Publication statistics

Pub. period:1985-2010
Pub. count:61
Number of co-authors:70



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Mary Czerwinski:25
Stuart K. Card:17
Jock D. Mackinlay:15

 

 

Productive colleagues

George G. Robertson's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Margaret M. Burnet..:103
Mary Czerwinski:80
Stuart K. Card:75
 
 
 
Jul 30

It's all about one thing: creative problem-solving to get the story out.

-- Robert Greenberg, R/GA, 2006

 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

Kumar and Herger 2013: Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software...
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger

 
Start reading

Whitworth and Ahmad 2013: The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities...
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad

 
Start reading

Soegaard and Dam 2013: The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed....
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam

 
Start reading
 
 

Help us help you!

 
 

George G. Robertson

Has also published under the name of:
"George Robertson"

George G. Robertson is an American information visualization expert and Senior Researcher, Visualization and Interaction (VIBE) Research Group, Microsoft Research. With Stuart K. Card, Jock D. Mackinlay and others he invented a number of Information Visualization techniques

Edit author info
Add publication

Publications by George G. Robertson (bibliography)

 what's this?
2010
 
Edit | Del

Grigoreanu, Valentina I., Burnett, Margaret M. and Robertson, George G. (2010): A strategy-centric approach to the design of end-user debugging tools. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 713-722.

End-user programmers' code is notoriously buggy. This problem is amplified by the increasing complexity of end users' programs. To help end users catch errors early and reliably, we employ a novel approach for the design of end-user debugging tools: a focus on supporting end users' effective debugging strategies. This paper makes two contributions. We first demonstrate the potential of a strategy-centric approach to tool design by presenting StratCel, an add-in for Excel. Second, we show the benefits of this design approach: participants using StratCel found twice as many bugs as participants using standard Excel, they fixed four times as many bugs, and all this in only a small fraction of the time. Other contributions included: a boost in novices' debugging performance near experienced participants' improved levels, validated design guidelines, a discussion of the generalizability of this approach, and several opportunities for future research.

© All rights reserved Grigoreanu et al. and/or their publisher

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Chilimbi, Trishul and Lee, Bongshin (2010): AllocRay: memory allocation visualization for unmanaged languages. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Software Visualization 2010. pp. 43-52.

A program's memory system performance is one of the key determinants of its overall performance. Lack of understanding of a program's memory system behavior can lead to performance problems, the most common being memory fragmentation and memory leaks. In this paper, we present AllocRay, a visualization that animates memory allocation event trace information over a time period of execution of a program. Various modes of display with custom color mappings and zooming allow the programmer to see how heaps are used over time (by allocation type, age, size, or thread id). Custom displays also allow the programmer to quickly detect potential memory leaks and fragmentation problems. Composable filters enable the programmer to focus on specific issues. We describe the techniques used to enable processing of a huge number of trace events while enabling rapid response to visualization view changes. We also describe informal interviews with four expert programmers to examine the usability of the AllocRay design.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

2009
 
Edit | Del

Lee, Bongshin, Smith, Greg, Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary and Tan, Desney S. (2009): FacetLens: exposing trends and relationships to support sensemaking within faceted datasets. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1293-1302.

Previous research has shown that faceted browsing is effective and enjoyable in searching and browsing large collections of data. In this work, we explore the efficacy of interactive visualization systems in supporting exploration and sensemaking within faceted datasets. To do this, we developed an interactive visualization system called FacetLens, which exposes trends and relationships within faceted datasets. FacetLens implements linear facets to enable users not only to identify trends but also to easily compare several trends simultaneously. Furthermore, it offers pivot operations to allow users to navigate the faceted dataset using relationships between items. We evaluate the utility of the system through a description of insights gained while experts used the system to explore the CHI publication repository as well as a database of funding grant data, and report a formative user study that identified usability issues.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
Edit | Del

Skeels, Meredith, Lee, Bongshin, Smith, Greg and Robertson, George G. (2008): Revealing uncertainty for information visualization. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 376-379.

 
Edit | Del

Pich, Christian, Nachmanson, Lev and Robertson, George G. (2008): Visual analysis of importance and grouping in software dependency graphs. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on Software Visualization 2008. pp. 29-32.

