Publication statistics

Pub. period:1992-2012
Pub. count:71
Number of co-authors:95



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

W. Keith Edwards:14
Lena Mamykina:6
Michael A. Terry:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Elizabeth D. Mynatt's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Gregory D. Abowd:116
Scott E. Hudson:113
Takeo Igarashi:66
 
 
 

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Elizabeth D. Mynatt

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Has also published under the name of:
"E. D. Mynatt" and "Elizabeth Mynatt"

Personal Homepage:
digitallounge.gatech.edu/faculty/index.html?id=16


Elizabeth Diane "Beth" Mynatt (born July 12, 1966) is Director of the GVU Center at Georgia Tech; Associate Dean of Strategic Planning, College of Computing; and Professor, School of Interactive Computing, College of Computing at Georgia Tech. She was also the General Chair for the Association of Computer Machinery's Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (CHI 2010) Conference. She is best known for her research in the fields of human-computer interaction, ubiquitous computing, health informatics, and assistive technology. She pioneered creating nonspeech auditory interfaces from graphical interfaces to enable blind computer users to work with modern computer applications. From 2001-2005, she was selected to be the Associate Director of the GVU Center and in 2005 she was appointed Director. Her current research explores the implications and opportunities stemming from the pervasive presence of computation in the informal activities of everyday life.

 

Publications by Elizabeth D. Mynatt (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Eiriksdottir, Elsa, Kestranek, Dan, Catrambone, Richard, Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Miller, Andrew D., Xu, Yan and Poole, Erika Shehan (2012): This is not a one-horse race: understanding player types in multiplayer pervasive health games for youth. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 843-852. Available online

Technology-based interventions for promoting health behavior-change frequently leverage multiplayer game mechanics such as group-based competitions. However, health interventions successful for groups writ large may not always translate to successful behavior change at the individual level. In this paper, we explore the tension between group and individual success, based on an empirical study on a long-term real-world deployment of a pervasive health game for youth. We report five distinctive player types along the dimensions of motivation, behavior, and influence on others. Based on the findings, we provide design suggestions to help game designers integrate group-based mechanisms that maximize intervention effectiveness.

© All rights reserved Eiriksdottir et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Mamykina, Lena, Miller, Andrew D., Grevet, Catherine, Medynskiy, Yevgeniy, Terry, Michael A., Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Davidson, Patricia R. (2011): Examining the impact of collaborative tagging on sensemaking in nutrition management. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 657-666. Available online

Collaborative tagging mechanisms are integral to social computing applications in a variety of domains. Their expected benefits include simplified retrieval of digital content, as well as enhanced ability of a community to makes sense of the shared content. We examine the impact of collaborative tagging in context of nutrition management. In a controlled experiment we asked individuals to assess the nutritional value of meals based on photographic images and observed the impact of different types of tags and tagging mechanisms on individuals nutritional sensemaking. The results of the study show that tags enhance individuals' ability to remember the viewed meals. However, we found that some types of tags can be detrimental to sensemaking, rather than supporting it. These findings stress the importance of tagging vocabularies and suggest a need for expert moderation of community sensemaking.

© All rights reserved Mamykina et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Poole, Erika Shehan, Miller, Andrew D., Xu, Yan, Eiriksdottir, Elsa, Catrambone, Richard and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2011): The place for ubiquitous computing in schools: lessons learned from a school-based intervention for youth physical activity. In: Proceedings of the 2011 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2011. pp. 395-404. Available online

With rising concerns about obesity and sedentary lifestyles in youth, there has been an increasing interest in understanding how pervasive and ubiquitous computing technologies can catalyze positive health behaviors in children and teens. School-based interventions seem like a natural choice, and ubiquitous computing technologies hold much promise for these interventions. Yet the literature contains little guidance for how to approach school-based ubicomp deployments. Grounded in our analysis of a large-scale US school-based intervention for promoting youth physical activity, we present an approach to the design and evaluation of school-based ubicomp that treats the school as a social institution. We show how the school regulates students' daily lives, drawing from work in the sociology of schools to create a framing for planning, executing and analyzing school-based ubicomp deployments. These insights will assist other researchers and designers engaging in deployments of ubiquitous computing systems in settings with established institutional structures.

© All rights reserved Poole et al. and/or ACM Press

2010
 
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Stoll, Jennifer, Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2010): Informal interactions in nonprofit networks. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 533-536. Available online

Nonprofit organizations often need to excel in coordinating with other organizations and must do so in a variety of contexts and levels from the informal to the formal. Their ability to accomplish their mission can critically depend on their efficacy in managing dependencies on others for tasks, accessing needed resources, raising their profile in the community, and achieving their goals. Although much research has been done to understand systems for supporting formal coordination between organizations, there is a gap in understanding how informal coordination can be supported by systems. As a first step towards addressing this gap, we conducted a field study of a network of nonprofit organizations, focusing specifically on informal interactions among them. Based on this study, we characterize informal coordination between organizations and the context for such interactions. Our findings point to a need to further explore a class of interorganizational interactions that may not be adequately explored or understood by our research community.

© All rights reserved Stoll et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Mamykina, Lena, Miller, Andrew D., Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Greenblatt, Daniel (2010): Constructing identities through storytelling in diabetes management. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1203-1212. Available online

The continuing epidemics of diabetes and obesity create much need for information technologies that can help individuals engage in proactive health management. Yet many of these technologies focus on such pragmatic issues as collecting and presenting health information and modifying individuals' behavior. At the same time, researchers in clinical community argue that individuals' perception of their identity has dramatic consequences for their health behaviors. In this paper we discuss results of a deployment study of a mobile health monitoring application. We show how individuals with considerable diabetes experience found a unique way to adopt this health-monitoring application to construct and negotiate their identities as persons with a chronic disease. We argue that viewing health management from identity construction perspective opens new opportunities for research and design in technologies for health.

