Publication statistics

Pub. period:1995-2012
Pub. count:70
Number of co-authors:67



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Susan Dumais:11
Shamsi T. Iqbal:6
Mary Czerwinski:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Eric Horvitz's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Jonathan Grudin:105
Mary Czerwinski:80
Susan Dumais:74
 
 
 

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Eric Horvitz

Ph.D

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Has also published under the name of:
"E. Horvitz"

Personal Homepage:
research.microsoft.com/en-us/um/people/horvitz/


Current place of employment:
Microsoft Research

Eric Horvitz is a Distinguished Scientist at Microsoft, where he serves as a research area manager within Microsoft Research. His research interests span theoretical and practical challenges with developing systems that perceive, learn, and reason. His contributions include advances in principles and applications of machine learning and inference, information retrieval, human-computer interaction, bioinformatics, and e-commerce. He has been elected a Fellow of the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence (AAAI) and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). He currently serves on the NSF Computer & Information Science & Engineering (CISE) Advisory Board and on the council of the Computing Community Consortium (CCC). He received his PhD and MD degrees at Stanford University. Dr. Horvitz played a significant role in establishing the credibility of artificial intelligence with other areas of computer science and computer engineering, influencing fields ranging from human-computer interaction to operating systems. His research helped establish the link between artificial intelligence and decision science. As an example, he coined the concept of bounded optimality, a decision-theoretic approach to bounded rationality. Dr. Horvitz speaks on the topic of artificial intelligence around the world, including on NPR and the Charlie Rose show. His research has been featured in the New York Times and the Technology Review.

 

Publications by Eric Horvitz (bibliography)

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2012
 
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White, Ryen W. and Horvitz, Eric (2012): Studies of the onset and persistence of medical concerns in search logs. In: Proceedings of the 35th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2012. pp. 265-274. Available online

The Web provides a wealth of information about medical symptoms and disorders. Although this content is often valuable to consumers, studies have found that interaction with Web content may heighten anxiety and stimulate healthcare utilization. We present a longitudinal log-based study of medical search and browsing behavior on the Web. We characterize how users focus on particular medical concerns and how concerns persist and influence future behavior, including changes in focus of attention in searching and browsing for health information. We build and evaluate models that predict transitions from searches on symptoms to searches on health conditions, and escalations from symptoms to serious illnesses. We study the influence that the prior onset of concerns may have on future behavior, including sudden shifts back to searching on the concern amidst other searches. Our findings have implications for refining Web search and retrieval to support people pursuing diagnostic information.

© All rights reserved White and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Horvitz, Eric and Krumm, John (2012): Some help on the way: opportunistic routing under uncertainty. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 371-380. Available online

We investigate opportunistic routing, centering on the recommendation of ideal diversions on trips to a primary destination when an unplanned waypoint, such as a rest stop or a refueling station, is desired. In the general case, an automated routing assistant may not know the driver's final destination and may need to consider probabilities over destinations in identifying the ideal waypoint along with the revised route that includes the waypoint. We consider general principles of opportunistic routing and present the results of several studies with a corpus of real-world trips. Then, we describe how we can compute the expected value of asking a user about the primary destination so as to remove uncertainly about the goal and show how this measure can guide an automated system's engagements with users when making recommendations for navigation and analogous settings in ubiquitous computing.

© All rights reserved Horvitz and Krumm and/or ACM Press

 
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Radinsky, Kira, Svore, Krysta, Dumais, Susan, Teevan, Jaime, Bocharov, Alex and Horvitz, Eric (2012): Modeling and predicting behavioral dynamics on the web. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2012. pp. 599-608. Available online

User behavior on the Web changes over time. For example, the queries that people issue to search engines, and the underlying informational goals behind the queries vary over time. In this paper, we examine how to model and predict this temporal user behavior. We develop a temporal modeling framework adapted from physics and signal processing that can be used to predict time-varying user behavior using smoothing and trends. We also explore other dynamics of Web behaviors, such as the detection of periodicities and surprises. We develop a learning procedure that can be used to construct models of users' activities based on features of current and historical behaviors. The results of experiments indicate that by using our framework to predict user behavior, we can achieve significant improvements in prediction compared to baseline models that weight historical evidence the same for all queries. We also develop a novel learning algorithm that explicitly learns when to apply a given prediction model among a set of such models. Our improved temporal modeling of user behavior can be used to enhance query suggestions, crawling policies, and result ranking.

© All rights reserved Radinsky et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Shahaf, Dafna, Guestrin, Carlos and Horvitz, Eric (2012): Trains of thought: generating information maps. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2012. pp. 899-908. Available online

When information is abundant, it becomes increasingly difficult to fit nuggets of knowledge into a single coherent picture. Complex stories spaghetti into branches, side stories, and intertwining narratives. In order to explore these stories, one needs a map to navigate unfamiliar territory. We propose a methodology for creating structured summaries of information, which we call metro maps. Our proposed algorithm generates a concise structured set of documents maximizing coverage of salient pieces of information. Most importantly, metro maps explicitly show the relations among retrieved pieces in a way that captures story development. We first formalize characteristics of good maps and formulate their construction as an optimization problem. Then we provide efficient methods with theoretical guarantees for generating maps. Finally, we integrate user interaction into our framework, allowing users to alter the maps to better reflect their interests. Pilot user studies with a real-world dataset demonstrate that the method is able to produce maps which help users acquire knowledge efficiently.