Understanding dependencies between components is a key task in software engineering. We present a method for the display and visual analysis of dependency graphs occurring in large software systems. Our layout approach takes into account similarity and importance of the system components and additional grouping information; using efficient algorithms based on linear algebra, it scales to very large dependency graphs. We apply our method to two real-world software systems and present the results.

© All rights reserved Pich et al. and/or ACM Press

2007
 
Edit | Del

Biehl, Jacob T., Czerwinski, Mary, Smith, Greg and Robertson, George G. (2007): FASTDash: a visual dashboard for fostering awareness in software teams. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1313-1322.

Software developers spend significant time gaining and maintaining awareness of fellow developers' activities. FASTDash is a new interactive visualization that seeks to improve team activity awareness using a spatial representation of the shared code base that highlights team members' current activities. With FASTDash, a developer can quickly determine which team members have source files checked out, which files are being viewed, and what methods and classes are currently being changed. The visualization can be annotated, allowing programmers to supplement activity information with additional status details. It provides immediate awareness of potential conflict situations, such as two programmers editing the same source file. FASTDash was developed through user-centered design, including surveys, team interviews, and in situ observation. Results from a field study show that FASTDash improved team awareness, reduced reliance on shared artifacts, and increased project-related communication. Additionally, the team that participated in our field study continues to use FASTDash.

© All rights reserved Biehl et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G. (2007): Twelve Years of Visualization Research at Microsoft. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. p. 12.

 
Edit | Del

Lee, Bongshin, Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary and Parr, Cynthia Sims (2007): CandidTree: Visualizing Structural Uncertainty in Similar Hierarchies. In: Baranauskas, Maria Cecília Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 250-263.

2006
 
Edit | Del

Karlson, Amy K., Robertson, George G., Robbins, Daniel C., Czerwinski, Mary and Smith, Greg R. (2006): FaThumb: a facet-based interface for mobile search. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 711-720.

In this paper we describe a novel approach for searching large data sets from a mobile phone. Existing interfaces for mobile search require keyword text entry and are not suited for browsing. Our alternative uses a hybrid model to de-emphasize tedious keyword entry in favor of iterative data filtering. We propose navigation and selection of hierarchical metadata (facet navigation), with incremental text entry to further narrow the results. We conducted a formative evaluation to understand the relative advantages of keyword entry versus facet navigation for both browse and search tasks on the phone. We found keyword entry to be more powerful when the name of the search target is known, while facet navigation is otherwise more effective and strongly preferred.

© All rights reserved Karlson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Matthews, Tara, Czerwinski, Mary, Robertson, George G. and Tan, Desney S. (2006): Clipping lists and change borders: improving multitasking efficiency with peripheral information design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 989-998.

Information workers often have to balance many tasks and interruptions. In this work, we explore peripheral display techniques that improve multitasking efficiency by helping users maintain task flow, know when to resume tasks, and more easily reacquire tasks. Specifically, we compare two types of abstraction that provide different task information: semantic content extraction, which displays only the most relevant content in a window, and change detection, which signals when a change has occurred in a window (all de-signed as modifications to Scalable Fabric [17]). Results from our user study suggest that semantic content extraction improves multitasking performance more so than either change detection or our base case of scaling. Results also show that semantic content extraction provides significant benefits to task flow, resumption timing, and reacquisition. We discuss the implication of these findings on the design of peripheral interfaces that support multitasking.

© All rights reserved Matthews et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

DeLine, Robert, Czerwinski, Mary, Meyers, Brian, Venolia, Gina, Drucker, Steven M. and Robertson, George G. (2006): Code Thumbnails: Using Spatial Memory to Navigate Source Code. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 11-18.

 
Edit | Del

Ramos, Gonzalo, Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary, Tan, Desney S., Baudisch, Patrick, Hinckley, Ken and Agrawala, Maneesh (2006): Tumble! Splat! helping users access and manipulate occluded content in 2D drawings. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 428-435.

2005
 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary and Churchill, John E. (2005): Visualization of mappings between schemas. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 431-439.

