (2008): Values, value and worth: their relationship to HCI?. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3933-3936. Available online

This workshop explores the territory of 'value-centered HCI' with the intention of freeing us from the tricky complexity of this topic and the multiple meanings of the words 'value' and 'values'.

© All rights reserved Gilmore et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2008): Designing worth -- connecting preferred means to desired ends. In Interactions, 15 (4) pp. 54-57. Available online

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2008): Working spheres or engagements: Implications for designing?. In Interacting with Computers, 20 (2) pp. 279-286. Available online

At the CHI 2006 conference, one of the most talked about papers was Implications for Design [Dourish, P., 2006. Implications for design. In: Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pp. 541-550], which discussed how ethnographic contributions to HCI should be evaluated. It provided a timely context for considering Gonzlez [Gonzlez, V., 2006. The Nature of Managing Multiple Activities in the Workplace. Doctoral dissertation in Information and Computer Science, University of California, Irvine] doctoral dissertation on working spheres or engagements. This commentary thus gives equal attention to both, since Dourish's position is critical to giving Gonzlez's a "fair hearing" as an ethnographic contribution for Human-Computer Interaction (HCI). However, to fully explore the implications for designing of working spheres/engagements, we must also adopt an understanding of contemporary design processes which is far richer than design teams being given insights, ideas and recommendations from ethnographers, usability evaluators and other 'independent' experts. The primary goal in these processes is to understand user value, business value, and value for non-commercial sponsors. Understanding activities is a secondary concern.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or Elsevier Science

 
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Monahan, Kelly, Lahteenmaki, Mia, Mcdonald, Sharon and Cockton, Gilbert (2008): An Investigation into the use of Field Methods in the Design and Evaluation of Interactive Systems. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 99-108. Available online

This paper reports the results of an international web-based survey on the use of field studies in the design and evaluation of interactive systems, which was conducted between December 2006 and February 2007. The results suggest that the advantages and disadvantages of field methods are generally well understood, but guidance is needed in their application and use. Field studies were most frequently used for understanding context, and respondents preferred a more varied approach to method use rather than following a defined methodology such as Contextual Design. Observations were rated as the most effective technique overall, although interviews appeared to be more frequently used. Significant areas of further improvement for field methods were identified as improvements in data collection/analysis tools and improvements in adaptability of methods.

© All rights reserved Monahan et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2008): Load while Aiming; Hit? (invited keynote). In: Brau, Henning (ed.). "Usability Professionals 2008 Conference". pp. 17-22

Usability and now UX specialists arent in charge and shouldnt be. Design strategists should lead project teams to focus on a common purpose rather than squabble over competing value systems. Evaluating too should have only one purpose: to evaluate design purpose. In this keynote address, I will introduce worth-centred approaches to digital products and services. These focus on worth as a balance of benefits over costs for all included stakeholders. Worth-Centred Development (WCD) takes designing to a point where a focus on intended worth can progress to achievable and on to achieved worth. The evolving WCD framework combines approaches in support of six meta-principles that are necessary and sufficient to enact designing as it ought to be. Example approaches such as worth maps, element measurement strategies and user experience frames are briefly illustrated to show how we must and can move beyond user experience to focus on achieving outcomes in the world as the primary purpose of all designing

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or his/her publisher

 
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Law, Effie Lai-Chong, Hvannberg, Ebba Thora and Cockton, Gilbert (2008): Maturing Usability. Springer

2007
 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Lavery, Darryn and Woolrych, Alan (2007): Inspection-Based Evaluations. In: Sears, Andrew and Jacko, Julie A. (eds.). "The Human-Computer Interaction Handbook: Fundamentals, Evolving Technologies and Emerging Applications (2nd Edition)". Lawrence Erlbaum Associatespp. 1171-1190

 
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Law, Effie Lai-Chong, Hvannberg, Ebba Thora and Cockton, Gilbert (2007): Maturing Usability: Quality in Software, Interaction and Value. London, UK, Springer

 
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Qirem, Fouad, Cockton, Gilbert and Loufti, Mohamed (2007): Cultural Differences in Severity and Impact of User Frustration. In: Evers, Vanessa, Sturm, Christian, Rocha, Mario Alberto Moreno, Martnez, Edgar Cambranes and Mandl, Thomas (eds.) Designing for Global Markets 8 - IWIPS 2007 - Proceedings of the Eighth International Workshop on Internationalisation of Products and Systems 28-30 June, 2007, Merida, Mexico. pp. 9-18.