© All rights reserved Mamykina et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Stoll, Jennifer, Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2010): Interorganizational coordination and awareness in a nonprofit ecosystem. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 51-60. Available online

Nonprofit organizations working with high-risk vulnerable populations such as human trafficking victims often need to engage in a significant level of interorganizational collaboration. Given the importance for nonprofits to be able to work with many different organizations, and given the importance of awareness in initiating and facilitating such collaborations, we conducted a field study to explore existing practices around coordination and awareness across a specific ecosystem of nonprofit organizations. In this paper, we provide an in-depth reflection on interorganizational issues among a cross-section of nonprofits. We identify four aspects of the interorganizational context in which these nonprofits must operate, as well as challenges they may encounter. Our goal is to illuminate first steps towards finding appropriate technological solutions for supporting coordination and awareness between these organizations so they can be more effective in accomplishing their mission.

© All rights reserved Stoll et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Voida, Stephen and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2009): It feels better than filing: everyday work experiences in an activity-based computing system. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 259-268. Available online

Activity-based computing represents an alternative to the dominant application- and document-centric model at the foundation of most mainstream desktop computing interfaces. In this paper, we present in-depth results from an in situ, longitudinal study of an activity-based computing system, Giornata. We detail the ways that the specific features of this system influenced the everyday work experiences of a small cohort of knowledge workers. Our analysis provides contributions at several levels of granularity-we provide concrete design recommendations based on participants' reactions to the particular features of the Giornata system and a discussion about how our findings can provide insight about the broader understanding of knowledge work and activity within HCI.

© All rights reserved Voida and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
 
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Goecks, Jeremy, Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2009): Challenges in supporting end-user privacy and security management with social navigation. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2009. p. 5. Available online

Social navigation is a promising approach for supporting privacy and security management. By aggregating and presenting the choices made by others, social navigation systems can provide users with easily understandable guidance on security and privacy decisions, rather than requiring that they understand low-level technical details in order to make informed decisions. We have developed two prototype systems to explore how social navigation can help users manage their privacy and security. The Acumen system employs social navigation to address a common privacy activity, managing Internet cookies, and the Bonfire system uses social navigation to help users manage their personal firewall. Our experiences with Acumen and Bonfire suggest that, despite the promise of social navigation, there are significant challenges in applying these techniques to the domains of end-user privacy and security management. Due to features of these domains, individuals may misuse community data when making decisions, leading to incorrect individual decisions, inaccurate community data, and "herding" behavior that is an example of what economists term an informational cascade. By understanding this phenomenon in these terms, we develop and present two general approaches for mitigating herding in social navigation systems that support end-user security and privacy management, mitigation via algorithms and mitigation via user interaction. Mitigation via user interaction is a novel and promising approach to mitigating cascades in social navigation systems.

© All rights reserved Goecks et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mamykina, Lena and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2009): Approaches to Facilitating Analysis of Health and Wellness Data. In IJAPUC, 1 (2) pp. 29-48. Available online

2008
 
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Mamykina, Lena, Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Davidson, Patricia and Greenblatt, Daniel (2008): MAHI: investigation of social scaffolding for reflective thinking in diabetes management. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 477-486. Available online

In the recent years, the number of individuals engaged in self-care of chronic diseases has grown exponentially. Advances in computing technologies help individuals with chronic diseases collect unprecedented volumes of health-related data. However, engaging in reflective analysis of the collected data may be challenging for the untrained individuals. We present MAHI, a health monitoring application that assists newly diagnosed individuals with diabetes in acquiring and developing reflective thinking skills through social interaction with diabetes educators. The deployment study with twenty five newly diagnosed individuals with diabetes demonstrated that MAHI significantly contributed to individuals' achievement of their diabetes management goals (changing diet). More importantly, MAHI inspired individuals to adopt Internal Locus of Control, which often leads to persistent engagement in self-care and positive health outcomes.

© All rights reserved Mamykina et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kientz, Julie, Patel, Shwetak N., Jones, Brian, Price, Ed, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Abowd, Gregory D. (2008): The Georgia Tech aware home. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3675-3680. Available online

The Aware Home Research Initiative (AHRI) at Georgia Tech is devoted to the multidisciplinary exploration of emerging technologies and services based in the home. Starting in 1998, our collection of faculty and students has created a unique research facility that allows us to simulate and evaluate user experiences with off-the-shelf and state-of-the-art technologies. With specific expertise in health, education, entertainment and usable security, we are able to apply our research to problems of significant social and economic impact.

© All rights reserved Kientz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Goecks, Jeremy, Voida, Amy, Voida, Stephen and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2008): Charitable technologies: opportunities for collaborative computing in nonprofit fundraising. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 689-698. Available online

This paper presents research analyzing the role of computational technology in the domain of nonprofit fundraising. Nonprofits are a cornerstone of many societies and are especially prominent in the United States, where $295 billion, or slightly more than 2% of the U.S. Gross Domestic Product (i.e. total national revenue), was directed toward charitable causes in 2006. Nonprofits afford many worthwhile endeavors, including crisis relief, basic services to those in need, public education and the arts, and preservation of the natural environment. In this paper, we identify six roles that computational technology plays in support of nonprofit fundraising and present two models characterizing technology use in this domain: (1) a cycle of technology-assisted fundraising and (2) a model of relationships among stakeholders in technology-assisted fundraising. Finally, we identify challenges and research opportunities for collaborative computing in the unique and exciting nonprofit fundraising domain.