In this paper we describe a novel approach to the visualization of the mapping between two schemas. Current approaches to visually defining such a mapping fail when the schemas or maps become large. The new approach uses various information visualization techniques to simplify the view, making it possible for users to effectively deal with much larger schemas and maps. A user study verifies that the new approach is useful, usable, and effective. The primary contribution is a demonstration of novel ways to effectively present highly complex information.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Lee, Bongshin, Czerwinski, Mary, Robertson, George G. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2005): Understanding research trends in conferences using paperLens. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1969-1972.

PaperLens is a novel visualization that reveals trends, connections, and activity throughout a conference community. It tightly couples views across papers, authors, and references. PaperLens was developed to visualize 8 years (1995-2002) of InfoVis conference proceedings and was then extended to visualize 23 years (1982-2004) of the CHI conference proceedings. This paper describes how we analyzed the data and designed PaperLens. We also describe a user study to focus our redesign efforts along with the design changes we made to address usability issues. We summarize lessons learned in the process of design and scaling up to the larger set of CHI conference papers.

© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

DeLine, Robert, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2005): Easing Program Comprehension by Sharing Navigation Data. In: VL-HCC 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 21-24 September, 2005, Dallas, TX, USA. pp. 241-248.

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary, Baudisch, Patrick, Meyers, Brian, Robbins, Daniel C., Smith, Greg and Tan, Desney S. (2005): The Large-Display User Experience. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25 (4) pp. 44-51.

2004
 
Edit | Del

Bederson, Benjamin B., Clamage, Aaron, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2004): DateLens: a fisheye calendar interface for PDAs. In Interactions, 11 (4) pp. 9-10.

 
Edit | Del

Bederson, Benjamin B., Clamage, Aaron, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2004): DateLens: A fisheye calendar interface for PDAs. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11 (1) pp. 90-119.

Calendar applications for small handheld devices are growing in popularity. This led us to develop DateLens, a novel calendar interface for PDAs designed to support complex tasks. It uses a fisheye representation coupled with compact overviews to give the big picture in a small space. The interface also gives users control over the visible time period, as well as supporting integrated search to discover patterns and outliers. Designed with device scalability in mind, DateLens currently runs on desktop computers as well as PDAs. Two user studies were conducted to examine the viability of DateLens as a replacement for traditional calendar visualizations. In the first study, non-PDA users performed complex tasks significantly faster with DateLens than with the Microsoft Pocket PC 2002TM calendar (using a PDA emulator). In addition, they rated DateLens as being easier to use than the default calendar application for a majority of the tasks. In the second study, the participants were expert Pocket PC users and the software was run on their own devices. Again, DateLens performed significantly faster for the complex tasks, and there were satisfaction differences favoring each calendar for different kinds of tasks. From these studies, it is clear that DateLens is superior for more complex tasks such as those associated with longer time periods. For daily event tracking, users familiar with the default Pocket PC calendar strongly preferred its daily view and behaviors.

© All rights reserved Bederson et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
Edit | Del

Hutchings, Dugald Ralph, Smith, Greg, Meyers, Brian, Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2004): Display space usage and window management operation comparisons between single monitor and multiple monitor users. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 32-39.

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Horvitz, Eric, Czerwinski, Mary, Baudisch, Patrick, Hutchings, Dugald Ralph, Meyers, Brian, Robbins, Daniel C. and Smith, Greg (2004): Scalable Fabric: flexible task management. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 85-89.

 
Edit | Del

Lee, Bongshin, Czerwinski, Mary, Robertson, George G. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2004): Understanding Eight Years of InfoVis Conferences Using PaperLens. In: InfoVis 2004 - 10th IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization 10-12 October, 2004, Austin, TX, USA. .

2003
 
Edit | Del

Tan, Desney S., Czerwinski, Mary and Robertson, George G. (2003): Women go with the (optical) flow. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 209-215.

 
Edit | Del

Czerwinski, Mary, Smith, Greg, Regan, Tim, Meyers, Brian, Robertson, George G. and Starkweather, Gary (2003): Toward Characterizing the Productivity Benefits of Very Large Displays. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 9.