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2007): Some Experience! Some Evolution. In: Erickson, Thomas and McDonald, David W. (eds.). "HCI Remixed: Reflections on Works That Have Influenced the HCI Community". The MIT Presspp. 215-219

2006
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2006): Designing worth is worth designing. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 165-174. Available online

Value is a unifying concept for design. The intended value of digital artefacts provides a focus for field research, design and evaluation, as well as common ground with project sponsors, future users, and other stakeholders. The challenge lies in operationalising value to create a well-defined, well-understood and manageable development process. This requires a clear definition and strong understanding of the nature of value as a human motivator. It further requires this understanding to be transformed into methods and techniques within a development framework that supports a focus on value from the initial identification of product opportunities to the installation and operation of digital products and services. This paper revisits the logic and evolution of value-centred design, and then renames it to the near synonym of worth-centred to avoid confusion (especially 'value' vs. 'values') and distracting associations of the word 'value'. It locates worth in arenas of individual and collective discourses which scope different human perspectives on value. Finally, it relates worth to an evolving development framework.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or ACM Press

 
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Mcdonald, Sharon, Monahan, Kelly and Cockton, Gilbert (2006): Modified contextual design as a field evaluation method. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 437-440. Available online

Downstream utility is a critical success factor for usability evaluation methods, in terms of the extent to which they can deliver value. In this paper we argue that field methods can significantly improve downstream utility through the added value they provide in terms of the range of usability problems they uncover and the contextual information they yield on user difficulties and their causal explanations. By way of an example we describe our experience of applying an adaptation of Rapid Contextual Design called Rapid Contextual Evaluation in a small scale field evaluation of a course administration system.

© All rights reserved Mcdonald et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Contextual Design: [/encyclopedia/contextual_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Contextual Design: [/encyclopedia/contextual_design.html]


 
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2006): Focus, Fit, and Fervor: Future Factors Beyond Play With the Interplay. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 21 (2) pp. 239-250. Available online

This special issue advances our understanding and exploitation of evaluation methods. It continues to move studies from methods to evaluators and their customers. Thoughtful studies show when and why methods have specific impacts, supporting a focus on ways to better target method use. It is also the case that a focus on how evaluation customers use usability results reveals the fit between methods and customers. However, evaluation and its influence on redesign is not solely a matter of evaluators and designers or developers. Evaluation and redesign are activities within broader system development contexts. Improvements need commitment and support from management. Organizational fervor for user-centered design is key to effective evaluation. Without management support, usability evaluation cannot be well planned, properly conducted, or effectively exploited, leaving usability specialists to just play with the interplay between design and evaluation. This article reviews contributions in this special issue, noting where they address specific factors in the interplay between design and evaluation and identifying factors that require more attention in future research.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

2005
 
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Gnanayutham, Paul, Bloor, Chris and Cockton, Gilbert (2005): Discrete acceleration and personalised tiling as brain?body interface paradigms for neurorehabilitation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 261-270. Available online

We present two studies that have advanced the design of brain-body interfaces for use in the rehabilitation of individuals with severe neurological impairment due to traumatic brain injury. We first developed and evaluated an adaptive cursor acceleration algorithm based on screen areas. This improved the initial design, but was too inflexible to let users make the most of their highly varied abilities. Only some individuals were well served by this adaptive interface. We therefore developed and evaluated an approach based on personalized tile layouts. The rationales for both designs are presented, along with details of their implementation. Evaluation studies for each are reported, which show that we have extended the user population who can use our interfaces relative to previous studies. We have also extended the usable functionality for some of our user group. We thus claim that personalized tiling with discrete acceleration has allowed us to extend the usable functionality of brain-body interfaces to a wider population with traumatic brain injury, thus creating new options for neurorehabiliation.