© All rights reserved Shahaf et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Wilcox, Lauren, Morris, Dan, Tan, Desney, Gatewood, Justin and Horvitz, Eric (2011): Characterizing patient-friendly "micro-explanations" of medical events. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 29-32. Available online

Patients' basic understanding of clinical events has been shown to dramatically improve patient care. We propose that the automatic generation of very short micro-explanations, suitable for real-time delivery in clinical settings, can transform patient care by giving patients greater awareness of key events in their electronic medical record. We present results of a survey study indicating that it may be possible to automatically generate such explanations by extracting individual sentences from consumer-facing Web pages. We further inform future work by characterizing physician and non-physician responses to a variety of Web-extracted explanations of medical lab tests.

© All rights reserved Wilcox et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Iqbal, Shamsi T., Horvitz, Eric, Ju, Yun-Cheng and Mathews, Ella (2011): Hang on a sec!: effects of proactive mediation of phone conversations while driving. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 463-472. Available online

Conversing on cell phones while driving is a risky, yet commonplace activity. State legislatures in the U.S. have enacted rules that limit hand-held phone conversations while driving but that allow for hands-free conversations. However, studies have demonstrated that the cognitive load of conversation is a significant source of distraction that increases the likelihood of accidents. We explore in a controlled study with a driving simulator the effectiveness of proactive alerting and mediation of communications during phone conversations while driving. We study the use of auditory messages indicating upcoming critical road conditions and placing calls on hold. We found that such actions reduce driving errors and that alerts sharing details about situations were more effective than general alerts. Drivers found such a system valuable in most situations for maintaining driving safety. These results provide evidence that context-sensitive mediation systems could play a valuable role in focusing drivers' attention on the road during phone conversations.

© All rights reserved Iqbal et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Iqbal, Shamsi T., Grudin, Jonathan and Horvitz, Eric (2011): Peripheral computing during presentations: perspectives on costs and preferences. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 891-894. Available online

Despite the common use of mobile computing devices to communicate and access information, the effects of peripheral computing tasks on people's attention is not well understood. Studies that have identified consequences of multitasking in diverse domains have largely focused on influences on productivity. We have yet to understand perceptions and preferences regarding the use of computing devices for potentially extraneous tasks in settings such as presentations at seminars and colloquia. We explore costs and attitudes about the use of computing devices by people attending presentations. We find that audience members who use devices believe that they are missing content being presented and are concerned about social costs. Other attendees report being less offended by multitasking around them than the device users may realize.

© All rights reserved Iqbal et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bohus, Dan and Horvitz, Eric (2011): Decisions about turns in multiparty conversation: from perception to action. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2011. pp. 153-160. Available online

We present a decision-theoretic approach for guiding turn taking in a spoken dialog system operating in multiparty settings. The proposed methodology couples inferences about multiparty conversational dynamics with assessed costs of different outcomes, to guide turn-taking decisions. Beyond considering uncertainties about outcomes arising from evidential reasoning about the state of a conversation, we endow the system with awareness and methods for handling uncertainties stemming from computational delays in its own perception and production. We illustrate via sample cases how the proposed approach makes decisions, and we investigate the behaviors of the proposed methods via a retrospective analysis on logs collected in a multiparty interaction study.

© All rights reserved Bohus and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Cartright, Marc-Allen, White, Ryen W. and Horvitz, Eric (2011): Intentions and attention in exploratory health search. In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2011. pp. 65-74. Available online

We study information goals and patterns of attention in exploratory search for health information on the Web, reporting results of a large-scale log-based study. We examine search activity associated with the goal of diagnosing illness from symptoms versus more general information-seeking about health and illness. We decompose exploratory health search into evidence-based and hypothesis-directed information seeking. Evidence-based search centers on the pursuit of details and relevance of signs and symptoms. Hypothesis-directed search includes the pursuit of content on one or more illnesses, including risk factors, treatments, and therapies for illnesses, and on the discrimination among different diseases under the uncertainty that exists in advance of a confirmed diagnosis. These different goals of exploratory health search are not independent, and transitions can occur between them within or across search sessions. We construct a classifier that identifies medically-related search sessions in log data. Given a set of search sessions flagged as health-related, we show how we can identify different intentions persisting as foci of attention within those sessions. Finally, we discuss how insights about foci dynamics can help us better understand exploratory health search behavior and better support health search on the Web.

© All rights reserved Cartright et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Law, Edith, Bennett, Paul N. and Horvitz, Eric (2011): The effects of choice in routing relevance judgments. In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2011. pp. 1127-1128. Available online

The emergence of human computation systems, including Mechanical Turk and games with a purpose, has made it feasible to distribute relevance judgment tasks to workers over the Web. Most human computation systems assign tasks to individuals randomly, and such assignments may match workers with tasks that they may be unqualified or unmotivated to perform. We compare two groups of workers, those given a choice of queries to judge versus those who are not, in terms of their self-rated competence and their actual performance. Results show that when given a choice of task, workers choose ones for which they have greater expertise, interests, confidence, and understanding.

© All rights reserved Law et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Iqbal, Shamsi T., Ju, Yun-Cheng and Horvitz, Eric (2010): Cars, calls, and cognition: investigating driving and divided attention. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1281-1290. Available online

Conversing on cell phones while driving an automobile is a common practice. We examine the interference of the cognitive load of conversational dialog with driving tasks, with the goal of identifying better and worse times for conversations during driving. We present results from a controlled study involving 18 users using a driving simulator. The driving complexity and conversation type were manipulated in the study, and performance was measured for factors related to both the primary driving task and secondary conversation task. Results showed significant interactions between the primary and secondary tasks, where certain combinations of complexity and conversations were found especially detrimental to driving. We present the studies and analyses and relate the findings to prior work on multiple resource models of cognition. We discuss how the results can frame thinking about policies and technologies aimed at enhancing driving safety.