© All rights reserved Goecks et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Voida, Stephen, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Edwards, W. Keith (2008): Re-framing the desktop interface around the activities of knowledge work. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 211-220. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
 
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Hayes, Gillian R., Abowd, Gregory D., Davis, John S., Blount, Marion, Ebling, Maria and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2008): Opportunities for Pervasive Computing in Chronic Cancer Care. In: Indulska, Jadwiga, Patterson, Donald J., Rodden, Tom and Ott, Max (eds.) Pervasive 2008 - Pervasive Computing, 6th International Conference May 19-22, 2008, Sydney, Australia. pp. 262-279. Available online

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2008): Unlocking Human Potential through Technical Innovation. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 28 (2) pp. 100-104. Available online

2007
 
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Huang, Elaine M., Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Trimble, Jay P. (2007): When design just isn't enough: the unanticipated challenges of the real world for large collaborative displays. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 11 (7) pp. 537-547. Available online

 
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Tran, Quan T., Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Calcaterra, Gina (2007): Using Memory Aid to Build Memory Independence. In: Jacko, Julie A. (ed.) HCI International 2007 - 12th International Conference - Part I July 22-27, 2007, Beijing, China. pp. 959-965. Available online

 
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Tullio, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2007): Use and Implications of a Shared, Forecasting Calendar. In: Baranauskas, Maria Ceclia Calani, Palanque, Philippe A., Abascal, Julio and Barbosa, Simone Diniz Junqueira (eds.) DEGAS 2007 - Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Design and Evaluation of e-Government Applications and Services September 11th, 2007, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. pp. 269-282. Available online

2006
 
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Mamykina, Lena, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Kaufman, David R. (2006): Investigating health management practices of individuals with diabetes. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 927-936. Available online

Chronic diseases, endemic in the rapidly aging population, are stretching the capacity of healthcare resources. Increasingly, individuals need to adopt proactive health attitudes and contribute to the management of their own health. We investigate existing diabetes self-management practices and ways in which reflection on prior actions impacts future lifestyle choices. The findings suggest that individuals generate and evaluate hypotheses regarding health implications of their actions. Thus, health-monitoring applications can assist individuals in making educated choices by facilitating discovery of correlations between their past actions and health states. Deployment of an early prototype of a health-monitoring application demonstrated the need for careful presentation techniques to promote more robust understanding and to avoid reinforcement of biases.

© All rights reserved Mamykina et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Voida, Amy and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2006): Challenges in the analysis of multimodal messaging. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 427-430. Available online

New forms of computer-mediated communication are increasingly multimodal, providing capabilities for communicating with some combination of text, image, audio, and video. In this paper, we point to the need to develop better methods for studying multimodal communication -- more specifically, for studying the communicative role of and relationships among differentnmodalities within their increasingly complex, multimodal semiotic landscapes. We present two challenges in the analysis of multimodal communication, point of view and unit of analysis, both encountered in the context of our study of the use of photo-enhanced instant messaging.

© All rights reserved Voida and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2006): From mainframes to picture frames: charting the rapid evolution of visual interfaces. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. p. 15. Available online

 
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Huang, Elaine M., Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Trimble, Jay P. (2006): Displays in the Wild: Understanding the Dynamics and Evolution of a Display Ecology. In: Fishkin, Kenneth P., Schiele, Bernt, Nixon, Paddy and Quigley, Aaron J. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2006 - Pervasive Computing 4th International Conference May 7-10, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 321-336. Available online

 
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Huang, Elaine M., Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Russell, Daniel M. and Sue, Alison E. (2006): Secrets to Success and Fatal Flaws: The Design of Large-Display Groupware. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 26 (1) pp. 37-45. Available online

2005
 
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Voida, Amy and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2005): Six themes of the communicative appropriation of photographic images. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 171-180. Available online

In this paper, we explore the use of digital photographs in computer-mediated communication. We present Lascaux, an instant messaging client that serves as a research platform for studying visual communication with digital photographs. Through a combined analysis of the uses of images in Lascaux as well as the uses of images in other communicative contexts, we arrived at six themes of appropriation: the image as amplification, the image as narrative, the image as awareness, the image as local expression, the image as invitation, and the image as object/instrument. For each theme, we explore the ways in which a medium may be designed to support that class of appropriation. Finally, we reflect on the relationship between literacy, mastery, and appropriation.

© All rights reserved Voida and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Rowan, Jim and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2005): Digital Family Portrait Field Trial: Support for Aging in Place. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 521-530. Available online

As the use of mobile data services has spread across the globe, the effect of cultural differences on user requirements has become important issue. To date, however, little research has been conducted on the role cultural factors play in the design of mobile data services. This paper proposes a set of critical design attributes for mobile data services that takes cross-cultural differences into account. To determine these attributes, we devised a qualitative method and conducted in-depth long interviews in Korea, Japan, and Finland. We found 52 attributes considered important by mobile data service users, and 11 critical attributes that showed a clear correlation with characteristics of the user's culture. The paper concludes with a discussion of limitations and of implications for developers of mobile data services.

