Number of co-authors:24
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Jacki O'Neill:7Tommaso Colombino:4Mark Rouncefield:4
David Martin's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:Mark Rouncefield:55John Bowers:41Ian Sommerville:30
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Publications by David Martin (bibliography)
Kumar, Deepti, Martin, David and O'Neill, Jacki (2011): The times they are a-changin': mobile payments in india. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1413-1422.
We report on an ethnographic study of payment and banking practices in India. Currently a mobile payment mechanism is being developed in India and we were interested to see how it would fit with various current payment systems for various types of users. Therefore we studied a variety of current payment situations and gained an understanding of the banking and payment practices and needs of a diverse community. Our aim was to inform the development of interface elements, applications and services that would support the needs we uncovered. We describe our findings and the design ideas they provoked.
© All rights reserved Kumar et al. and/or their publisher
O'Neill, Jacki, Martin, David, Colombino, Tommaso and Grasso, Antonietta (2011): When a little knowledge isn't a dangerous thing. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1667-1676.
In this paper we compare two departments of a public administration body carrying out similar work. In one department two sections, telephony and processing, are collocated whereas in the other they are not. We demonstrate the costs of distribution, in particular how the strictly enforced division of labour and limited visibility onto the workflow of the other section causes problems when dealing with normal, natural exceptions. The setting is one of seemingly routine bureaucratic work rather than high-skilled cooperative work, thus the impact of distribution might be considered rather surprising. We argue that a key requirement for any solution is to enable practitioners on the 'shop floor' the freedom to find elegant solutions to problems.
© All rights reserved O'Neill et al. and/or their publisher
Martin, David, O'Neill, Jacki and Randall, Dave (2009): 'Talking about (my) Generation': Creativity, Practice, Technology & Talk. In: Proceedings of the 11th European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2009. pp. 171-190.
This paper describes the findings of an ethnomethodological enquiry into the work of graphic designers. We explore the collaborative nature of graphic design as undertaken by a small team of designers working in a packaging design company. In doing so, we attempt to explicate the way in which practice, talk and technology are intricately bound up in such a way as to constitute a creative process. We describe a series of scenic features, 'orderings', and 'talkaboutables' which are characteristic of this process and which may be entailed in other creative contexts and hence can be important topics for CSCW design for creativity.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or their publisher
O'Neill, Jacki, Martin, David, Colombino, Tommaso, Roulland, Frederic and Willamowski, Jutta (2008): Colour management is a socio-technical problem. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 599-608.
This paper describes how achieving consistent colour reproduction across different devices is a complicated matter. Although there is a technological infrastructure for managing colour across devices this is very rarely used as intended. This infrastructure has been created by modelling the problem of colour management as a wholly technical one. In this paper we illustrate the importance of understanding the management of colour as a socio-technical problem, by describing the findings of a multi-sited ethnography of designers and print shops. Our analysis of the ethnography reveals that designers build up practical, tangible, visual understandings of colour and that these do not fit with the current solution, which requires users to deal with colour in an abstract manner. This paper builds on previous research in CSCW which has considered the importance of socio-technical systems, bringing the work into a previously unexplored domain. It shows how an understanding of the social can also be central when designing technical infrastructures.
© All rights reserved O'Neill et al. and/or ACM Press
Colombino, Tommaso, Grasso, Antonietta, Martin, David, O'Neill, Jacki and Bowers, John (2008): Aesthetics, Digital Technology and Collaboration. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 199-200.
The workshop examines aesthetics-in-action through naturalistic studies focusing on the role of technology in artistic composition-production, performance, consumption, aimed at creating a body of knowledge to inform innovative technology design.
© All rights reserved Colombino et al. and/or their publisher
Martin, David, Rooksby, John, Rouncefield, Mark and Sommerville, Ian (2008): Cooperative work in software testing. In: Proceedings of the 2008 International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering 2008. pp. 93-96.
Substantial effort in the development of any large system is invested in testing. Studies of testing tend to be either technical or concerned with the cognitive ability of testers. Our experience is that testing is not technical but socio-technical, involving a great deal of human and organisational effort, and that testing is not simply the kind of decontextualised 'puzzle solving' many cognitive approaches imply. We believe that cooperative work is foundational to getting testing done. In this position paper, we use data from four ethnographic studies to discuss just what that cooperative work is.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or ACM Press
Martin, David, Rooksby, John and Rouncefield, Mark (2007): Users as contextual features of software product development and testing. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007. pp. 301-310.