© All rights reserved Iqbal et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kapoor, Ashish, Lee, Bongshin, Tan, Desney and Horvitz, Eric (2010): Interactive optimization for steering machine classification. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1343-1352. Available online

Interest has been growing within HCI on the use of machine learning and reasoning in applications to classify such hidden states as user intentions, based on observations. HCI researchers with these interests typically have little expertise in machine learning and often employ toolkits as relatively fixed "black boxes" for generating statistical classifiers. However, attempts to tailor the performance of classifiers to specific application requirements may require a more sophisticated understanding and custom-tailoring of methods. We present ManiMatrix, a system that provides controls and visualizations that enable system builders to refine the behavior of classification systems in an intuitive manner. With ManiMatrix, users directly refine parameters of a confusion matrix via an interactive cycle of re-classification and visualization. We present the core methods and evaluate the effectiveness of the approach in a user study. Results show that users are able to quickly and effectively modify decision boundaries of classifiers to tailor the behavior of classifiers to problems at hand.

© All rights reserved Kapoor et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Bailey, Brian P. and Horvitz, Eric (2010): What's your idea?: a case study of a grassroots innovation pipeline within a large software company. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2065-2074. Available online

Establishing a grassroots innovation pipeline has come to the fore as strategy for nurturing innovation within large organizations. A key element of such pipelines is the use of an idea management system that enables and encourages community ideation on defined business problems. The value of these systems can be highly sensitive to design choices, as different designs may influence participation. We report the results of a case study examining the use of one particular idea management system and pipeline. We analyzed the content, interaction, and participation from three creativity challenges organized via the pipeline and conducted interviews with users to uncover motivations for participating and perceptions of the outcomes. Additional interviews were conducted with senior managers to learn about the objectives, successes, and unique nature of the pipeline. From the results, we formulate recommendations for improving the design of idea management systems and execution of the pipelines within organizations.

© All rights reserved Bailey and Horvitz and/or their publisher

 
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Iqbal, Shamsi T. and Horvitz, Eric (2010): Notifications and awareness: a field study of alert usage and preferences. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 27-30. Available online

Desktop notifications are designed to provide awareness of information while a user is attending to a primary task. Unfortunately the awareness can come with the price of disruption to the focal task. We review results of a field study on the use and perceived value of email notifications in the workplace. We recorded users' interactions with software applications for two weeks and studied how notifications or their forced absence influenced users' quest for awareness of new email arrival, as well as the impact of notifications on their overall task focus. Results showed that users view notifications as a mechanism to provide passive awareness rather than a trigger to switch tasks. Turing off notifications cause some users to self interrupt more to explicitly monitor email arrival, while others appear to be able to better focus on their tasks. Users acknowledge notifications as disruptive, yet opt for them because of their perceived value in providing awareness.

© All rights reserved Iqbal and Horvitz and/or their publisher

 
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White, Ryen W. and Horvitz, Eric (2010): Predicting escalations of medical queries based on web page structure and content. In: Proceedings of the 33rd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2010. pp. 769-770. Available online

Logs of users' searches on Web health topics can exhibit signs of escalation of medical concerns, where initial queries about common symptoms are followed by queries about serious, rare illnesses. We present an effort to predict such escalations based on the structure and content of pages encountered during medical search sessions. We construct and then characterize the performance of classifiers that predict whether an escalation will occur after the access of a page. Our findings have implications for ranking algorithms and the design of search interfaces.

© All rights reserved White and Horvitz and/or their publisher

 
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Bohus, Dan and Horvitz, Eric (2010): Facilitating multiparty dialog with gaze, gesture, and speech. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2010. p. 5. Available online

We study how synchronized gaze, gesture and speech rendered by an embodied conversational agent can influence the flow of conversations in multiparty settings. We begin by reviewing a computational framework for turn-taking that provides the foundation for tracking and communicating intentions to hold, release, or take control of the conversational floor. We then present implementation aspects of this model in an embodied conversational agent. Empirical results with this model in a shared task setting indicate that the various verbal and non-verbal cues used by the avatar can effectively shape the multiparty conversational dynamics. In addition, we identify and discuss several context variables which impact the turn allocation process.

© All rights reserved Bohus and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Teevan, Jaime, Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2010): Potential for personalization. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (1) p. 4. Available online

Current Web search tools do a good job of retrieving documents that satisfy the most common intentions associated with a query, but do not do a very good job of discerning different individuals' unique search goals. We explore the variation in what different people consider relevant to the same query by mining three data sources: (1) explicit relevance judgments, (2) clicks on search results (a behavior-based implicit measure of relevance), and (3) the similarity of desktop content to search results (a content-based implicit measure of relevance). We find that people's explicit judgments for the same queries differ greatly. As a result, there is a large gap between how well search engines could perform if they were to tailor results to the individual, and how well they currently perform by returning results designed to satisfy everyone. We call this gap the potential for personalization. The two implicit indicators we studied provide complementary value for approximating this variation in result relevance among people. We discuss several uses of our findings, including a personalized search system that takes advantage of the implicit measures by ranking personally relevant results more highly and improving click-through rates.