© All rights reserved Gnanayutham et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2005): A development framework for value-centred design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1292-1295. Available online

HCI's focus has shifted from the system, via the user, to the context of use. All are necessary but not sufficient for effective interactive systems design, which requires a 'fourth' value-centred focus. System-, user- and context-centred HCI must be coordinated within a value?centred framework with four main processes: opportunity identification, design, evaluation and iteration. The latter two are separate, since iteration requires skills and knowledge beyond those typically available to evaluators. Value-centred development adds new activities and artifacts to existing development methodologies. Opportunity identification has the goal of stating the intended value for a digital product or service. Value delivery scenarios refocus design on value in the world, as does value impact analysis for evaluation. The co?ordination of existing and new HCI activities within a value-centred framework is outlined using examples from an ongoing design project.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or ACM Press

 
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Jones, Susan J. and Cockton, Gilbert (2005): Adding Culture to Context: Extending the Boundaries in Multimedia Design for Senior Management Education. In: ICALT 2005 - Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies 05-08 July, 2005, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. pp. 119-121. Available online

 
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Law, Effie Lai-Chong, Hvanberg, Ebba, Cockton, Gilbert, Palanque, Philippe A., Scapin, Dominique L., Springett, Mark, Stary, Christian and Vanderdonckt, Jean M. (2005): Towards the maturation of IT usability evaluation (MAUSE). In: Costabile, Maria Francesca and Paterno, Fabio (eds.). "Human-computer interaction: INTERACT 2005: IFIP TC13 international conference: proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. (3585)". pp. 1134-1137

This article describes a new initiative MAUSE of which the ultimate goal is to bring more science to bear on usability evaluation methods. This overarching goal will be realized through scientific activities of four Working Groups (WGs) with each of them having specific objectives, rationales, tasks and expected outcomes. Outlook for MAUSEs development is described

© All rights reserved Law et al. and/or their publisher

2004
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2004): Value-centred HCI. In: Proceedings of the Third Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction October 23-27, 2004, Tampere, Finland. pp. 149-160. Available online

HCI is misdefined. We need to redefine it. HCI is misfocused. We need to refocus it. HCI has a window of opportunity to recreate itself as a design discipline. It must focus on the intention of gifted design, which is to improve the world by delivering new sources of value. A focus on value creates a paradoxical discipline that fuses subjectivity and objectivity in a single process. HCI must be objectively systematic and reliable in the pursuit of subjective value. Traditional disciplines have delivered truth. The goal of HCI is to deliver value. In my invited presentation, I will outline why we can and must change within HCI, where we are now (and how we got there), what I believe we should change to. I close with a research agenda for value-centred HCI.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or ACM Press

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2004): Doing to Be: Multiple Routes to Affective Interaction. In Interacting with Computers, 16 (4) pp. 683-691. Available online

 
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Jones, Susan and Cockton, Gilbert (2004): Tightly Coupling Multimedia with Context: Strategies for Exploiting Multi Modal Learning in Complex Management Topics. In: Looi, Chee-Kit, Sutinen, Erkki, Sampson, Demetrios G., Aedo, Ignacio, Uden, Lorna and Khkonen, Esko (eds.) ICALT 2004 - Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies 30 August - 1 September, 2004, Joensuu, Finland. .

 
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Gnanayutham, Paul, Bloor, Chris and Cockton, Gilbert (2004): Soft Keyboard for the Disabled. In: Klaus, Joachim, Miesenberger, Klaus, Zagler, Wolfgang L. and Burger, Dominique (eds.) ICCHP 2004 - Computers Helping People with Special Needs - 9th International Conference July 7-9, 2004, Paris, France. pp. 999-1002. Available online

 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Woolrych, Alan and Hindmarch, Mark (2004): Reconditioned merchandise: extended structured report formats in usability inspection. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Extended abstracts of the 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, CHI 2004, Vienna, Austria, April 24 - 29, 2004 2004. pp. 1433-1436. Available online

Structured Problem Report Formats have been key to improving the assessment of usability methods. Once extended to record analysts' rationales, they not only reveal analyst behaviour but also change it. We report on two versions of an Extended Structured Report Format for usability problems, briefly noting their impact on analyst behaviour, but more extensively presenting insights into decision making during usability inspection, thus validating and refining a model of evaluation performance.

