Publication statistics

Pub. period:1977-2014
Pub. count:104
Number of co-authors:16



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Jakob Nielsen:4
Jiajie Zhang:2
James D. Hollan:2

 

 

Productive colleagues

Donald A. Norman's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Jakob Nielsen:109
Aaron Marcus:90
James D. Hollan:49
 
 
 

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Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
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Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
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The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
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Donald A. Norman

Picture of Donald A. Norman.
Update pic
Has also published under the name of:
"Don Norman" and "D. A. Norman"

Personal Homepage:
http://www.jnd.org/

Current place of employment:
Nielsen NormanGroup

Don Norman is the author of numerous books including "Emotional Design," and more recently, "Living with Complexity." He is co-founder of the Nielsen Norman group, a professor at KAIST (in Korea), and IDEO fellow, and a design theorist, studying the fundamentals of modern design.

Donald A. Norman has a Bachelor of Science in Electrical Engineering from MIT and a Doctor of Philosophy in Psychology from the University of Pennsylvania. He also holds a honorary degree from the University of Padua, Italy. He has been a professor of Computer Science (at Northwestern University), Psychology and Cognitive Science (at University of California, San Diego). He has also worked for Apple Computer at Apple's Advanced Technology Group and for Hewlett-Packard. He now collaborates with Jakob Nielsen and Bruce "Tog" Tognazzini in the Nielsen Norman Group

RecentlyNorman received thethe 2006 recipient of the Benjamin Franklin Medal in Computer andCognitive Science.

 

Publications by Donald A. Norman (bibliography)

 what's this?
2014

Norman, Donald A. (2014). Commentary on 'User Experience and Experience Design' by Marc Hassenzahl

Affordances (2014)

The Action Cycle Explained (2014)

Carelmans Teapot (2014)

Communicating Action Possibilities (2014)

Conceptual Models (2014)

Conceptual Models of Fle Systems (2014)

Design for the Disabled (2014)

Privacy and Offline Life (2014)

Learnability and Design (2014)

Norman, Donald A. (2014). Commentary on 'Philosophy of Interaction' by Dag Svanaes

Norman, Donald A. (2014). Commentary on 'Disruptive Innovation' by Clayton M. Christensen

Don Norman: The three ways that good design makes you happy (2014)

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2014). Logic Versus Usage: The Case for Activity-Centred Design. Retrieved 19 January 2014 from http://www.jnd.org/dn.mss/logic_versus_usage_.html

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2014). Human-Centred Design Considered Harmful. Retrieved 19 January 2014 from http://www.jnd.org/dn.mss/human-centered_desig.html

Human-Centered Design has become such a dominant theme in design that it is now accepted by interface and application designers automatically, without thought, let alone criticism. That’s a dangerous state — when things are treated as accepted wisdom. The purpose of this essay is to provoke thought, discussion, and reconsideration of some of the fundamental principles of Human-Centered Design. These principles, I suggest, can be helpful, misleading, or wrong. At times, they might even be harmful. Activity-Centered Design is superior.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or his/her publisher

2013
 
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Norman, Donald A. and Nielsen, Jakob (2013). 10 Heuristics for User Interface Design. Retrieved 31 August 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Norman, Donald A. (2013). Nielsen/Norman Group Eyetracking Studies. Retrieved 2 September 2013 from Nielsen/Norman Group: http://www.nngroup.com/topic/eyetracking/

A list of eye-tracking studies from the Nielsen/Norman Group. They emphasis the importance of placing important information within the centre of the viewer's/user's focus and also draw attention to the perceptual phenomenon referred to as 'Banner Blindness', a form of selective attention.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Norman and/or their publisher

 
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Nielsen, Jakob and Norman, Donald A. (2013). List of 'Heuristic Evaluation' articles from the Nielsen/Norman Group. Retrieved 2 September 2013 from http://www.nngroup.com/topic/heuristic-evaluation/

Heuristic evaluation articles from the Nielsen/Norman Group.