© All rights reserved Teevan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bernstein, Michael S., Tan, Desney, Smith, Greg, Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric (2010): Personalization via friendsourcing. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (2) p. 6. Available online

When information is known only to friends in a social network, traditional crowdsourcing mechanisms struggle to motivate a large enough user population and to ensure accuracy of the collected information. We thus introduce friendsourcing, a form of crowdsourcing aimed at collecting accurate information available only to a small, socially-connected group of individuals. Our approach to friendsourcing is to design socially enjoyable interactions that produce the desired information as a side effect. We focus our analysis around Collabio, a novel social tagging game that we developed to encourage friends to tag one another within an online social network. Collabio encourages friends, family, and colleagues to generate useful information about each other. We describe the design space of incentives in social tagging games and evaluate our choices by a combination of usage log analysis and survey data. Data acquired via Collabio is typically accurate and augments tags that could have been found on Facebook or the Web. To complete the arc from data collection to application, we produce a trio of prototype applications to demonstrate how Collabio tags could be utilized: an aggregate tag cloud visualization, a personalized RSS feed, and a question and answer system. The social data powering these applications enables them to address needs previously difficult to support, such as question answering for topics comprehensible only to a few of a user's friends.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or ACM Press

2009
 
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Bernstein, Michael, Tan, Desney, Smith, Greg, Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric (2009): Collabio: a game for annotating people within social networks. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2009. pp. 97-100. Available online

We present Collabio, a social tagging game within an online social network that encourages friends to tag one another. Collabio's approach of incentivizing members of the social network to generate information about each other produces personalizing information about its users. We report usage log analysis, survey data, and a rating exercise demonstrating that Collabio tags are accurate and augment information that could have been scraped online.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or their publisher

 
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White, Ryen W. and Horvitz, Eric (2009): Cyberchondria: Studies of the escalation of medical concerns in Web search. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 27 (4) p. 23. Available online

The World Wide Web provides an abundant source of medical information. This information can assist people who are not healthcare professionals to better understand health and illness, and to provide them with feasible explanations for symptoms. However, the Web has the potential to increase the anxieties of people who have little or no medical training, especially when Web search is employed as a diagnostic procedure. We use the term cyberchondria to refer to the unfounded escalation of concerns about common symptomatology, based on the review of search results and literature on the Web. We performed a large-scale, longitudinal, log-based study of how people search for medical information online, supported by a survey of 515 individuals' health-related search experiences. We focused on the extent to which common, likely innocuous symptoms can escalate into the review of content on serious, rare conditions that are linked to the common symptoms. Our results show that Web search engines have the potential to escalate medical concerns. We show that escalation is associated with the amount and distribution of medical content viewed by users, the presence of escalatory terminology in pages visited, and a user's predisposition to escalate versus to seek more reasonable explanations for ailments. We also demonstrate the persistence of postsession anxiety following escalations and the effect that such anxieties can have on interrupting user's activities across multiple sessions. Our findings underscore the potential costs and challenges of cyberchondria and suggest actionable design implications that hold opportunity for improving the search and navigation experience for people turning to the Web to interpret common symptoms.

© All rights reserved White and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Bohus, Dan and Horvitz, Eric (2009): Dialog in the open world: platform and applications. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2009. pp. 31-38. Available online

We review key challenges of developing spoken dialog systems that can engage in interactions with one or multiple participants in relatively unconstrained environments. We outline a set of core competencies for open-world dialog, and describe three prototype systems. The systems are built on a common underlying conversational framework which integrates an array of predictive models and component technologies, including speech recognition, head and pose tracking, probabilistic models for scene analysis, multiparty engagement and turn taking, and inferences about user goals and activities. We discuss the current models and showcase their function by means of a sample recorded interaction, and we review results from an observational study of open-world, multiparty dialog in the wild.

© All rights reserved Bohus and Horvitz and/or their publisher

2008
 
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Kapoor, Ashish and Horvitz, Eric (2008): Experience sampling for building predictive user models: a comparative study. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 657-666. Available online

Experience sampling has been employed for decades to collect assessments of subjects' intentions, needs, and affective states. In recent years, investigators have employed automated experience sampling to collect data to build predictive user models. To date, most procedures have relied on random sampling or simple heuristics. We perform a comparative analysis of several automated strategies for guiding experience sampling, spanning a spectrum of sophistication, from a random sampling procedure to increasingly sophisticated active learning. The more sophisticated methods take a decision-theoretic approach, centering on the computation of the expected value of information of a probe, weighing the cost of the short-term disruptiveness of probes with their benefits in enhancing the long-term performance of predictive models. We test the different approaches in a field study, focused on the task of learning predictive models of the cost of interruption.

© All rights reserved Kapoor and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Downey, Doug, Dumais, Susan, Liebling, Daniel J. and Horvitz, Eric (2008): Understanding the relationship between searchers' queries and information goals. In: Shanahan, James G., Amer-Yahia, Sihem, Manolescu, Ioana, Zhang, Yi, Evans, David A., Kolcz, Aleksander, Choi, Key-Sun and Chowdhury, Abdur (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2008 October 26-30, 2008, Napa Valley, California, USA. pp. 449-458. Available online

 
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Leskovec, Jure and Horvitz, Eric (2008): Planetary-scale views on a large instant-messaging network. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2008. pp. 915-924. Available online

We present a study of anonymized data capturing a month of high-level communication activities within the whole of the Microsoft Messenger instant-messaging system. We examine characteristics and patterns that emerge from the collective dynamics of large numbers of people, rather than the actions and characteristics of individuals. The dataset contains summary properties of 30 billion conversations among 240 million people. From the data, we construct a communication graph with 180 million nodes and 1.3 billion undirected edges, creating the largest social network constructed and analyzed to date. We report on multiple aspects of the dataset and synthesized graph. We find that the graph is well-connected and robust to node removal. We investigate on a planetary-scale the oft-cited report that people are separated by "six degrees of separation" and find that the average path length among Messenger users is 6.6. We find that people tend to communicate more with each other when they have similar age, language, and location, and that cross-gender conversations are both more frequent and of longer duration than conversations with the same gender.