© All rights reserved Cockton et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA.

 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Lavery, Darryn and Woolrych, Alan (2003): Inspection-based evaluations. In: Jacko, Julie A. and Sears, Andrew (eds.). "The human-computer interaction handbook: fundamentals, evolving technologies and emerging applications". Lawrence Erlbaum Associatespp. 1118-1138

 
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Gnanayutham, P., Bloor, Chris and Cockton, Gilbert (2003): Artificial Intelligence to Enhance a Brain Computer Interface. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 1397-1401.

 
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McEwan, Tom, Macdonald, Nico and Cockton, Gilbert (2003): The British Human-Computer Interaction Group. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 1087.

 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Woolrych, A., Hall, L. and Hindmarch, M. (2003): Changing Analysts' Tunes: The Surprising Impact of a New Instrument for Usability Inspection Method Assessment. In: Proceedings of the HCI03 Conference on People and Computers XVII 2003. pp. 145-162.

 
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Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Extended abstracts of the 2003 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - CHI 2003 April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA.

2002
 
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Cockton, Gilbert and Woolrych, Alan (2002): Sale must end: should discount methods be cleared off HCI's shelves?. In Interactions, 9 (5) pp. 13-18.

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (2002): From doing to being: bringing emotion into interaction. In Interacting with Computers, 14 (2) pp. 89-92.

 
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Doherty, Eamon, Cockton, Gilbert, Bloor, Chris, Rizzo, Joann, Blondina, Bruce and Davis, Bruce (2002): Yes/No or Maybe -- further evaluation of an interface for brain-injured individuals. In Interacting with Computers, 14 (4) pp. 341-358.

Brain-body interfaces (BBIs) have been shown through a number of studies to be useful assistive technology devices for recreation and communication. However, severely motor impaired persons with no other means of interacting with their environment have had difficulties using the standard communication software for the Cyberlink, the commercially available BBI device which we used in our studies. We have therefore developed a simple Yes/No program, drawing on a range of design and evaluation approaches from Human-Computer Interaction research. This paper presents the first extensive evaluation of this program. Its evaluation combines formal assessments with observations from users, carers and technology and mental health professionals who are involved in the research. Our conclusions are that the performance of severely impaired individuals cannot be readily separated from that of novice unimpaired users, that worthwhile results can be achieved with the Yes/No program, but at the moment the cost of using a Cyberlink is too high for most assistive technology contexts. However, for severely impaired individuals, Cyberlink use may be the only form of recreation and communication available to them, and thus the current limitations of the technology are acceptable for this user population.

© All rights reserved Doherty et al. and/or Elsevier Science

2001
 
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Doherty, Eamon, Cockton, Gilbert, Bloor, Chris and Benigno, Dennis (2001): Improving the Performance of the Cyberlink Mental Interface with "Yes / No Program. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 69-76. Available online

We summarise the results of the first studies to investigate the Cyberlink brain body interface as an assistive technology. Three phases of studies and a contextual inquiry were performed with a range of users. A focus group was formed from brain-injured users with locked-in syndrome who have no other method of communication or control of a computer than the Cyberlink. Versions of a Yes/No program were then created to allow communication and have achieved some success with the focus group. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how this program has been improved and what steps need to be taken to create communication programs for persons with severe motor impairment. As a result of our experiences, we have been able to develop a set of design guidelines for brain-body interface operated Yes/No programs. These are presented and justified on the basis of our experiences. We also raise some general issues for assistive technologies of this nature.

© All rights reserved Doherty et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cockton, Gilbert and Woolrych, A. (2001): Understanding Inspection Methods: Lessons from an Assessment of Heuristic Evaluation. In: Proceedings of the HCI01 Conference on People and Computers XV 2001. pp. 171-192.