© All rights reserved Nielsen and Norman and/or their publisher

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2013): The Design of Everyday Things: Revised and Expanded Edition. Basic Books

 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
2010
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2010): The transmedia design challenge: technology that is pleasurable and satisfying. In Interactions, 17 (1) pp. 12-15. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2010): Technology first, needs last: the research-product gulf. In Interactions, 17 (2) pp. 38-42. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2010): Natural user interfaces are not natural. In Interactions, 17 (3) pp. 6-10. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2010): The research-practice gap: the need for translational developers. In Interactions, 17 (4) pp. 9-12. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. and Nielsen, Jakob (2010): Gestural interfaces: a step backward in usability. In Interactions, 17 (5) pp. 46-49. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2010): Living with Complexity. The MIT Press

If only today's technology were simpler! It's the universal lament, but it's wrong. We don't want simplicity. Simple tools are not up to the task. The world is complex; our tools need to match that complexity. Simplicity turns out to be more complex than we thought. In this provocative and informative book, Don Norman writes that the complexity of our technology must mirror the complexity and richness of our lives. It's not complexity that's the problem, it's bad design. Bad design complicates things unnecessarily and confuses us. Good design can tame complexity.Norman gives us a crash course in the virtues of complexity. But even such simple things as salt and pepper shakers, doors, and light switches become complicated when we have to deal with many of them, each somewhat different. Managing complexity, says Norman, is a partnership. Designers have to produce things that tame complexity. But we too have to do our part: we have to take the time to learn the structure and practice the skills. This is how we mastered reading and writing, driving a car, and playing sports, and this is how we can master our complex tools. Complexity is good. Simplicity is misleading. The good life is complex, rich, and rewarding--but only if it is understandable, sensible, and meaningful.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or The MIT Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
2009
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2009): People are from earth, machines are from outer space. In Interactions, 16 (1) pp. 39-41. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2009): Memory is more important than actuality. In Interactions, 16 (2) pp. 24-26. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2009): Compliance and tolerance. In Interactions, 16 (3) pp. 61-65. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2009): Designing the infrastructure. In Interactions, 16 (4) pp. 66-69. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2009): Systems thinking: a product is more than the product. In Interactions, 16 (5) pp. 52-54. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2009): When security gets in the way. In Interactions, 16 (6) pp. 60-63. Available online

2008
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2008): Filling much-needed holes. In Interactions, 15 (1) pp. 70-71. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2008): A fetish for numbers. In Interactions, 15 (2) pp. 14-15. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2008): Waiting: a necessary part of life. In Interactions, 15 (3) pp. 36-37. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2008): Workarounds and hacks: the leading edge of innovation. In Interactions, 15 (4) pp. 47-48. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2008): Simplicity is not the answer. In Interactions, 15 (5) pp. 45-46. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2008): Signifiers, not affordances. In Interactions, 15 (6) pp. 18-19. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
2007
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2007): A Review of: "Handbook of Human Factors and Ergonomics" by Salvendy, G.. In International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (1) pp. 189-190. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2007): Three challenges for design. In Interactions, 14 (1) pp. 46-47. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2007): Simplicity is highly overrated. In Interactions, 14 (2) pp. 40-41. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2007): The next UI breakthrough: command lines. In Interactions, 14 (3) pp. 44-45. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2007): The next UI breakthrough, part 2: physicality. In Interactions, 14 (4) pp. 46-47. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2007): There's an automobile in HCI's future: an update. In Interactions, 14 (6) pp. 50-51. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2007): Gavriel Salvendy (Ed.): Handbook of human factors and ergonomics (3rd edn.). In Universal Access in the Information Society, 5 (4) p. 421. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2007): The Design of Future Things. Basic Books

Donald A. Norman, a popular design consultant to car manufacturers, computer companies, and other industrial and design outfits, has seen the future and is worried. In this long-awaited follow-up to The Design of Everyday Things, he points out what’s going wrong with the wave of products just coming on the market and some that are on drawing boards everywhere-from “smart” cars and homes that seek to anticipate a user’s every need, to the latest automatic navigational systems. Norman builds on this critique to offer a consumer-oriented theory of natural human-machine interaction that can be put into practice by the engineers and industrial designers of tomorrow’s thinking machines. This is a consumer-oriented look at the perils and promise of the smart objects of the future, and a cautionary tale for designers of these objects-many of which are already in use or development.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or Basic Books

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
2006
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2006): Interaction design is still an art form.: ergonomics is real engineering. In Interactions, 13 (1) pp. 45-60.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2006): Trapped in a Lufthansa airline seat. In Interactions, 13 (2) pp. 41-ff.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2006): Emotionally centered design. In Interactions, 13 (3) pp. 53-ff.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2006): Why doing user observations first is wrong. In Interactions, 13 (4) pp. 50-ff.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2006): Words matter. talk about people: not customers, not consumers, not users. In Interactions, 13 (5) pp. 49-63.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2006): Logic versus usage: the case for activity-centered design. In Interactions, 13 (6) pp. 45-ff.