This paper examines how software developers discuss users and how such discussions are intrinsic to the negotiation and settling of technical decisions in the development and testing of a software product. Using ethnographic data, we show how the user features in conversations, not as a 'topic' but as 'context' to technical work. By understanding the user as a contextual feature in developers' group work we are able to draw attention to issues in the use of Extreme Programming for software product development. Extreme Programming is a participatory design method, but software product development involves envisioning and designing for future customers.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or ACM Press
O'Neill, Jacki, Martin, David, Colombino, Tommaso, Watts-Perotti, Jennifer, Sprague, Mary Ann and Woolfe, Geoffrey (2007): Asymmetrical collaboration in print shop-customer relationships. In: Proceedings of the Tenth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2007. pp. 231-250.
The service provider-customer relationship, although not perhaps considered a typical collaborative relationship, is clearly collaborative work. However, such work is constrained by the very (service) nature of the relationship. Customer-service provider interaction can be characterised as interaction at the boundaries of organisations, each of which is likely to have their own workflows and orientations. Many service organisations attempt to facilitate this interaction by configuring their customers, using standardised forms or applications. In this way they bring the customers workflow into line with their own. In this paper we describe field work examining one particular service relationship; that between print shops and their customers. A notable feature of print shop-customer relationships is that customers prepare the material that the print shop then prints. This makes the standardization of workflows difficult, particularly within the service relationship. Technologies exist which aim to automate and standardize the workflow from customers to print shops. However, they have, up to now, largely failed to live up to their promise, leaving print shops to adopt ad hoc solutions. This paper describes the hidden work that the print shops do to make the service relationship work.
© All rights reserved O'Neill et al. and/or Springer
Martin, David, Hartswood, Mark, Slack, Roger and Voss, Alex (2006): Achieving Dependability in the Configuration, Integration and Testing of Healthcare Technologies. In Computer Supported Cooperative Work, 15 (5) pp. 467-499.
This paper presents two case studies, which highlight the practical work involved in developing and deploying dependable healthcare systems. It shows how dependability is a thoroughgoingly practical, contexted achievement. We show how dependability is an outcome of the reasoning and argumentation processes that stakeholders engage in, in situations such as design and testing. What becomes relevant during these interactions stands as the dependability criteria that must be achieved. Furthermore, we examine the way in which different dependability criteria need to be managed, and even relatively prioritised, before finally discussing the types of work this provokes at the boundaries of organisations, particularly when integrating work and technologies.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers
Martin, David, Rouncefield, Mark, O\'Neill, Jacki, Hartswood, Mark and Randall, David (2005): Timing in the art of integration: \'that\'s how the bastille got stormed\'. In: GROUP05: International Conference on Supporting Group Work November 6-9, 2005, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 313-322.
This paper uses a long term ethnographic study of the design and implementation of an electronic patient records (EPR) system in a UK hospital Trust to consider issues arising in the multi-faceted process of integration when a customizable-off-the-shelf (COTS) system is configured and deployed in a complex setting. The process involves trying to artfully work out how disparate technologies integrate with existing and evolving patterns of work within developing regulatory requirements. We conclude by suggesting ways in which ethnographic interventions and user involvement may be timed and targeted to aid in achieving this process.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or ACM Press
Martin, David and Sommerville, Ian (2004): Patterns of cooperative interaction: linking ethnomethodology and design. In Interactions, 11 (3) pp. 9-10.
Martin, David and Sommerville, Ian (2004): Patterns of cooperative interaction: Linking ethnomethodology and design. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 11 (1) pp. 59-89.
Patterns of Cooperative Interaction are regularities in the organisation of work, activity, and interaction among participants, and with, through, and around artifacts. These patterns are organised around a framework and are inspired by how such regularities are highlighted in ethnomethodologically-informed ethnographic studies of work and technology. They comprise a high level description and two or more comparable examples drawn from specific studies. Our contention is that these patterns form a useful resource for reusing findings from previous field studies, for enabling analysis and considering design in new settings. Previous work on the relationship between ethnomethodology and design has been concerned primarily in providing presentation frameworks and mechanisms, practical advice, schematisations of the ethnomethodologist's role, different possibilities of input at different stages in development, and various conceptualisations of the relationship between study and design. In contrast, this article seeks to first discuss the position of patterns relative to emergent major topics of interest of these studies. Subsequently it seeks to describe the case for the collection of patterns based on findings, their comparison across studies and their general implications for design problems, rather than the concerns of practical and methodological interest outlined in the other work. Special attention is paid to our evaluations and to how they inform how the patterns collection may be read, used and contributed to, as well as to reflections on the composition of the collection as it has emerged. The paper finishes, first, with a discussion of how our work relates to other work on patterns, before some closing comments are made on the role of our patterns and ethnomethodology in systems design.
© All rights reserved Martin and Sommerville and/or ACM Press
O'Neill, Jacki and Martin, David (2003): Text chat in action. In: Tremaine, Marilyn M. and Simone, Carla (eds.) Proceedings of the International ACM SIGGROUP Conference on Supporting Group Work 2003 November 9-12, 2003, Sanibel Island, Florida, USA. pp. 40-49.