© All rights reserved Rowan and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Voida, Amy and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2005): Conveying user values between families and designers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2013-2016. Available online

Current research in domestic technology focuses on a subset of the breadth of values that may be present in the domestic environment. In this paper, we present one possible method for conveying a larger potential breadth of user values between families and designers. We describe the ways that we tailored cultural probes specifically for values elicitation as well as the results of both families' and designers' interactions with the probes. We also draw from the social psychology research of Milton Rokeach, whose framework for values was used to scaffold designers in foregrounding user values in domestic design.

© All rights reserved Voida and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

2004
 
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Terry, Michael A., Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Nakakoji, Kumiyo and Yamamoto, Yasuhiro (2004): Variation in element and action: supporting simultaneous development of alternative solutions. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 711-718. Available online

The complexity of many problems necessitates creating and exploring multiple, alternative solutions. However, current user interfaces do not cleanly support creating alternatives at a time when they are likely to be discovered: as users interactively modify data. This paper presents Parallel Paths, a novel model of interaction that facilitates generating, manipulating, and comparing alternative solutions. In contrast to existing approaches such as automated history capture tools, Parallel Paths emphasizes the active, simultaneous development of multiple, alternative solutions. We demonstrate this model of interaction in Parallel Pies, a user interface mechanism developed for image manipulation tasks that allows users to: easily create solution alternatives as they interact with a command; embed the alternatives in the same workspace; manipulate the alternatives independently or simultaneously as if they were the same object; and perform side-by-side comparisons of each. Results from an initial evaluation are presented, along with implications for future designs.

© All rights reserved Terry et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Paradise, Jessica, Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Williams, Cliff and Goldthwaite, John (2004): Designing a cognitive aid for the home: a case-study approach. In: Sixth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2004. pp. 140-146. Available online

Cognitive impairments play a large role in the lives of surviviors of mild traumatic brain injuries who are unable to return to their prior level of independence in their homes. Computational support has the potential to enable these individuals to regain control over some aspects of their lives. Our research aims to carefully seek out issues that might be appropriate for computational support and to build enabling technologies that increase individuals' functional independence in the home environment. Using a case-study approach, we explored the needs and informed the design of a pacing aid for an individual with a cognitive impairment whose quality of life was negatively affected by her inability to pace herself during her morning routine. The contributions of this research include insights we gained with our methodology, two sets of design dimensions: user-centered contraints developed from capabilities and preferences of our users and system-centered capabilities that could be explored in potential designs, a design concept which illustrates the application of these design dimensions into a potential pacing aid, and evaluations of paper prototypes guided by the design dimensions.

© All rights reserved Paradise et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Goecks, Jeremy and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2004): Leveraging social networks for information sharing. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 328-331. Available online

Saori is a computation infrastructure that enables users and end-user applications to leverage social networks to mediate information dissemination. Saori provides users with awareness of and control over the information dissemination process within social networks; Saori enables users to employ both technological and social methods to manage information sharing. Saori users can create policies that mediate sharing by exploiting social network structures. Saori also provides social data to users; this data encourages users to be accountable for how they share information. We integrated Saori into a Wiki Wiki Web to demonstrate a concrete use of the infrastructure.

© All rights reserved Goecks and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Davies, Nigel, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Siio, Itiro (eds.) UbiComp 2004 Ubiquitous Computing 6th International Conference September 7-10, 2004, Nottingham, UK.

2003
 
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Huang, Elaine M. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2003): Semi-public displays for small, co-located groups. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 49-56.

 
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Siio, Itiro, Rowan, Jim, Mima, Noyuri and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2003): Digital Decor: Augmented Everyday Things. In: Graphics Interface 2003 June 11-13, 2003, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada. pp. 159-166.

 
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Ruddarraju, Ravikrishna, Haro, Antonio, Nagel, Kris, Tran, Quan T., Essa, Irfan A., Abowd, Gregory D. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2003): Perceptual user interfaces using vision-based eye tracking. In: Oviatt, Sharon L., Darrell, Trevor, Maybury, Mark T. and Wahlster, Wolfgang (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2003 November 5-7, 2003, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 227-233. Available online

 
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Ruddarraju, Ravikrishna, Haro, Antonio, Nagel, Kris, Tran, Quan T., Essa, Irfan A., Abowd, Gregory and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2003): Perceptual user interfaces using vision-based eye tracking. In: Proceedings of the 2003 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2003. pp. 227-233. Available online

We present a multi-camera vision-based eye tracking method to robustly locate and track user's eyes as they interact with an application. We propose enhancements to various vision-based eye-tracking approaches, which include (a) the use of multiple cameras to estimate head pose and increase coverage of the sensors and (b) the use of probabilistic measures incorporating Fisher's linear discriminant to robustly track the eyes under varying lighting conditions in real-time. We present experiments and quantitative results to demonstrate the robustness of our eye tracking in two application prototypes.

© All rights reserved Ruddarraju et al. and/or their publisher

2002
 
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Voida, Amy, Newstetter, Wendy C. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2002): When conventions collide: the tensions of instant messaging attributed. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 187-194.

 
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Tullio, Joe, Goecks, Jeremy, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Nguyen, David H. (2002): Augmenting shared personal calendars. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 11-20. Available online

In this paper, we describe Augur, a groupware calendar system to support personal calendaring practices, informal workplace communication, and the socio-technical evolution of the calendar system within a workgroup. Successful design and deployment of groupware calendar systems have been shown to depend on several converging, interacting perspectives. We describe calendar-based work practices as viewed from these perspectives, and present the Augur system in support of them. Augur allows users to retain the flexibility of personal calendars by anticipating and compensating for inaccurate calendar entries and idiosyncratic event names. We employ predictive user models of event attendance, intelligent processing of calendar text, and discovery of shared events to drive novel calendar visualizations that facilitate interpersonal communication. In addition, we visualize calendar access to support privacy management and long-term evolution of the calendar system.