2005
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2005): Robots in the home: what might they do?. In Interactions, 12 (2) p. 65.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2005): Whose profession is this?: everybody's, nobody's. In Interactions, 12 (3) p. 51.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2005): Human-centered design considered harmful. In Interactions, 12 (4) pp. 14-19.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2005): Do companies fail because their technology is unusable?. In Interactions, 12 (4) p. 69.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2005): To school or not to school?. In Interactions, 12 (5) p. 51.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2005): There's an automobile in HCI's future. In Interactions, 12 (6) pp. 45-ff.

 
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Ortony, Andrew, Norman, Donald A. and Revelle, William (2005): The role of affect and proto-affect in effective functioning. In: Fellous, Jean-Marc and Arbib, Michael A. (eds.). "Who Needs Emotions?: The Brain Meets the Robot (Series in Affective Science)". Oxford University Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]


 
2004
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2004): Emotional Design: Why We Love (Or Hate) Everyday Things. Basic Books

 Cited in the following chapters:

Affective Computing: [/encyclopedia/affective_computing.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]

Aesthetic Computing: [/encyclopedia/aesthetic_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Affective Computing: [/encyclopedia/affective_computing.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]

Requirements Engineering: [/encyclopedia/requirements_engineering.html]

Aesthetic Computing: [/encyclopedia/aesthetic_computing.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2004): Emotional design : why we love (or hate) everyday things. Basic Books

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2004): Introduction to This Special Section on Beauty, Goodness, and Usability. In Human-Computer Interaction, 19 (4) pp. 311-318. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2004). Design as communication. Retrieved 19 March 2012 from JND.org: http://jnd.org/dn.mss/design_as_communication.html

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2004). AdHoc personas & Empathic Focus. Retrieved 1 January 2004 from JND.org: http://www.jnd.org/dn.mss/personas/empath.html

 Cited in the following chapter:

Personas: [/encyclopedia/personas.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Personas: [/encyclopedia/personas.html]


 
2002
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2002): Emotion & design: attractive things work better. In Interactions, 9 (4) pp. 36-42.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2002): Complexity versus difficulty: where should the intelligence be?. In: Gil, Yolanda and Leake, David (eds.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2002 January 13-16, 2002, San Francisco, California, USA. p. 4. Available online

Complexity refers to the internal workings of the system, difficulty to the face provided to the user -- the factors that affect ease of use. The history of technology demonstrates that the way to make simpler, less difficult usage often requires more sophisticated, more intelligent, and more complex insides. Do we need intelligent interfaces? I don't think so: The intelligence should be inside, internal to the system. The interface is the visible part of the system, where people need stability, predictability and a coherent system image that they can understand and thereby learn.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or ACM Press

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2002): Home Theater: Not Ready for Prime Time. In IEEE Computer, 35 (6) pp. 100-102. Available online

 
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Norman, Donald A. (2002): Beyond the computer industry. In Communications of the ACM, 45 (7) p. 120. Available online

2001
 
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Norman, Donald A. (2001): Cyborgs. In Communications of the ACM, 44 (3) pp. 36-37. Available online

1999
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1999): Invisible Computer: Why Good Products Can Fail, the Personal Computer Is So Complex and Information Appliances Are the Solution. London, MIT Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1999): Affordances, Conventions, and Design. In Interactions, 6 (3) pp. 38-41.

 Cited in the following chapters:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
1998
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1998): The Invisible Computer: Why Good Products Can Fail, the Personal Computer Is So Complex and Information Appliances Are the Solution. MIT Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Activity Theory: [/encyclopedia/activity_theory.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1998): The Design of Everyday Things. MIT

First, businesses discovered quality as a key competitive edge; next came service. Now, Donald A. Norman, former Director of the Institute for Cognitive Science at the University of California, reveals how smart design is the new competitive frontier. The Design of Everyday Things is a powerful primer on how--and why--some products satisfy customers while others only frustrate them.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or MIT

1996
 
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Norman, Donald A. and Spohrer, James C. (1996): Learner-Centered Education (Introduction to the Special Section). In Communications of the ACM, 39 (4) pp. 24-27.