2000
 
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Doherty, Eamon, Cockton, Gilbert, Bloor, Chris and Benigno, Dennis (2000): Mixing Oil and Water: Transcending Method Boundaries in Assistive Technology for Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2000. pp. 110-117. Available online

A prototype assistive technology for traumatic brain injury has been developed using a combination of formative experiments and contextual design. Both approaches have proved to be essential to the development of a simple communication program using a brain-body interface device. We describe the combination of these methods and their separate and joint contributions to the evolution and evaluation of an assistive technology. Our experience suggests that failure to use either research method in assistive technology development would result in critical oversights in design and evaluation.

© All rights reserved Doherty et al. and/or ACM Press

1999
 
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Cockton, Gilbert and Lavery, Darryn (1999): A Framework for Usability Problem Extraction. In: Angela.Sasse, M. and Johnson, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of Interact 99 1999, Edinburgh. .

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1999): Workshop on Technical Feasibility: Initial Lessons from an IFIP WG2.7 Virtual University Case Study. In: Chatty, Stephane and Dewan, Prasun (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, IFIP TC2/TC13 WG2.7/WG13.4 Seventh Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction September 14-18, 1999, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. pp. 339-350.

1997
 
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Lavery, Darryn, Cockton, Gilbert and Atklnson, Malcolm P. (1997): Comparison of Evaluation Methods Using Structured Usability Problem Reports. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 16 (4) pp. 246-266.

Recent HCI research has produced analytic evaluation techniques which claim to predict potential usability problems for an interactive system. Validation of these methods has involved matching predicted problems against usability problems found during empirical user testing. This paper shows that the matching of predicted and actual problems requires careful attention, and that current approaches lack rigour or generality. Requirements for more rigorous and general matching procedures are presented. A solution to one key requirement is presented: a new report structure for usability problems. It is designed to improve the quality of matches made between usability problems found during empirical user testing and problems predicted by analytic methods. The use of this report format is placed within its design research context, an ongoing project on domain-specific methods for software visualizations.

© All rights reserved Lavery et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Lavery, Darryn and Cockton, Gilbert (1997): Representing Predicted and Actual Usability Problems. In: Proceedings of International Workshop on Representations in Interactive Software Development 1997, QMW College, London. pp. 97-108.

1996
 
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Lavery, Darryn and Cockton, Gilbert (1996): Iterative Development of Early Usability Evaluation Methods for Software Visualizations. In: Gray, Wayne D., Boehm-Davis, Deborah A. and Spohrer, James C. (eds.) Empirical Studies of Programmers - Sixth Workshop January 5-7, 1996, 1996, Alexandria, Virginia. pp. 275-276.

 
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Gram, Christian and Cockton, Gilbert (eds.) (1996): Design Principles for Interactive Software. Chapman and Hall

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1996): Using the human context in interactive systems development. In: Bass, Leonard J. and Unger, Claus (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, Proceedings of the IFIP TC2/WG2.7 Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction August, 1996, Yellowstone Park, USA. pp. 339-347.

1995
 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Clarke, Steven and Gray, Philip D. (1995): Theories of Context Influence the System Abstractions Used to Design Interactive Systems. In: Kirby, M. A. R., Dix, Alan J. and Finlay, Janet E. (eds.) Proceedings of the Tenth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers X August, 1995, Huddersfield, UK. pp. 387-405.

There can be many relationships between theories of context and design choices in interactive systems development. More specifically, a theory of context may bias development towards certain classes of design option. We illustrate this by examining Bodker's activity theory analysis of footnote insertion in Microsoft Word. Bodker's focus on activity and her 'handling' aspects of interaction seems to restrict her design options to dialogue features. We present a different, domain-oriented analysis of footnotes in Microsoft Word that focuses design on options for word processor functionality. The differences need to be understood. A conjecture is posed and elaborated. This conjecture suggests that there are unavoidably biased interactions between contextual information and design spaces. The challenge for designers is to exploit these biases rather than to eliminate them. We propose that this can be achieved within a tool-based development process where context and designs are given explicit comprehensive layered representations; and are explicitly linked via design rationales. Without such representations and links, the use of context will be unsystematic, variable in its effectiveness, concentrated in the early stages of development, lost to the longest life cycle phase of operation and maintenance, and (worst of all) beyond assessment.