© All rights reserved Leskovec and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

2007
 
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Iqbal, Shamsi T. and Horvitz, Eric (2007): Disruption and recovery of computing tasks: field study, analysis, and directions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 677-686. Available online

We report on a field study of the multitasking behavior of computer users focused on the suspension and resumption of tasks. Data was collected with a tool that logged users' interactions with software applications and their associated windows, as well as incoming instant messaging and email alerts. We describe methods, summarize results, and discuss design guidelines suggested by the findings.

© All rights reserved Iqbal and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Leskovec, Jure, Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2007): Web projections: learning from contextual subgraphs of the web. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2007. pp. 471-480. Available online

Graphical relationships among Web pages have been exploited in methods for ranking search results. To date, specific graphical properties have been used in these analyses. We introduce a Web Projection methodology that generalizes prior efforts of graphical relationships of the web in several ways. With the approach, we create subgraphs by projecting sets of pages and domains onto the larger web graph, and then use machine learning to construct predictive models that consider graphical properties as evidence. We describe the method and then present experiments that illustrate the construction of predictive models of search result quality and user query reformulation.

© All rights reserved Leskovec et al. and/or International World Wide Web Conference Committee

 
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Teevan, Jaime, Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2007): Characterizing the value of personalizing search. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2007. pp. 757-758. Available online

We investigate the diverse goals that people have when they issue the same query to a search engine, and the ability of current search engines to address such diversity. We quantify the potential value of personalizing search results based on this analysis. Great variance was found in the results that different individuals rated as relevant for the same query -- even when the same information goal was expressed. Our analysis suggests that while search engines do a good job of ranking results to maximize global happiness, they do not do a very good job for specific individuals.

© All rights reserved Teevan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Downey, Doug, Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2007): Heads and tails: studies of web search with common and rare queries. In: Proceedings of the 30th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2007. pp. 847-848. Available online

A large fraction of queries submitted to Web search engines occur very infrequently. We describe search log studies aimed at elucidating behaviors associated with rare and common queries. We present several analyses and discuss research directions.

© All rights reserved Downey et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Morris, Meredith Ringel and Horvitz, Eric (2007): SearchTogether: an interface for collaborative web search. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 3-12. Available online

Studies of search habits reveal that people engage in many search tasks involving collaboration with others, such as travel planning, organizing social events, or working on a homework assignment. However, current Web search tools are designed for a single user, working alone. We introduce SearchTogether, a prototype that enables groups of remote users to synchronously or asynchronously collaborate when searching the Web. We describe an example usage scenario, and discuss the ways SearchTogether facilitates collaboration by supporting awareness, division of labor, and persistence. We then discuss the findings of our evaluation of SearchTogether, analyzing which aspects of its design enabled successful collaboration among study participants.

© All rights reserved Morris and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Horvitz, Eric, Koch, Paul and Subramani, Muru (2007): Mobile Opportunistic Planning: Methods and Models. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F. and Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 228-237. Available online

 
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Iqbal, Shamsi T. and Horvitz, Eric (2007): Conversations Amidst Computing: A Study of Interruptions and Recovery of Task Activity. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F. and Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 350-354. Available online

 
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Kapoor, Ashish and Horvitz, Eric (2007): Principles of Lifelong Learning for Predictive User Modeling. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F. and Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 37-46. Available online

 
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Krumm, John and Horvitz, Eric (2007): Driver Destination Models. In: Conati, Cristina, McCoy, Kathleen F. and Paliouras, Georgios (eds.) User Modeling 2007 - 11th International Conference - UM 2007 June 25-29, 2007, Corfu, Greece. pp. 360-364. Available online

 
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Krumm, John and Horvitz, Eric (2007): Predestination: Where Do You Want to Go Today?. In IEEE Computer, 40 (4) pp. 105-107. Available online

 
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Morris, Meredith Ringel and Horvitz, Eric (2007): S3: Storable, Shareable Search. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 120-123. Available online

2006
 
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Krumm, John and Horvitz, Eric (2006): Predestination: Inferring Destinations from Partial Trajectories. In: Dourish, Paul and Friday, Adrian (eds.) UbiComp 2006 Ubiquitous Computing - 8th International Conference September 17-21, 2006, Orange County, CA, USA. pp. 243-260. Available online

2005
 
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Teevan, Jaime, Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2005): Personalizing search via automated analysis of interests and activities. In: Proceedings of the 28th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2005. pp. 449-456. Available online

We formulate and study search algorithms that consider a user's prior interactions with a wide variety of content to personalize that user's current Web search. Rather than relying on the unrealistic assumption that people will precisely specify their intent when searching, we pursue techniques that leverage implicit information about the user's interests. This information is used to re-rank Web search results within a relevance feedback framework. We explore rich models of user interests, built from both search-related information, such as previously issued queries and previously visited Web pages, and other information about the user such as documents and email the user has read and created. Our research suggests that rich representations of the user and the corpus are important for personalization, but that it is possible to approximate these representations and provide efficient client-side algorithms for personalizing search. We show that such personalization algorithms can significantly improve on current Web search.