1994
 
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Zhang, Jiajie and Norman, Donald A. (1994): Representations in Distributed Cognitive Tasks. In Cognitive Science, 18 pp. 87-122.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (1994): Trends in the Computer Industry: Life-Long Subscriptions, Magical Cures, and Profits Along the Information Highway. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. p. 193. Available online

It doesn't work the way you think it works. Technical, business, and social factors affect the way that new technologies are deployed. Once ideas are let out of the laboratory, common sense disappears, especially in the rush to show that one company's products are superior to another's almost equal, very similar ones. The easy part of interface design is the technology and the science. The hard parts are the social aspects: negotiating the multiple constraints on products, including cost, business models, the sales story, time to market, and those well known impediments to progress: the installed base and industry standards. The race is to the swift and the clever, not to the best. Customers purchase what they are told they want. Wants are not the same things as needs, customers are not the same people as users. Don't believe everything you read. In fact, don't believe anything. How much science and research actually impacts products? Less than you might think, less than you might hope, but often for good reasons.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or ACM Press

 
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Zhang, Jiajie and Norman, Donald A. (1994): Representations in Distributed Cognitive Tasks. In Cognitive Science, 18 (1) pp. 87-122.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (1994): How Might People Interact with Agents. In Communications of the ACM, 37 (7) pp. 68-71.

1993
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1993): Things That Make Us Smart: Defending Human Attributes in the Age of the Machine. Reading, Massachusetts, Perseus

 
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Norman, Donald A. (1993): Cognition in the Head and in the World: An Introduction to the Special Issue on Situated Action. In Cognitive Science, 17 (1) pp. 1-6.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (1993): Things That Make Us Smart. Reading, USA, Addison-Wesley

In Things That Make Us Smart, Donald A. Norman explores the complex interaction between human thought and the technology it creates, arguing for the development of machines that fit our minds, rather than minds that must conform to the machine.Humans have always worked with objects to extend our cognitive powers, from counting on our fingers to designing massive supercomputers. But advanced technology does more than merely assist with thought and memory—the machines we create begin to shape how we think and, at times, even what we value. Norman, in exploring this complex relationship between humans and machines, gives us the first steps towards demanding a person-centered redesign of the machines that surround our lives.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or Addison-Wesley

 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
1992
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1992): Turn Signals Are the Facial Expressions of Automobiles. Reading, Massachusetts, Addison-Wesley Publishing

 
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Marcus, Aaron, Norman, Donald A., Rucker, Rudy, Sterling, Bruce and Vinge, Vernor (1992): Sci-Fi at CHI: Cyberpunk Novelists Predict Future User Interfaces. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 435-437. Available online

This plenary panel will explore ideas about future user interfaces, their technology support, and their social context as proposed in the work of leading authors of science fiction characterized as the Cyberpunk movement. Respondents will react to and comment upon the authors' presentations.

© All rights reserved Marcus et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Norman, Donald A. (1992): Where Human Factors Fails: Ergonomics versus the World of Design and Manufacture. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. .

1991
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1991): Cognitive artifacts. In: Carroll, John M. (ed.). "Designing Interaction: Psychology at the Human-Computer Interface". Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Presspp. 17-38

 Cited in the following chapters:

Demand Characteristics: [/encyclopedia/demand_characteristics.html]

Forcing Functions: [/encyclopedia/forcing_functions.html]

Gulf of Evaluation and Gulf of Execution: [/encyclopedia/gulf_of_evaluation_and_gulf_of_execution.html]

Distributed Cognition: [Not yet published]

Cognitive Artifacts: [/encyclopedia/cognitive_artifacts.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Demand Characteristics: [/encyclopedia/demand_characteristics.html]

Forcing Functions: [/encyclopedia/forcing_functions.html]

Gulf of Evaluation and Gulf of Execution: [/encyclopedia/gulf_of_evaluation_and_gulf_of_execution.html]

Distributed Cognition: [Not yet published]

Cognitive Artifacts: [/encyclopedia/cognitive_artifacts.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1991): Collaborative Computing: Collaboration First, Computing Second. In Communications of the ACM, 34 (12) pp. 88-90.