© All rights reserved Tullio et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Terry, Michael A. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2002): Side views: persistent, on-demand previews for open-ended tasks. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 71-80. Available online

We introduce Side Views, a user interface mechanism that provides on-demand, persistent, and dynamic previews of commands. Side Views are designed to explicitly support the practices and needs of expert users engaged in openended tasks. In this paper, we summarize results from field studies of expert users that motivated this work, then discuss the design of Side Views in detail. We show how Side Views' design affords their use as tools for clarifying, comparing, and contrasting commands; generating alternative visualizations; experimenting without modifying the original data (i.e., "what-if" tools); and as tools that support the serendipitous discovery of viable alternatives. We then convey lessons learned from implementing Side Views in two sample applications, a rich text editor and an image manipulation application. These contributions include a discussion of how to implement Side Views for commands with parameters, for commands that require direct user input (such as mouse strokes for a paint program), and for computationally-intensive commands.

© All rights reserved Terry and and/or ACM Press

 
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Terry, Michael and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2002): Recognizing creative needs in user interface design. In: Proceedings of the 2002 Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2002. pp. 38-44. Available online

The creative process requires experimentation, the exploration of variations, and the continual evaluation of one's progress. While these processes are frequently non-linear and iterative, modern user interfaces do not explicitly support these practices, and instead impose a linear progression through tasks that is a poor fit for creative pursuits. In this paper we use data from three case studies, and draw upon Schon's theory of reflection-in-action to illustrate specific deficiencies in current user interfaces when used in creative endeavors. We then develop a set of guidelines for user interface design and demonstrate their application in three designs intended to support tasks in the domain of image manipulation.

© All rights reserved Terry and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Huang, Elaine M., Terry, Michael A., Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Lyons, Kent and Chen, Alan (2002): Distributing Event Information by Simulating Word-of-Mouth Exchanges. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) Mobile Human-Computer Interaction - 4th International Symposium - Mobile HCI 2002 September 18-20, 2002, Pisa, Italy. pp. 60-68. Available online

 
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Terry, Michael A. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2002): Supporting experimentation with Side-Views. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (10) pp. 106-108. Available online

2001
 
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Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida.

 
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Mamykina, Lena, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Terry, Michael A. (2001): Time Aura: Interfaces for Pacing. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 144-151. Available online

Historically one of the visions for human-computer symbiosis has been to augment human intelligence and extend people's cognitive abilities. In this paper, we present two visually-based systems to enhance a person's ability to flexibly control their pace while engaged in a cognitively demanding activity. In these investigations, we explore pacing interfaces that minimize the cognitive demands for assessing a current pace, provide ambient cues that can be quickly interpreted without incurring significant interruption from the current task, and place knowledge in the world to flexibly support different pacing strategies. Evaluation of our pacing interfaces shows that technology can successfully support pacing.

© All rights reserved Mamykina et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Rowan, Jim, Craighill, Sarah and Jacobs, Annie (2001): Digital Family Portraits: Supporting Peace of Mind for Extended Family Members. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2001 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 31 - April 5, 2001, Seattle, Washington, USA. pp. 333-340. Available online

A growing social problem in the U.S., and elsewhere, is supporting older adults who want to continue living independently, as opposed to moving to an institutional care setting. One key part of this complex problem is providing awareness of senior adults day-to-day activities, promoting peace of mind for extended family members. In this paper, we introduce the concept of a digital family portrait that provides qualitative visualizations of a family members daily life. Leveraging a familiar household object, the picture frame, our design populates the frame with iconic imagery summarizing 28 days. In a final implementation, the digital family portrait would gather information from sensors in the home.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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MacIntyre, Blair, Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Voida, Stephen, Hansen, Klaus Marius, Tullio, Joe and Corso, Gregory M. (2001): Support for multitasking and background awareness using interactive peripheral displays. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 41-50. Available online

In this paper, we describe Kimura, an augmented office environment to support common multitasking practices. Previous systems, such as Rooms, limit users by constraining the interaction to the desktop monitor. In Kimura, we leverage interactive projected peripheral displays to support the perusal, manipulation and awareness of background activities. Furthermore, each activity is represented by a montage comprised of images from current and past interaction on the desktop. These montages help remind the user of past actions, and serve as a springboard for ambient context-aware reminders and notifications.

© All rights reserved MacIntyre et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Tullio, Joe (2001): Inferring Calendar Event Attendance. In: International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2001 January 14-17, 2001, Sanata Fe, New Mexico, USA. pp. 121-128. Available online

The digital personal calendar has long been established as an effective tool for supporting workgroup coordination. For the new class of ubiquitous computing applications, however, the calendar can also be seen as a sensor, providing both location and availability information to these applications. In most cases, however, the calendar represents a sequence of events that people could (or should) attend, not their actual daily activities. To assist in the accurate determination of user whereabouts and availability, we present Ambush, a calendar system extension that uses a Bayesian model to predict the likelihood of one's attendance at the events listed on his or her schedule. We also present several techniques for the visual display of these likelihoods in a manner intended to be quickly interpreted by users examining the calendar.