 
Edit | Del

Baudisch, Patrick, Cutrell, Edward and Robertson, George G. (2003): High-Density Cursor: a Visualization Technique that Helps Users Keep Track of Fast-moving Mouse Cursors. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 236.

2002
 
Edit | Del

Czerwinski, Mary, Tan, Desney S. and Robertson, George G. (2002): Women take a wider view. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 195-202.

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Cameron, Kim, Czerwinski, Mary and Robbins, Daniel (2002): Polyarchy visualization: visualizing multiple intersecting hierarchies. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 423-430.

2001
 
Edit | Del

Tan, Desney S., Robertson, George G. and Czerwinski, Mary (2001): Exploring 3D Navigation: Combining Speed-COupled Flying with Orbiting. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 418-425.

We present a task-based taxonomy of navigation techniques for 3D virtual environments, used to categorize existing techniques, drive exploration of the design space, and inspire new techniques. We briefly discuss several new techniques, and describe in detail one new techniques, Speed-coupled Flying with Orbiting. This technique couples control of movement speed to camera height and tilt, allowing users to seamlessly transition between local environment-views and global overviews. Users can also orbit specific objects for inspection. Results from two competitive user studies suggest users performed better with Speed-coupled Flying with Orbiting over alternatives, with performance also enhanced by a large display.

© All rights reserved Tan et al. and/or ACM Press

2000
 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Dantzich, Maarten van, Robbins, Daniel, Czerwinski, Mary, Hinckley, Ken, Risden, Kirsten, Thiel, David and Gorokhovsky, Vadim (2000): The Task Gallery: A 3D Window Manager. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 494-501.

The Task Gallery is a window manager that uses interactive 3D graphics to provide direct support for task management and document comparison, lacking from many systems implementing the desktop metaphor. User tasks appear as artwork hung on the walls of a virtual art gallery, with the selected task on a stage. Multiple documents can be selected and displayed side-by-side using 3D space to provide uniform and intuitive scaling. The Task Gallery hosts any Windows application, using a novel redirection mechanism that routes input and output between the 3D environment and unmodified 2D Windows applications. User studies suggest that the Task Gallery helps with task management, is enjoyable to use, and that the 3D metaphor evokes spatial memory and cognition.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G. (2000): Keynote Lecture: Leveraging Human Capabilities in Information Perceptualization. In: IV 2000 2000. p. 3.

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G. (2000): From Hierarchies to Polyarchies - Visualizing Multiple Relationships. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. p. 13.

 
Edit | Del

Turk, Matthew and Robertson, George G. (2000): Perceptual User Interfaces: Introduction. In Communications of the ACM, 43 (3) pp. 32-34.

1999
 
Edit | Del

Czerwinski, Mary, Dumais, Susan, Robertson, George G., Dziadosz, Susan, Tiernan, Scott Lee and Dantzich, Maarten van (1999): Visualizing Implicit Queries for Information Management and Retrieval. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 560-567.

In this paper, we describe the use of similarity metrics in a novel visual environment for storing and retrieving favorite web pages. The similarity metrics, called Implicit Queries, are used to automatically highlight stored web pages that are related to the currently selected web page. Two experiments explored how users manage their personal web information space with and without the Implicit Query highlighting and later retrieve their stored web pages. When storing and organizing web pages, users with Implicit Query highlighting generated slightly more categories. Implicit Queries also led to faster web page retrieval time, although the results were not statistically significant.

© All rights reserved Czerwinski et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Munzner, Tamara, Guimbretiere, Francois and Robertson, George G. (1999): Constellation: A Visualization Tool for Linguistic Queries from MindNet. In: InfoVis 1999 1999. pp. 132-.

 
Edit | Del

Pierce, Jeffrey S., Conway, Matthew, Dantzich, Maarten van and Robertson, George G. (1999): Toolspaces and glances: storing, accessing, and retrieving objects in 3D desktop applications. In: SI3D 1999 1999. pp. 163-168.

1998
 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary, Larson, Kevin, Robbins, Daniel, Thiel, David and Dantzich, Maarten van (1998): Data Mountain: Using Spatial Memory for Document Management. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 153-162.