1990
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1990): The Design of Everyday Things. New York, Doubleday

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
1988
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1988): The Design of Everyday Things. New York, Doubleday

 Cited in the following chapters:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances.html]

Featuritis (or creeping featurism): [/encyclopedia/featuritis_and_creeping_featurism.html]

Forcing Functions: [/encyclopedia/forcing_functions.html]

Gulf of Evaluation and Gulf of Execution: [/encyclopedia/gulf_of_evaluation_and_gulf_of_execution.html]

Human error (slips and mistakes): [/encyclopedia/human_error_slips_and_mistakes.html]

Mental models: [/encyclopedia/mental_models_glossary.html]

Interaction Design Patterns: [/encyclopedia/interaction_design_patterns.html]

Visual Representation: [/encyclopedia/visual_representation.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances.html]

Featuritis (or creeping featurism): [/encyclopedia/featuritis_and_creeping_featurism.html]

Forcing Functions: [/encyclopedia/forcing_functions.html]

Gulf of Evaluation and Gulf of Execution: [/encyclopedia/gulf_of_evaluation_and_gulf_of_execution.html]

Human error (slips and mistakes): [/encyclopedia/human_error_slips_and_mistakes.html]

Mental models: [/encyclopedia/mental_models_glossary.html]

Interaction Design Patterns: [/encyclopedia/interaction_design_patterns.html]

Visual Representation: [/encyclopedia/visual_representation.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1988): The Psychology of Everyday Things. New York, Basic Books

 Cited in the following chapters:

Philosophy of Interaction: [/encyclopedia/philosophy_of_interaction.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Philosophy of Interaction: [/encyclopedia/philosophy_of_interaction.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]

Affordances: [/encyclopedia/affordances_and_design.html]


 
1986
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1986): Cognitive engineering. In: Norman, Donald A. and Draper, Stephen W. (eds.). "User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction". Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associatespp. 31--61

 Cited in the following chapters:

Gulf of Evaluation and Gulf of Execution: [/encyclopedia/gulf_of_evaluation_and_gulf_of_execution.html]

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Gulf of Evaluation and Gulf of Execution: [/encyclopedia/gulf_of_evaluation_and_gulf_of_execution.html]

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
 
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Hutchins, Edwin, Hollan, James D. and Norman, Donald A. (1986): Direct Manipulation Interfaces. In: Norman, Donald A. and Draper, Stephen W. (eds.). "User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction". Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associatespp. 87-124

 
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Lewis, Clayton H. and Norman, Donald A. (1986): Designing for Error. In: Norman, Donald A. and Draper, Stephen W. (eds.). "User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction". Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapters:

Forcing Functions: [/encyclopedia/forcing_functions.html]

Human error (slips and mistakes): [/encyclopedia/human_error_slips_and_mistakes.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Forcing Functions: [/encyclopedia/forcing_functions.html]

Human error (slips and mistakes): [/encyclopedia/human_error_slips_and_mistakes.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. and Shallice, Tim (1986): Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behaviour (Revised reprint of Norman and Shallice (1980)). In: Davidson, Richard J., Schwartz, Gary E. and Shapiro, David (eds.). "Consciousness and Self-Regulation: Advances in Research and Theory". New York, USA: Plenum Presspp. 1-18

 
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Norman, Donald A. and Draper, Stephen W. (eds.) (1986): User Centered System Design: New Perspectives on Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapters:

Gulf of Evaluation and Gulf of Execution: [/encyclopedia/gulf_of_evaluation_and_gulf_of_execution.html]

Agile Usability Engineering: [/encyclopedia/agile_usability_engineering.html]

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Gulf of Evaluation and Gulf of Execution: [/encyclopedia/gulf_of_evaluation_and_gulf_of_execution.html]

Agile Usability Engineering: [/encyclopedia/agile_usability_engineering.html]

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]


 
1985
 
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Hutchins, Edwin, Hollan, James D. and Norman, Donald A. (1985): Direct Manipulation Interfaces. In Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (4) pp. 311-338.

Direct manipulation has been lauded as a good form of interface design, and some interfaces that have this property have been well received by users. In this article we seek a cognitive account of both the advantages and disadvantages of direct manipulation interfaces. We identify two underlying phenomena that give rise to the feeling of directness. One deals with the information processing distance between the user's intentions and the facilities provided by the machine. Reduction of this distance makes the interface feel direct by reducing the effort required of the user to accomplish goals. The second phenomenon concerns the relation between the input and output vocabularies of the interface language. In particular, direct manipulation requires that the system provide representations of objects that behave as if they are the objects themselves. This provides the feeling of directness of manipulation.