© All rights reserved Mynatt and and/or ACM Press

2000
 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Igarashi, Takeo, LaMarca, Anthony and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2000): A Temporal Model for Multi-Level Undo and Redo. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 31-40. Available online

 
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Abowd, Gregory D. and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2000): Charting Past, Present, and Future Research in Ubiquitous Computing. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 7 (1) pp. 29-58. Available online

The proliferation of computing into the physical world promises more than the ubiquitous availability of computing infrastructure; it suggest new paradigms of interaction inspired by constant access to information and computational capabilities. For the past decade, application-driven research on ubiquitous computing (ubicomp) has pushed three interaction themes: natural interfaces, context-aware applications, and automated capture and access. To chart a course for future research in ubiquitous computing, we review the accomplishments of these efforts and point to remaining research challenges. Research in ubiquitous computing implicitly requires addressing some notion of scale, whether in the number and type of devices, the physical space of distributed computing, or the number of people using a system. We posit a new area of applications research, everyday computing, focussed on scaling interaction with respect to time. Just as pushing the availability of computing away from the traditional desktop fundamentally changes the relationship between humans and computers, providing continuous interaction moves computing from a localized tool to a constant companion. Designing for continuous interaction requires addressing interruption and resumption of interaction, representing passages of time and providing associative storage models. Inherent in all of these interaction themes are difficult issues in the social implications of ubiquitous computing and the challenges of evaluating ubiquitous computing research. Although cumulative experience points to lessons in privacy, security, visibility, and control, there are no simple guidelines for steering research efforts. Akin to any efforts involving new technologies, evaluation strategies form a spectrum from technology feasibility efforts to long-term use studies -- but a user-centric perspective is always possible and necessary.

© All rights reserved Abowd and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Essa, Irfan and Rogers, Wendy (2000): Increasing the Opportunities for Aging in Place. In: Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Universal Usability 2000. pp. 65-71. Available online

A growing social problem in the U.S. and elsewhere is supporting older adults who want to continue living independently as opposed to moving to an institutional care setting. The "Aging in Place" project strives to delay taking that first step away from the family home. Through the careful placement of technological support we believe older adults can continue living in their own homes longer. The goal of our research is to take a three-pronged approach to understanding the potential of such environmental supports. The research team combines expertise in human-computer-interaction, computational perception, and cognitive aging. Together the team is assessing the feasibility of designing environments that aid older individuals in maintaining their independence. Based on our initial research, we are dividing this work into three parts: recognizing and adverting crisis, assisting daily routines, and supporting peace of mind for adult children.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Igarashi, Takeo, Edwards, W. Keith, LaMarca, Anthony and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2000): An Architecture for Pen-based Interaction on Electronic Whiteboards. In: Advanced Visual Interfaces 2000 2000. pp. 68-75.

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (2000): Co-opting everyday objects. In: Designing Augmented Reality Environments 2000 2000. pp. 145-146. Available online

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Igarashi, Takeo, Edwards, W. Keith and LaMarca, Anthony (2000): Designing an Augmented Writing Surface. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 20 (4) pp. 55-61. Available online

1999
 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Edwards, W. Keith, LaMarca, Anthony and Igarashi, Takeo (1999): Flatland: New Dimensions in Office Whiteboards. In: Altom, Mark W. and Williams, Marian G. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 99 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 15-20, 1999, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 346-353. Available online

Flatland is an augmented whiteboard interface designed for informal office work. Our research investigates approaches to building an augmented whiteboard in the context of continuous, long term office use. In particular, we pursued three avenues of research based on input from user studies: techniques for the management of space on the board, the ability to flexibly apply behaviors to support varied application semantics, and mechanisms for managing history on the board. Unlike some previously reported whiteboard systems, our design choices have been influenced by a desire to support long-term, informal use in an individual office setting.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Adler, Annette, Ito, Mizuko, Linde, Charlotte and O'Day, Vicky L. (1999): The network communities of SeniorNet. In: Boedker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark. p. 219.

1998
 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States.

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Back, Maribeth, Want, Roy, Baer, Michael and Ellis, Jason B. (1998): Designing Audio Aura. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 566-573. Available online

In this paper, we describe the process behind the design of Audio Aura. The goal of Audio Aura is to provide serendipitous information, via background auditory cues, that is tied to people's physical actions in the workplace. We used scenarios to explore issues in serendipitous information such as privacy and work practice. Our sound design was guided by a number of strategies for creating peripheral sounds grouped in cohesive ecologies. Faced with an physical and software infrastructure under development in a laboratory distant from our sound studio, we prototyped different sonic landscapes in VRML worlds. In our infrastructure design, we made a number of trade-offs in our use of legacy systems and our client-server design.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., O'Day, Vicky L., Adler, Annette and Ito, Mizuko (1998): Network Communities: Something Old, Something New, Something Borrowed.... In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 7 (1) pp. 123-156.