Effective management of documents on computers has been a central user interface problem for many years. One common approach involves using 2D spatial layouts of icons representing the documents, particularly for information workspace tasks. This approach takes advantage of human 2D spatial cognition. More recently, several 3D spatial layouts have engaged 3D spatial cognition capabilities. Some have attempted to use spatial memory in 3D virtual environments. However, there has been no proof to date that spatial memory works the same way in 3D virtual environments as it does in the real world. We describe a new technique for document management called the Data Mountain, which allows users to place documents at arbitrary positions on an inclined plane in a 3D desktop virtual environment using a simple 2D interaction technique. We discuss how the design evolved in response to user feedback. We also describe a user study that shows that the Data Mountain does take advantage of spatial memory. Our study shows that the Data Mountain has statistically reliable advantages over the Microsoft Internet Explorer Favorites mechanism for managing documents of interest in an information workspace.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada.

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G. (1997): Reflections on User Interface Software and Technology. In Interactions, 4 (6) pp. 80-79.

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Czerwinski, Mary and Dantzich, Maarten van (1997): Immersion in Desktop Virtual Reality. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 11-19.

This paper explores techniques for evaluating and improving immersion in Desktop Virtual Reality (VR). Three experiments are reported which extend findings on immersion in VR reported by Pausch et al. [9]. In the current experiments, a visual search paradigm was used to examine navigation in Desktop VR both with and without navigational aids. Pausch et al. found that non-head tracked users took significantly longer than predicted when the search target was absent, which was interpreted as indicative of a loss of sense of immersion. Our first experiment extended the Pausch et al. experiment to a desktop display. Our findings differ in that search times matched prediction when the target was absent, indicating that the Pausch et al. study does not transfer to Desktop VR. In the second and third experiments, our visual search task was performed while navigating a set of 3D hallways. We introduce a new navigation aid called Peripheral Lenses, intended to provide simulated peripheral vision. Informal studies suggested that Peripheral Lenses decrease search time, indicating an enhanced sense of immersion in Desktop VR. However, formal studies contradict that, demonstrating the importance of formal usability studies in the development of user interface software. We also gained evidence that visual attention findings transfer to Desktop VR.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1997): Fix and Float: Object Movement by Egocentric Navigation. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 149-150.

The two traditional techniques for moving objects in graphical workspaces are dragging and cut and paste. Each method has some disadvantages. We introduce a new method, called fix and float, for moving objects in graphical workspaces. The new method fixes the object(s) to the gaze or viewpoint, thereby letting the user move objects implicitly while doing egocentric navigation. We describe the advantages this new method has over previous techniques, and give an example of its use in a 3D graphical workspace.

© All rights reserved Robertson and Card and/or ACM Press

1996
 
Edit | Del

Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G. and York, William (1996): The WebBook and the Web Forager: An Information Workspace for the World-Wide Web. In: Tauber, Michael J., Bellotti, Victoria, Jeffries, Robin, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 96 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1996, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 111-117.

The World-Wide Web has achieved global connectivity stimulating the transition of computers from knowledge processors to knowledge sources. But the Web and its client software are seriously deficient for supporting users' interactive use of this information. This paper presents two related designs with which to evolve the Web and its clients. The first is the WebBook, a 3D interactive book of HTML pages. The WebBook allows rapid interaction with objects at a higher level of aggregation than pages. The second is the Web Forager, an application that embeds the WebBook and other objects in a hierarchical 3D workspace. Both designs are intended as exercises to play off against analytical studies of information workspaces.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

1995
 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States.

 
Edit | Del

Rao, Ramana, Pedersen, Jan O., Hearst, Marti A., Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K., Masinter, Larry, Halvorsen, Per-Kristian and Robertson, George G. (1995): Rich Interaction in the Digital Library. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (4) pp. 29-39.

1994
 
Edit | Del

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and DeLine, Robert (1994): Developing Calendar Visualizers for the Information Visualizer. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 109-118.