© All rights reserved Hutchins et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1984
 
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Draper, Steven and Norman, Donald A. (1984): Software engineering for user interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Software Engineering 1984, Silver Spring, MD. pp. 214-220.

 
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Norman, Donald A. (1984): Four Stages of User Activities. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 507-511.

When a person interacts with a computer it is possible to identify four distinct stages in that interaction: Intention, Selection, Execution, and Evaluation. Each stage has different goals, different methods, and different needs. It is well-known that the task and class of user affects the requirements for an interface. In this paper I emphasize that these requirements vary according to the stage of the interaction, even for an individual user working on a single task. The analysis of these four stages shows that different support is required at different times within an interactive session.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or North-Holland

 
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Norman, Donald A. (1984): Stages and Levels in Human-Machine Interaction. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 21 (4) pp. 365-375.

The interaction between a person and a computer system involves four different stages of activities -- intention, selection, execution, and evaluation -- each of which may occur at different levels of specification. Analysis of these stages and levels provides a useful way of looking at the issues of human-computer interaction.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or Academic Press

1983
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1983): Some Observations on Mental Models. In: Gentner, Dedre and Stevens, Albert L. (eds.). "Mental Models". Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mental models: [/encyclopedia/mental_models_glossary.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Mental models: [/encyclopedia/mental_models_glossary.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1983): Design Rules Based on Analyses of Human Error. In Communications of the ACM, 26 (4) pp. 254-258.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Human error (slips and mistakes): [/encyclopedia/human_error_slips_and_mistakes.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Human error (slips and mistakes): [/encyclopedia/human_error_slips_and_mistakes.html]


 
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1983): Design Principles for Human-Computer Interfaces. In: Smith, Raoul N., Pew, Richard W. and Janda, Ann (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 83 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conferenc December 12-15, 1983, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 1-10.

If the field of Human Factors in Computer Systems is to be a success it must develop design principles that are useful, principles that apply across a wide range of technologies. In the first part of this paper I discuss some the properties that useful principles should have. While I am at it, I warn of the dangers of the tar pits and the sirens of technology. We cannot avoid these dangers entirely, for were we to do so, we would fail to cope with the real problems and hazards of the field. The second part of the paper is intended to illustrate the first part through the example of tradeoff analysis. Any single design technique is apt to have its virtues along one dimension compensated by deficiencies along another. Tradeoff analysis provides a quantitative method of assessing tradeoff relations for two attributes x{sub:i} and x{sub:j} by first determining the User Satisfaction function for each, U(x), then showing how U(x{sub:i}) trades off against U(x{sub:j}). In general, the User Satisfaction for a system is given by the weighted sum of the User Satisfaction values for the attributes. The analysis is used to examine two different tradeoffs of information versus time and editor workspace versus menu size. Tradeoffs involving command languages versus menu-based systems, choices of names, and handheld computers versus workstations are examined briefly.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or ACM Press

1982
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1982): Steps Toward a Cognitive Engineering: Design Rules Based on Analyses of Human Error. In: Nichols, Jean A. and Schneider, Michael L. (eds.) Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human factors in computing systems March 15-17, 1982, Gaithersburg, Maryland, United States. pp. 378-382.

This paper uses the analysis of human error to provide a tool for the development of principles of system design, both to minimize the occurrence of error and to minimize the effects. Eventually, it should be possible to establish a systematic set of guidelines, with explicit, quantitative cost-benefit tradeoffs that can lead toward a design discipline -- a "Cognitive Engineering." This short note starts the process.

© All rights reserved Norman and/or ACM Press

1980
 
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Norman, Donald A. (1980): Twelve Issues for Cognitive Science. In Cognitive Science, 4 pp. 1-32.

 
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Norman, Donald A. and Shallice, Tim (1980). Attention to action: Willed and automatic control of behaviour. Centre for Human Information Processing (Technical Report #99). Centre for Human Information Processing, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA

1977
 
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Lindsay, P. H. and Norman, Donald A. (1977): Human Information Processing: An Introduction to Psychology. New York, Academic Press

 
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