Collaboration has long been of considerable interest to both designers and researchers in the CHI and CSCW communities. This paper contributes to this discussion by proposing the concept of network communities as a new genre of collaboration for this discussion. Network communities are robust and persistent communities based on a sense of locality that spans both the virtual and physical worlds of their users. They are a technosocial construct that requires understanding of both the technology and the sociality embodying them. We consider several familiar systems as well as historical antecedents to describe the affordances these systems offer their community of users. Based on our own experience as designers, users and researchers of a variety of network communities, we extend this initial design space along three dimensions: the boundary negotiations between real and virtual worlds, support for social rhythms and the emergence and development of community. Finally we offer implications for designers, researchers and community members based on our findings.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Blattner, Douglas, Blattner, Meera M., MacIntyre, Blair and Mankoff, Jennifer (1998): Augmenting Home and Office Environments. In: Third Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 1998. pp. 169-172. Available online

In this panel, we describe different techniques and applications of augmenting home and office environments. One application of augmented environments is to provide additional information associated with the environment via visual and / or auditory cues. Other applications assist users in controlling aspects of their environment. Commercial opportunities in home automation allow people to more easily operate complex systems for temperature control, security, and maintenance. There are numerous research issues in designing augmented environments such as how multimodal input and output can be used effectively. Many of these systems need to assume some knowledge of the user's intent and context. How to capture and interpret information about users in these environments is an open question. We will describe these issues during this panel as well as discuss with the ASSETS community how these efforts can be applied to the realm of assistive technology.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Adler, Annette, Ito, Mizuko and O'Day, Vicky L. (1997): Design for Network Communities. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 210-217. Available online

Collaboration has long been of considerable interest in the CHI community. This paper proposes and explores the concept of network communities as a crucial part of this discussion. Network communities are a form of technology-mediated environment that foster a sense of community among users. We consider several familiar systems and describe the shared characteristics these systems have developed to deal with critical concerns of collaboration. Based on our own experience as designers and users of a variety of network communities, we extend this initial design space along three dimensions: the articulation of a persistent sense of location, the boundary tensions between real and virtual worlds, and the emergence and evolution of community.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (1997): Timewarp: Techniques for Autonomous Collaboration. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 218-225. Available online

This paper presents a set of techniques for supporting autonomous collaboration -- collaboration where participants work independently for periods, and then join together to integrate their efforts. This paper posits that autonomous collaboration can be well-supported by systems in which the notion of time is made both explicit and editable, so that the parallel but divergent states of a shared artifact are exposed in the interface. We have developed a system, called timewarp, that explores these ideas, and provides support for distribution, awareness, and conflict resolution in an application-independent fashion.

© All rights reserved Edwards and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Petersen, Karin, Spreitzer, Mike J., Terry, Douglas B. and Theimer, Marvin M. (1997): Designing and Implementing Asynchronous Collaborative Applications with Bayou. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 119-128. Available online

Asynchronous collaboration is characterized by the degree of independence collaborators have from one another. In particular, collaborators working asynchronously typically have little need for frequent and fine-grained coordination with one another, and typically do not need to be notified immediately of changes made by others to any shared artifacts they are working with. We present an infrastructure, called Bayou, designed to support the construction of asynchronous collaborative applications. Bayou provides a replicated, weakly-consistent, data storage engine to application writers. The system supports a number of mechanisms for leveraging application semantics; using these mechanisms, applications can implement complex conflict detection and resolution policies, and choose the level of consistency and stability they will see in their databases. We present a number of applications we have built or are building using the Bayou system, and examine how these take advantage of the Bayou architecture.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Back, Maribeth, Want, Roy and Frederick, Ron (1997): Audio Aura: Light-Weight Audio Augmented Reality. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 211-212. Available online

The physical world can be augmented with auditory cues allowing passive interaction by the user. By combining active badges, distributed systems, and wireless headphones, the movements of users through their workplace can trigger the transmission of auditory cues. These cues can summarize information about the activity of colleagues, notify the status of email or the start of a meeting, and remind of tasks such as retrieving a book at opportune times. We are currently experimenting with a prototype audio augmented reality system, Audio Aura, at Xerox PARC. The goal of this work is to create an aura of auditory information that mimics existing background, auditory awareness cues. We are prototyping sound designs for Audio Aura in VRML 2.0.

© All rights reserved Mynatt et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (1997): Transforming Graphical Interfaces Into Auditory Interfaces for Blind Users. In Human-Computer Interaction, 12 (1) pp. 7-45.

Although graphical interfaces have provided a host of advantages to the majority of computer users, they have created a significant barrier to blind computer users. To meet the needs of these users, a methodology for transforming graphical interfaces into nonvisual interfaces has been developed. In this design, the salient components of graphical interfaces are transformed into auditory interfaces. Based on a hierarchical model of the graphical interface, the auditory interface utilizes auditory icons to convey interface objects. Users navigate the interface by traversing its hierarchical structure. This design results in a usable interface that meets the needs of blind users and provides many of the benefits of graphical interfaces.

© All rights reserved Mynatt and/or Taylor and Francis

1995
 
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Hindus, Debby, Arons, Barry, Stifelman, Lisa, Gaver, William, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Back, Maribeth (1995): Designing Auditory Interactions for PDAs. In: Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 143-146. Available online

This panel addresses issues in designing audio-based user interactions for small, personal computing devices, or PDAs. One issue is the nature of interacting with an auditory PDA and the interplay of affordances and form factors. Another issue is how both new and traditional metaphors and interaction concepts might be applied to auditory PDAs. The utility and design of nonspeech cues are discussed, as are the aesthetic issues of persona and narrative in designing sounds. Also discussed are commercially available sound and speech components and related hardware tradeoffs. Finally, the social implications of auditory interactions are explored, including privacy, fashion and novel social interactions.

© All rights reserved Hindus et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Stockton, Kathryn (1995): Access to Graphical Interfaces for Blind Users. In Interactions, 2 (1) pp. 54-67. Available online

The authors describe the ongoing development of a graphical interface which addresses usability concerns of visually-impaired users.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 
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Smith, Ian E., Hudson, Scott E., Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Selbie, John R. (1995): Applying Cryptographic Techniques to Problems in Media Space Security. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Organizational Computing Systems 1995 August 13-16, 1995, Milpitas, California, USA. pp. 190-196.