© All rights reserved Teevan et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Olson, Judith S., Grudin, Jonathan and Horvitz, Eric (2005): A study of preferences for sharing and privacy. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1985-1988. Available online

We describe studies of preferences about information sharing aimed at identifying fundamental concerns with privacy and at understanding how people might abstract the details of sharing into higher-level classes of recipients and information that are treated similarly. Thirty people specified what information they are willing to share with whom.. Although people vary in their overall level of comfort in sharing, we identified key classes of recipients and information. Such abstractions highlight the promise of developing expressive controls for sharing and privacy.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Horvitz, Eric, Apacible, Johnson and Subramani, Muru (2005): Balancing Awareness and Interruption: Investigation of Notification Deferral Policies. In: Ardissono, Liliana, Brna, Paul and Mitrovic, Antonija (eds.) User Modeling 2005 - 10th International Conference - UM 2005 July 24-29, 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 433-437. Available online

 
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Horvitz, Eric, Koch, Paul, Sarin, Raman, Apacible, Johnson and Subramani, Muru (2005): Bayesphone: Precomputation of Context-Sensitive Policies for Inquiry and Action in Mobile Devices. In: Ardissono, Liliana, Brna, Paul and Mitrovic, Antonija (eds.) User Modeling 2005 - 10th International Conference - UM 2005 July 24-29, 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 251-260. Available online

 
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Oliver, Nuria and Horvitz, Eric (2005): A Comparison of HMMs and Dynamic Bayesian Networks for Recognizing Office Activities. In: Ardissono, Liliana, Brna, Paul and Mitrovic, Antonija (eds.) User Modeling 2005 - 10th International Conference - UM 2005 July 24-29, 2005, Edinburgh, Scotland, UK. pp. 199-209. Available online

 
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Shen, Xuehua, Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2005): Analysis of topic dynamics in web search. In: Proceedings of the 2005 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2005. pp. 1102-1103. Available online

We report on a study of topic dynamics for pages visited by a sample of people using MSN Search. We examine the predictive accuracies of probabilistic models of topic transitions for individuals and groups of users. We explore temporal dynamics by comparing the accuracy of the models for predicting topic transitions at increasingly distant times in the future. Finally, we discuss directions for applying models of search topic dynamics.

© All rights reserved Shen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hariharan, Ramaswamy, Krumm, John and Horvitz, Eric (2005): Web-Enhanced GPS. In: Strang, Thomas and Linnhoff-Popien, Claudia (eds.) Location- and Context-Awareness - First International Workshop - LoCA 2005 May 12-13, 2005, Oberpfaffenhofen, Germany. pp. 95-104. Available online

 
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Hinckley, Ken, Pierce, Jeffrey S., Horvitz, Eric and Sinclair, Mike (2005): Foreground and background interaction with sensor-enhanced mobile devices. In ACM Trans. Comput.-Hum. Interact., 12 (1) pp. 31-52. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
2004
 
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Czerwinski, Mary, Horvitz, Eric and Wilhite, Susan (2004): A diary study of task switching and interruptions. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 175-182. Available online

We report on a diary study of the activities of information workers aimed at characterizing how people interleave multiple tasks amidst interruptions. The week-long study revealed the type and complexity of activities performed, the nature of the interruptions experienced, and the difficulty of shifting among numerous tasks. We present key findings from the diary study and discuss implications of the findings. Finally, we describe promising directions in the design of software tools for task management, motivated by the findings.

© All rights reserved Czerwinski et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Horvitz, Eric, Koch, Paul and Apacible, Johnson (2004): BusyBody: creating and fielding personalized models of the cost of interruption. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 507-510. Available online

Interest has been growing in opportunities to build and deploy statistical models that can infer a computer user's current interruptability from computer activity and relevant contextual information. We describe a system that intermittently asks users to assess their perceived interruptability during a training phase and that builds decision-theoretic models with the ability to predict the cost of interrupting the user. The models are used at run-time to compute the expected cost of interruptions, providing a mediator for incoming notifications, based on a consideration of a user's current and recent history of computer activity, meeting status, location, time of day, and whether a conversation is detected.

© All rights reserved Horvitz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Robbins, Daniel C., Cutrell, Edward, Sarin, Raman and Horvitz, Eric (2004): ZoneZoom: map navigation for smartphones with recursive view segmentation. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 231-234. Available online

 
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Robertson, George G., Horvitz, Eric, Czerwinski, Mary, Baudisch, Patrick, Hutchings, Dugald Ralph, Meyers, Brian, Robbins, Daniel C. and Smith, Greg (2004): Scalable Fabric: flexible task management. In: Costabile, Maria Francesca (ed.) AVI 2004 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 25-28, 2004, Gallipoli, Italy. pp. 85-89. Available online

 
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Gabrilovich, Evgeniy, Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2004): Newsjunkie: providing personalized newsfeeds via analysis of information novelty. In: Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2004. pp. 482-490. Available online

We present a principled methodology for filtering news stories by formal measures of information novelty, and show how the techniques can be used to custom-tailor news feeds based on information that a user has already reviewed. We review methods for analyzing novelty and then describe Newsjunkie, a system that personalizes news for users by identifying the novelty of stories in the context of stories they have already reviewed. Newsjunkie employs novelty-analysis algorithms that represent articles as words and named entities. The algorithms analyze inter- and intra-document dynamics by considering how information evolves over time from article to article, as well as within individual articles. We review the results of a user study undertaken to gauge the value of the approach over legacy time-based review of newsfeeds, and also to compare the performance of alternate distance metrics that are used to estimate the dissimilarity between candidate new articles and sets of previously reviewed articles.