The increasing mass of information confronting a business or an individual have created a demand for information management applications. Time-based information, in particular, is an important part of many information access tasks. This paper explores how to use 3D graphics and interactive animation to design and implement visualizers that improve access to large masses of time-based information. Two new visualizers have been developed for the Information Visualizer: 1) the Spiral Calendar was designed for rapid access to an individual's daily schedule, and 2) the Time Lattice was designed for analyzing the time relationships among the schedules of groups of people. The Spiral Calendar embodies a new 3D graphics technique for integrating detail and context by placing objects in a 3D spiral. It demonstrates that advanced graphics techniques can enhance routine office information tasks. The Time Lattice is formed by aligning a collection of 2D calendars. 2D translucent shadows provide views and interactive access to the resulting complex 3D object. The paper focuses on how these visualizations were developed. The Spiral Calendar, in particular, has gone through an entire cycle of development, including design, implementation, evaluation, revision and reuse. Our experience should prove useful to others developing user interfaces based on advanced graphics.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press

1993
 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1993): The Document Lens. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 101-108.

This paper describes a general visualization technique based on a common strategy for understanding paper documents when their structure is not known, which is to lay the pages of a document in a rectangular array on a large table where the overall structure and distinguishing features can be seen. Given such a presentation, the user wants to quickly view parts of the presentation in detail while remaining in context. A fisheye view or a magnifying lens might be used for this, but they fail to adequately show the global context. The Document Lens is a 3D visualization for large rectangular presentations that allows the user to quickly focus on a part of a presentation while continuously remaining in context. The user grabs a rectangular lens and pulls it around to focus on the desired area at the desired magnification. The presentation outside the lens is stretched to provide a continuous display of the global context. This stretching is efficiently implemented with affine transformations, allowing text documents to be viewed as a whole with an interactive visualization.

© All rights reserved Robertson and Mackinlay and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1993): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In Communications of the ACM, 36 (4) pp. 56-71.

1992
 
Edit | Del

Rao, Ramana, Card, Stuart K., Jellinek, Herbert, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1992): The Information Grid: A Framework for Information Retrieval and Retrieval-Centered Applications. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 23-32.

The Information Grid (InfoGrid) is a framework for building information access applications that provides a user interface design and an interaction model. It focuses on retrieval of application objects as its top level mechanism for accessing user information, documents, or services. We have embodied the InfoGrid design in an object-oriented application framework that supports rapid construction of applications. This application framework has been used to build a number of applications, some that are classically characterized as information retrieval applications, other that are more typically viewed as personal work tools.

© All rights reserved Rao et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Robertson, George G. (1992): Remembering Allen Newell. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 24 (4) pp. 22-24.

 
Edit | Del

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1992): The Information Visualizer: A 3D User Interface for Information Retrieval. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 1992 1992. pp. 173-179.

1991
 
Edit | Del

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): The Perspective Wall: Detail and Context Smoothly Integrated. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 173-179.

Tasks that involve large information spaces overwhelm workspaces that do not support efficient use of space and time. For example, case studies indicate that information often contains linear components, which can result in 2D layouts with wide, inefficient aspect ratios. This paper describes a technique called the Perspective Wall for visualizing linear information by smoothly integrating detailed and contextual views. It uses hardware support for 3D interactive animation to fold wide 2D layouts into intuitive 3D visualizations that have a center panel for detail and two perspective panels for context. The resulting visualization supports efficient use of space and time.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
Edit | Del

Card, Stuart K., Robertson, George G. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1991): The Information Visualizer, An Information Workspace. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 181-188.

This paper proposes a concept for the user interface of information retrieval systems called an information workspace. The concept goes beyond the usual notion of an information retrieval system to encompass the cost structure of information from secondary storage to immediate use. As an implementation of the concept, the paper describes an experimental system, called the Information Visualizer, and its rationale. The system is based on (1) the use of 3D/Rooms for increasing the capacity of immediate storage available to the user, (2) the Cognitive Co-processor scheduler-based user interface interaction architecture for coupling the user to information agents, and (3) the use of information visualization for interacting with information structure.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Cone Trees: Animated 3D Visualizations of Hierarchical Information. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 189-194.