© All rights reserved Cockton et al. and/or Cambridge University Press

 
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Sutcliffe, Alistair G., Bass, Len, Cockton, Gilbert, Monk, Andrew and Newman, Ian (1995): Methods, Models and Architectures for Graphical User Interface Design. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 27 (4) pp. 46-49.

1994
 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Draper, Steven and Weir, George R. S. (eds.) Proceedings of the Ninth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IX August 23-26, 1994, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1994): International Perspectives: Multinational or International: Menagerie or Melting Pot?. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (1) pp. 4-6.

 
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Carroll, John M., Veer, Gerrit van der, Hammond, Judith H., Schneider-Hufschmidt, Matthias, Risak, Veith A. and Cockton, Gilbert (1994): World-wide CHI: Let One Hundred Flowers Bloom in the Global Zoo. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (4) pp. 4-9.

1992
 
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Patterson, John W. and Cockton, Gilbert (1992): Composing Hierarchically Structured Images. In Comput. Graph. Forum, 11 (3) pp. 311-320. Available online

1991
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1991): Human Factors and Structured Software Development: The Importance of Software Structure. In: Diaper, Dan and Hammond, Nick (eds.) Proceedings of the Sixth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers VI August 20-23, 1991, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK. pp. 57-72.

This paper reviews current Software Engineering practice and User Interface Management research on internal software structure. It argues that existing analytical categories in Software Engineering do not expose the structural properties emphasised by recent developments in User Interface Management. New analytical categories are introduced, and it is shown that there are direct connections between these categories and important HCI goals such as flexibility, consistency and task fit. HCI goals are thus relevant to the internal structure of software, and not just to the inputs, methods and techniques of the design and testing stages of software development methodologies.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or Cambridge University Press

1990
 
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Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK.

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1990): Has Done Better -- The Efforts of the '80s in HCI. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. xix-xxvi.

Readers who begin with this introduction and read systematically through all the papers in order will be taken from psychology and mathematics, via design, prototyping, evaluation, interaction techniques and styles, system construction tools and interactive technologies (with real examples all the way) to specific case studies in knowledge-based systems, computer-supported co-operative work, tutoring systems, hypertext journals, aircraft maintenance systems, software engineering and programming. Even though there are uncovered topics and perspectives in these proceedings, the richness of HCI as an area of study and practice should be apparent.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or North-Holland

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1990): Lean Cuisine: No Sauces, No Courses!. In Interacting with Computers, 2 (2) pp. 205-216.

Apperley and Spence's Lean Cuisine is presented as a notation for early menu design, based on idealised definition of a meneme. This presentation is misleading. Rather, Lean Cuisine addresses one part of the design on the intended conceptual model for a system. Lean Cuisine is unnecessarily constrained by the arbitrary narrowing of what a meneme can be. The meneme and menu rationale behind Lean Cuisine is examined, and rejected in favour of an empirical requirements-bases approach. An architectural context is used to re-present the Lean Cuisine technique as an application modelling abstraction.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or Elsevier Science

1988
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1988): Generative Transition Networks: A New Communication Control Abstraction. In: Jones, Dylan M. and Winder, R. (eds.) Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers IV August 5-9, 1988, University of Manchester, UK. pp. 509-527.

The sequences of operations which are possible in the use of an interactive system can be modelled with different formal structures. Human factors and software engineering both set requirements for the design or selection of these formal structures. This paper surveys the requirements for operation sequence specification techniques for User Interface Management Systems, dialogue specification and early evaluation. To date, most formal structures have been selected from control models developed for other aspects of system specification. These selections have failed to satisfy all requirements equally. A new formal structure, the Generative Transition Network is presented which has been designed to satisfy known requirements without bias.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or Cambridge University Press

1987
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1987): Some Critical Remarks on Abstractions for Adaptable Dialogue Managers. In: Carroll, John M. and Tanner, Peter P. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 87 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Canada. pp. 325-343.