1994
 
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Edwards, W. Keith and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (1994): An Architecture for Transforming Graphical Interfaces. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 39-47. Available online

While graphical user interfaces have gained much popularity in recent years, there are situations when the need to use existing applications in a nonvisual modality is clear. Examples of such situations include the use of applications on hand-held devices with limited screen space (or even no screen space, as in the case of telephones), or users with visual impairments. We have developed an architecture capable of transforming the graphical interfaces of existing applications into powerful and intuitive nonvisual interfaces. Our system, called Mercator, provides new input and output techniques for working in the nonvisual domain. Navigation is accomplished by traversing a hierarchical tree representation of the interface structure. Output is primarily auditory, although other output modalities (such as tactile) can be used as well. The mouse, an inherently visually-oriented device, is replaced by keyboard and voice interaction. Our system is currently in its third major revision. We have gained insight into both the nonvisual interfaces presented by our system and the architecture necessary to construct such interfaces. This architecture uses several novel techniques to efficiently and flexibly map graphical interfaces into new modalities.

© All rights reserved Edwards and Mynatt and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, W. Keith, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Stockton, Kathryn (1994): Providing Access to Graphical User Interfaces -- Not Graphical Screens. In: First Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 1994. pp. 47-54. Available online

The 1990 paper "The Graphical User Interface: Crisis, Danger and Opportunity" [BBV90] summarized an overwhelming concern expressed by the blind community: a new type of visual interface threatened to erase the progress made by the innovators of screen reader software. Such software (as the name implies) could read the contents of a computer screen, allowing blind computer users equal access to the tools used by their sighted colleagues. Whereas ASCII-based screens were easily accessible, new graphical interfaces presented a host of technological challenges. The contents of the screen were mere pixel values, the on or off "dots" which form the basis of any bit-mapped display. The goal for screen reader providers was to develop new methods for bringing the meaning of these picture-based interfaces to users who could not see them. The crisis was imminent. Graphical user interfaces were quickly adopted by the sighted community as a more intuitive interface. Ironically, these interfaces were deemed more accessible by the sighted population because they seemed approachable for novice computer users. The danger was tangible in the forms of lost jobs, barriers to education, and the simple frustration of being left behind as the computer industry charged ahead. Much has changed since that article was published. Commercial screen reader interfaces now exist for two of the three main graphical environments. Some feel that the crisis has been adverted, that the danger is now diminished. But what about the opportunity? Have graphical user interfaces improved the lives of blind computer users? The simple answer is not very much. This opportunity has not been realized because current screen reader technology provides access to graphical screens, not graphical interfaces. In this paper, we discuss the historical reasons for this mismatch as well as analyze the contents of graphical user interfaces. Next, we describe one possible way for a blind user to interact with a graphical user interface, independent of its presentation on the screen. We conclude by describing the components of a software architecture which can capture and model a graphical user interface for presentation to a blind computer user.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Edwards, Alistair, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Thatcher, J. (1994): Interface Modeling Issues in Providing Access to GUIs for the Visually Impaired. In: First Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 1994. p. 157.

Research in providing access to graphical interfaces for people who are blind has been ongoing for a number of years. After significant work, screen readers for three commercial graphical environments (Macintosh, Windows, OS/2) are now available, and steps to make X Windows accessible are underway. But many issues about how a blind person might want to interact with an accessible graphical interface are still unresolved. Are concepts such as drag and drop, iconified windows and direct manipulation appropriate for nonvisual interfaces? If so, how can they be effectively conveyed to people who have never experienced working with graphical interfaces? At the heart of the matter is the question: What is the model of the user interface that the screen reader is providing access to? Even the name "screen reader" implies a certain way of thinking about the graphical interface. A number of different approaches have been utilized in various commercial screen access systems and research prototypes. These systems have opened some doors for nonvisual interaction with a graphical interface, but other doors remain closed. In this session, we will not discuss underlying implementation strategies, although these are interesting in their own right. Rather, we will focus on the designer's conceptual model of the graphical interface, and how this model is conveyed to the (blind) user of the nonvisual interface.

© All rights reserved Edwards et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Arons, Barry and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (1994): The Future of Speech and Audio in the Interface. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 26 (4) pp. 44-48.

1993
 
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Hodges, Larry F., Bolter, Jay David, Mynatt, Elizabeth D., Ribarsky, William and Teylingen, Ron van (1993): Virtual Environments Research at the Georgia Tech GVU Center. In Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2 (3) pp. 234-243.

1992
 
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Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Edwards, W. Keith (1992): Mapping GUIs to Auditory Interfaces. In: Mackinlay, Jock D. and Green, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 15 - 18, 1992, Monteray, California, United States. pp. 61-70. Available online

This paper describes work to provide mappings between X-based graphical interfaces with auditory interfaces. In our system, dubbed Mercator, this mapping is transparent to applications. The primary motivation for this work is to provide accessibility to graphical applications for users who are blind or visually impaired. We describe the design of an auditory interface which simulates many of the features of graphical interfaces. We then describe the architecture we have built to model and transform graphical interfaces. Finally, we conclude with some indications of future research for improving our translation mechanisms and for creating an auditory "desktop" environment.

© All rights reserved Mynatt and Edwards and/or ACM Press

 
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