The task of managing and accessing large information spaces is a problem in large scale cognition. Emerging technologies for 3D visualization and interactive animation offer potential solutions to this problem, especially when the structure of the information can be visualized. We describe one of these Information Visualization techniques, called the Cone Tree, which is used for visualizing hierarchical information structures. The hierarchy is presented in 3D to maximize effective use of available screen space and enable visualization of the whole structure. Interactive animation is used to shift some of the user's cognitive load to the human perceptual system.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Mackinlay, Jock D., Robertson, George G. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Rapid Controlled Movement through Virtual 3D Workspaces. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 455-456.

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Information Visualization Using 3D Interactive Animation. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 461-462.

 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Henderson Jr, D. Austin and Card, Stuart K. (1991): Buttons as First Class Objects on an X Desktop. In: Rhyne, James R. (ed.) Proceedings of the 4th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States, 1991, Hilton Head, South Carolina, United States. pp. 35-44.

A high-level user interface toolkit, called XButtons, has been developed to support on-screen buttons as first class objects on an X window system desktop. With the toolkit, buttons can be built that connect user interactions with procedures specified as arbitrary Unix Shell scripts. As first class desktop objects, these buttons encapsulate appearance and behaviour that is user tailorable. They are persistent objects and may store state relevant to the task they perform. They can also be mailed to other users electronically. In addition to being first class desktop objects, XButtons are gesture-based with multiple actions. They support other interaction styles, like the drag and drop metaphor, in addition to simple button click actions. They also may be concurrently shared among users, with changes reflected to all users of the shared buttons. This paper describes the goals of XButtons and the history of button development that led to XButtons. It also describes XButtons from the user's point of view. Finally, it discusses some implementation issues encountered in building XButtons on top of the X window system.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
Edit | Del

Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1991): A Morphological Analysis of the Design Space of Input Devices. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 9 (2) pp. 99-122.

The market now contains a bewildering variety of input devices for communication from humans to computers. This paper discusses a means to systematize these devices through morphological design space analysis, in which different input device designs are taken as points in a parametrically described design space. The design space is characterized by finding methods to generate and test design points. In a previous paper, we discussed a method for generating the space of input device designs using primitive and compositional movement operators. This allowed us to propose a taxonomy of input devices. In this paper, we summarize the generation method and explore the use of device footprint and Fitts's law as a test. We then use calculations to reason about the design space. Calculations are used to show why the mouse is a more effective device than the headmouse and where in the design space there is likely to be a more effective device than the mouse.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

1990
 
Edit | Del

Jones, William P., Williams, Peter, Robertson, George G., Joloboff, Vania and Conner, Mike (1990): In Search of the Ideal Operating System for User Interfacing. In: Hudson, Scott E. (ed.) Proceedings of the 3rd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology October 03 - 05, 1990, Snowbird, Utah, United States. pp. 31-35.

 
Edit | Del

Card, Stuart K., Mackinlay, Jock D. and Robertson, George G. (1990): The Design Space of Input Devices. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCHI April, 1990. pp. 117-124.

• Card, Stuard. K., Mackinlay, J. D., Robertson, G. G., , ACM SIGCHI, Apr 1990, pp117-124.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
Edit | Del

Mackinlay, Jock D., Card, Stuart K. and Robertson, George G. (1990): A Semantic Analysis of the Design Space of Input Devices. In Human-Computer Interaction, 5 (2) pp. 145-190.

A bewildering variety of devices for communication from humans to computers now exists on the market. In this article, we propose a descriptive framework for analyzing the design space of these input devices. We begin with Buxton's (1983) idea that input devices are transducers of physical properties into one, two, or three dimensions. Following Mackinlay's semantic analysis of the design space for graphical presentations, we extend this idea to more comprehensive descriptions of physical properties, space, and transducer mappings. In our reformulation, input devices are transducers of any combination of linear and rotary, absolute and relative, position and force, in any of the six spatial degrees of freedom. Simple input devices are described in terms of semantic mappings from the transducers of physical properties into the parameters of the applications. One of these mappings, the resolution function, allows us to describe the range of possibilities from continuous devices to discrete devices, including possibilities in between. Complex input controls are described in terms of hierarchical families of generic devices and in terms of composition operators on simpler devices. The description that emerges is used to produce a new taxonomy of input devices. The taxonomy is compared with previous taxonomies of Foley, Wallace, and Chan (1984) and of Buxton (1983) by reclassifying the devices previously analyzed by these authors. The descriptive techniques are further applied to the design of complex mouse-based virtual input controls for simulated three-dimensional (3D) egocentric motion. One result is the design of a new virtual egocentric motion control.