© All rights reserved Gabrilovich et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Ringel, Meredith, Cutrell, Edward, Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2003): Milestones in Time: The Value of Landmarks in Retrieving Information from Personal Stores. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 184.

 
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Horvitz, Eric and Apacible, Johnson (2003): Learning and reasoning about interruption. In: Oviatt, Sharon L., Darrell, Trevor, Maybury, Mark T. and Wahlster, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2003 November 5-7, 2003, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 20-27. Available online

 
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Oliver, Nuria and Horvitz, Eric (2003): Selective perception policies for guiding sensing and computation in multimodal systems: a comparative analysis. In: Oviatt, Sharon L., Darrell, Trevor, Maybury, Mark T. and Wahlster, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2003 November 5-7, 2003, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 36-43. Available online

 
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Krumm, John, Cermak, Gerry and Horvitz, Eric (2003): RightSPOT: A Novel Sense of Location for a Smart Personal Object. In: Dey, Anind K., Schmidt, Albrecht and McCarthy, Joseph F. (eds.) UbiComp 2003 Ubiquitous Computing - 5th International Conference October 12-15, 2003, Seattle, WA, USA. pp. 36-43. Available online

 
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Horvitz, Eric and Apacible, Johnson (2003): Learning and reasoning about interruption. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2003. pp. 20-27. Available online

We present methods for inferring the cost of interrupting users based on multiple streams of events including information generated by interactions with computing devices, visual and acoustical analyses, and data drawn from online calendars. Following a review of prior work on techniques for deliberating about the cost of interruption associated with notifications, we introduce methods for learning models from data that can be used to compute the expected cost of interruption for a user. We describe the Interruption Workbench, a set of event-capture and modeling tools. Finally, we review experiments that characterize the accuracy of the models for predicting interruption cost and discuss research directions.

© All rights reserved Horvitz and Apacible and/or their publisher

 
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Oliver, Nuria and Horvitz, Eric (2003): Selective perception policies for guiding sensing and computation in multimodal systems: a comparative analysis. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2003. pp. 36-43. Available online

Intensive computations required for sensing and processing perceptual information can impose significant burdens on personal computer systems. We explore several policies for selective perception in SEER, a multimodal system for recognizing office activity that relies on a layered Hidden Markov Model representation. We review our efforts to employ expected-value-of-information (EVI) computations to limit sensing and analysis in a context-sensitive manner. We discuss an implementation of a one-step myopic EVI analysis and compare the results of using the myopic EVI with a heuristic sensing policy that makes observations at different frequencies. Both policies are then compared to a random perception policy, where sensors are selected at random. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of ideal perceptual actions to preferences encoded in utility models about information value and the cost of sensing.

© All rights reserved Oliver and Horvitz and/or their publisher

2002
 
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Horvitz, Eric (2002): Uncertainty, intelligence, and interaction. In: Gil, Yolanda and Leake, David (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2002 January 13-16, 2002, San Francisco, California, USA. p. 3. Available online

Uncertainty about a user's knowledge, intentions, and attention is inescapable in human-computer interaction. I will survey challenges and opportunities of harnessing explicit representations of uncertainty and preferences in intelligent user interfaces. After reviewing representative projects at Microsoft, I will describe longer-term research directions aimed at embedding representation, inference, and learning under uncertainty more deeply into the fabric of computer systems and interfaces.

© All rights reserved Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Bennett, Paul N., Dumais, Susan and Horvitz, Eric (2002): Probabilistic combination of text classifiers using reliability indicators: models and results. In: Proceedings of the 25th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2002. pp. 207-214. Available online

The intuition that different text classifiers behave in qualitatively different ways has long motivated attempts to build a better metaclassifier via some combination of classifiers. We introduce a probabilistic method for combining classifiers that considers the context-sensitive reliabilities of contributing classifiers. The method harnesses reliability indicators -- variables that provide a valuable signal about the performance of classifiers in different situations. We provide background, present procedures for building metaclassifiers that take into consideration both reliability indicators and classifier outputs, and review a set of comparative studies undertaken to evaluate the methodology.

© All rights reserved Bennett et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric (2002): An Investigation of Memory for Daily Computing Events. In: Faulkner, Xristine, Finlay, Janet and Détienne, Françoise (eds.) Proceedings of the HCI02 Conference on People and Computers XVI September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 229-246.

 
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Oliver, Nuria, Horvitz, Eric and Garg, Ashutosh (2002): Layered Representations for Human Activity Recognition. In: 4th IEEE International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2002 14-16 October, 2002, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 3-8. Available online

 
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Anderson, Corin R. and Horvitz, Eric (2002): Web montage: a dynamic personalized start page. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2002. pp. 704-712. Available online

Despite the connotation of the words "browsing" and "surfing," web usage often follows routine patterns of access. However, few mechanisms exist to assist users with these routine tasks; bookmarks or portal sites must be maintained manually and are insensitive to the user's browsing context. To fill this void, we designed and implemented the montage system. A web montage is an ensemble of links and content fused into a single view. Such a coalesced view can be presented to the user whenever he or she opens the browser or returns to the start page. We pose a number of hypotheses about how users would interact with such a system, and test these hypotheses with a fielded user study. Our findings support some design decisions, such as using browsing context to tailor the montage, raise questions about others, and point the way toward future work.