This paper explores the relation between formal abstraction and ease of adaptation for human-computer dialogues. One analysis distinguishes differences in the timing, method and agent of adaptation. A second develops a flexibility heuristic based on formal concepts. These two analyses form the basis of a focussed survey of current abstractions for modelling interaction techniques, display dynamics and within-session adaptation of dialogue sequences. The general requirements for ease of adaptation by both people and computers are used to assess the role of formal methods in achieving a higher standard of adaptability in human-computer dialogues.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or ACM Press

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1987): A New Model for Separable Interactive Systems. In: Bullinger, Hans-Jorg and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 87 - 2nd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 1-4, 1987, Stuttgart, Germany. pp. 1033-1038.

Separating the user interface from the 'rest of the application' is a key goal in interactive systems design. The required separation goes beyond software modularity and entails user interfaces and application functions which are both unconstrained by each other's design features. Yet two components which know nothing of each other cannot communicate without an intermediary. A two component interactive system must compromise on separability. A new three component model is presented. A linkage component passes user interface information to application functions and returns application function results to the user interface. The second component, the user interface can have a truly generic core. Reconfiguration requires no direct knowledge of application functions. The third component, the non-interactive core, provides the application's functionality. Inter-component relationships are explored to identify user interface features which constrain non-interactive core design and vice-versa.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or North-Holland

 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1987): Some Critical Remarks on Abstractions for Adaptable Dialogue Managers. In: Diaper, Dan and Winder, Russel (eds.) Proceedings of the Third Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers III August 7-11, 1987, University of Exeter, UK. pp. 325-343.

This paper explores the relation between formal abstraction and ease of adaptation for human-computer dialogues. One analysis distinguishes differences in the timing, method and agent of adaptation. A second develops a flexibility heuristic based on formal concepts. These two analyses form the basis of a focussed survey of current abstractions for modelling interaction techniques, display dynamics and within-session adaptation of dialogue sequences. The general requirements for ease of adaptation by both people and computers are used to assess the role of formal methods in achieving a higher standard of adaptability in human-computer dialogues.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or Cambridge University Press

1986
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1986): Where Do We Draw the Line? -- Derivation and Evaluation of User Interface Software Separation Rules. In: Harrison, Michael D. and Monk, Andrew (eds.) Proceedings of the Second Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers II August 23-26, 1986, University of York, UK. pp. 417-431.

The potential benefits of separating the user interface from the rest of the application are well known. Dialogue design tools, especially omnicompetent User Interface Management Systems (UIMS), are not viable if separation is impossible. Current characterisations of the separated agents are vague veneers. Some UIMS designers offer no definitions. Sound criticisms of the nature, practicality and possibility of user interface separation are commonplace. A Patterned Transition System (PTS) formalism is presented. It allows rigorous definition of separation as isolation. A decision procedure exists which states whether two subsystems are isolated. This proves separation is possible. However isolated subsystems cannot communicate. Communication must be restored by a further separate unisolated subsystem called a linkage. Properties required for a subsystem to be a linkage for two isolated subsystems are presented. The costs of linking isolated systems is measurable. A linkage also embodies attributes of the relationship between two linked subsystems, ending dilemmas on application dependent dialogue functions.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or Cambridge University Press

1985
 
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Cockton, Gilbert (1985): Three Transition Network Dialogue Management Systems. In: Johnson, Peter and Cook, Stephen (eds.) Proceedings of the Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers I August 17-20, 1985, University of East Anglia. pp. 138-147.

A Dialogue Management System has to be programmed and must therefore be able to construct and sequence actions. The control model adopted must be based on a specified formalism. A minimal Transition Network formalism for dialogue is presented and it is shown that, when examined with reference to this formalism, the three Transition Network Dialogue Management Systems are weakened by unjustified restrictions.

© All rights reserved Cockton and/or Cambridge University Press

 
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