© All rights reserved Mackinlay et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1989
 
Edit | Del

Robertson, George G., Card, Stuart K. and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1989): The Cognitive Coprocessor Architecture for Interactive User Interfaces. In: Sibert, John L. (ed.) Proceedings of the 2nd annual ACM SIGGRAPH symposium on User interface software and technology November 13 - 15, 1989, Williamsburg, Virginia, United States. pp. 10-18.

The graphics capabilities and speed of current hardware systems allow the exploration of 3D and animation in user interfaces, while improving the degree of interaction as well. In order to fully utilize these capabilities, new software architectures must support multiple, asynchronous, interacting agents (the Multiple Agent Problem), and support smooth interactive animation (the Animation Problem). The Cognitive Coprocessor is a new user interface architecture designed to solve these two problems, while supporting highly interactive user interfaces that have 2D and 3D animations. This architecture includes 3D Rooms, a 3D analogy to the Rooms system with Rooms Buttons extended to Interactive Objects that deal with 3D, animation, and gestures. This research is being tested in the domain of Information Visualization, which uses 2D and 3D animated artifacts to represent the structure of information. A prototype, called the Information Visualizer, has been built.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or ACM Press

1988
 
Edit | Del

Tucker, Lewis W. and Robertson, George G. (1988): Architecture and Applications of the Connection Machine. In IEEE Computer, 21 (8) pp. 26-38.

1985
 
Edit | Del

Thomas, Robert H., Forsdick, Harry C., Crowley, Terrence R., Schaaf, Richard W., Tomlinson, Raymond S., Travers, Virginia M. and Robertson, George G. (1985): Diamond: A Multimedia Message System Built on a Distributed Architecture. In IEEE Computer, 18 (12) pp. 65-78.

 
Add publication
Show list on your website
 

Join our community and advance:

Your
Skills

Your
Network

Your
Career

 
 
 
 

Changes to this page (author)

07 Nov 2012: Modified
07 Nov 2012: Modified
16 Jan 2011: Modified
02 Nov 2010: Modified
18 Aug 2009: Modified
18 Aug 2009: Modified
18 Aug 2009: Modified
25 Jul 2009: Modified
09 Jul 2009: Modified
19 Jun 2009: Modified
19 Jun 2009: Modified
17 Jun 2009: Modified
17 Jun 2009: Modified
17 Jun 2009: Modified
17 Jun 2009: Modified
17 Jun 2009: Modified
17 Jun 2009: Modified
16 Jun 2009: Modified
16 Jun 2009: Modified
16 Jun 2009: Modified
15 Jun 2009: Modified
01 Jun 2009: Modified
01 Jun 2009: Modified
09 May 2009: Modified
08 Feb 2008: Added
24 Jul 2007: Modified
24 Jul 2007: Modified
24 Jul 2007: Modified
29 Jun 2007: Modified
29 Jun 2007: Modified
29 Jun 2007: Modified
24 Jun 2007: Modified
19 Jun 2007: Modified
19 Jun 2007: Added
19 Jun 2007: Modified
28 Apr 2003: Added

Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/george_g__robertson.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1985-2010
Pub. count:61
Number of co-authors:70



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Mary Czerwinski:25
Stuart K. Card:17
Jock D. Mackinlay:15

 

 

Productive colleagues

George G. Robertson's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Margaret M. Burnet..:103
Mary Czerwinski:80
Stuart K. Card:75
 
 
 
Jul 30

It's all about one thing: creative problem-solving to get the story out.

-- Robert Greenberg, R/GA, 2006

 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

Kumar and Herger 2013: Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software...
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger

 
Start reading

Whitworth and Ahmad 2013: The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities...
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad

 
Start reading

Soegaard and Dam 2013: The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed....
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam

 
Start reading
 
 

Help us help you!