© All rights reserved Anderson and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Oliver, Nuria, Horvitz, Eric and Garg, Ashutosh (2002): Layered Representations for Human Activity Recognition. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2002. p. 3. Available online

We present the use of layered probabilistic representations using Hidden Markov Models for performing sensing, learning, and inference at multiple levels of temporal granularity. We describe the use of the representation in a system that diagnoses states of a user's activity based on real-time streams of evidence from video, acoustic, and computer interactions. We review the representation, present an implementation, and report on experiments with the layered representation in an office-awareness application.

© All rights reserved Oliver et al. and/or their publisher

2001
 
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Hinckley, Ken and Horvitz, Eric (2001): Toward more sensitive mobile phones. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 191-192. Available online

Although cell phones are extremely useful, they can be annoying and distracting to owners and others nearby. We describe sensing techniques intended to help make mobile phones more polite and less distracting. For example, our phone's ringing quiets as soon as the user responds to an incoming call, and the ring mutes if the user glances at the caller ID and decides not to answer. We also eliminate the need to press a TALK button to answer an incoming call by recognizing if the user picks up the phone and listens to it.

© All rights reserved Hinckley and Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Cutrell, Edward, Czerwinski, Mary and Horvitz, Eric (2001): Notification, Disruption, and Memory: Effects of Messaging Interruptions on Memory and Performance. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 263-269.

 
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Horvitz, Eric and Paek, Tim (2001): Harnessing Models of Users' Goals to Mediate Clarification Dialog in Spoken Language Systems. In: Bauer, Mathias, Gmytrasiewicz, Piotr J. and Vassileva, Julita (eds.) User Modeling 2001 - 8th International Conference - UM 2001 July 13-17, 2001, Sonthofen, Germany. pp. 3-13. Available online

2000
 
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Hinckley, Ken, Pierce, Jeff, Sinclair, Mike and Horvitz, Eric (2000): Sensing Techniques for Mobile Interaction. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 91-100. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
1999
 
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Horvitz, Eric (1999): Principles of Mixed-Initiative User Interfaces. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 159-166. Available online

Recent debate has centered on the relative promise of focusing user-interface research on developing new metaphors and tools that enhance users' abilities to directly manipulate objects versus directing effort toward developing interface agents that provide automation. In this paper, we review principles that show promise for allowing engineers to enhance human-computer interaction through an elegant coupling of automated services with direct manipulation. Key ideas will be highlighted in terms of the LookOut system for scheduling and meeting management.

© All rights reserved Horvitz and/or ACM Press

 
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Shavlik, Jude, Birnbaum, Lawrence, Swartout, William, Horvitz, Eric and Hayes-Roth, Barbara (1999): Bridging Science and Applications. In: Maybury, Mark T. (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1999 January 5-8, 1999, Redondo Beach, California, USA. pp. 45-46. Available online

The members of this panel will discuss their experiences and lessons learned transferring research on intelligent user interfaces to the "marketplace." They will also discuss the influence applications-oriented work should have on defining basic research issues. Panelists are from leading industrial and academic institutions. They will address questions such as the following: 1. Which basic research issues in intelligent user interfaces are most relevant to their work? 2. Which intelligent-interfaces technique proved most useful in their projects? 3. Which intelligent-interfaces technique least met what was expected of it when their projects began? 4. What "major breakthrough" in intelligent-interfaces research would have the largest impact on their current and future projects? 5. Which basic research topic appears to be most over emphasized, in terms of its expected practical impact? 6. Which basic research topic appears to be most under emphasized, in terms of its expected practical impact? 7. How important is it that users are aware of the "true" level of intelligence of their interfaces? Did users expect too much or too little of the intelligent interfaces, especially compared to their expectations for traditional interfaces? 8. In hindsight, how should they have restructured their initial expectations about the role of automated intelligence in the development of advanced user interfaces?

© All rights reserved Shavlik et al. and/or ACM Press

1998
 
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Horvitz, Eric (1998): Continual Computation Policies for Utility-Directed Prefetching. In: Gardarin, Georges, French, James C. and Pissinou, Niki (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM CIKM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management November 3-7, 1998, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. pp. 175-184. Available online

1997
 
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Marks, Joe, Birnbaum, Larry, Horvitz, Eric, Kurlander, David, Lieberman, Henry and Roth, Steve (1997): Compelling Intelligent User Interfaces: How Much AI?. In: Moore, Johanna D., Edmonds, Ernest and Puerta, Angel R. (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1997 January 6-9, 1997, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 173-175. Available online

Efforts to incorporate intelligence into the user interface have been underway for decades, but the commercial impact of this work has not lived up to early expectations, and is not immediately apparent. This situation appears to be changing. However, so far the most interesting intelligent user interfaces (IUIs) have tended to use minimal or simplistic AI. In this panel we consider whether more or less AI is the key to the development of compelling IUIs. The panelists will present examples of compelling IUIs that use a selection of AI techniques, mostly simple, but some complex. Each panelist will then comment on the merits of different kinds and quantities of AI in the development of pragmatic interface technology.

© All rights reserved Marks et al. and/or ACM Press

1995
 
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Burnell, Lisa J. and Horvitz, Eric (1995): Structure and Chance: Melding Logic and Probability for Software Debugging. In Communications of the ACM, 38 (3) pp. 31-41,57.

 
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