Synchronous text communication is becoming recognized as a valuable workplace communication medium yet some studies of group text chat indicate that its properties can lead to interactional incoherence. We consider this issue through a detailed analytic examination of text chat transcripts by showing how participants manage their interactions through considering multiple threads, turn taking and topic change. We reveal the routine practices that participants employ to create and manage coherent interaction. These practices arise from the turn taking system in operation, which facilitates straightforward repair of misunderstandings. We conclude by considering the implications of this for design and for the organisation and management of interactions of various forms.
© All rights reserved O'Neill and Martin and/or ACM Press
Martin, David, Rouncefield, Mark and Sommerville, Ian (2002): Applying patterns of cooperative interaction to work (re)design: e-government and planning. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 235-242.
Cited in the following chapter:
» Ethnography: [Not yet published]
Dennerlein, Jack Tigh, Martin, David and Hasser, Christopher (2000): Force-Feedback Improves Performance for Steering and Combined Steering-Targeting Tasks. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 423-429.
The introduction of a force-feedback mouse, which provides high fidelity tactile cues via force output, may represent a long-awaited technological breakthrough in pointing device designs. However, there have been few studies examining the benefits of force-feedback for the desktop computer human interface. Ten adults performed eighty steering tasks, where the participants moved the cursor through a small tunnel with varying indices of difficulty using a conventional and force-feedback mouse. For the force-feedback condition, the mouse displayed force that pulled the cursor to the center of the tunnel. The tasks required both horizontal and vertical screen movements of the cursor. Movement times were on average 52 percent faster during the force-feedback condition when compared to the conventional mouse. Furthermore, for the conventional mouse vertical movements required more time to complete than horizontal screen movements. Another ten adults completed a combined steering and targeting task, where the participants navigated through a tunnel and then clicked a small box at the end of the tunnel. Again, force-feedback improved times to complete the task. Although movement times were slower than the pure steering task, the steering index of difficulty dominated the steering-targeting relationship. These results further support that human computer interfaces benefit from the additional sensory input of tactile cues to the human user.
© All rights reserved Dennerlein et al. and/or ACM Press
Bowers, John and Martin, David (2000): Machinery in the New Factories: Interaction and Technology in a Bank's Telephone Call Centre. In: Kellogg, Wendy A. and Whittaker, Steve (eds.) Proceedings of the 2000 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work 2000, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 49-58.
This paper presents analyses of calls to a bank's telephone call centre documenting the way calls are opened, closed, and how financial services are actioned. Throughout, how the social interaction between caller and operator is interleaved with the human-computer interaction between operator and the bank's accounts database is attended to. We show participants varying in their orientation to each other and to providing and receiving database information, and how these matters are influenced by the recent introduction of more active, intelligent technology. Implications for design of interactive technology in such settings and for the study of organisations in CSCW are offered.
© All rights reserved Bowers and Martin and/or ACM Press
Bowers, John and Martin, David (1999): Informing collaborative information visualisation through an ethnography of ambulance control. In: Bødker, Susanne, Kyng, Morten and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 99 - Proceedings of the Sixth European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 12-16 September, 1999, Copenhagen, Denmark. p. 311.
Martin, David, Cheyer, Adam and Moran, Douglas B. (1999): Open Agent Architecture. In Applied Artificial Intelligence: An International Journal, 13 (1) pp. 91-128.
The Open Agent Architecture (OAA), developed and used for several years at SRI International, makes it possible for software services to be provided through the co-
operative eorts of distributed collections of autonomous agents. Communication and cooperation between agents are brokered by one or more facilitators, which are respon-
sible for matching requests, from users and agents, with descriptions of the capabilities of other agents. Thus, it is not generally required that a user or agent know the identities, locations, or number of other agents involved in satisfying a request. OAA is structured so as to minimize the eort involved in creating new agents and "wrapping" legacy applications, written in various languages and operating on various platforms;
to encourage the reuse of existing agents; and to allow for dynamism and exibility in the makeup of agent communities. Distinguishing features of OAA as compared with
related work include extreme exibility in using facilitator-based delegation of complex goals, triggers, and data management requests; agent-based provision of multimodal
user interfaces; and built-in support for including the user as a privileged member of the agent community.
This paper explains the structure and elements of agent-based systems constructed using OAA. The characteristics and use of each major component of OAA infrastructure
are described, including the agent library, the Interagent Communication Language, capabilities declarations, service requests, facilitation, management of data repositories,
and autonomous monitoring using triggers. To provide technical context, we describe the motivations for OAA's design, and situate its features within the realm of alternative software paradigms. A summary is given of OAA-based systems built to date, and brief descriptions are given of several of these.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or their publisher
Martin, David, Bowers, John and Wastell, David (1997): The Interactional Affordances of Technology: An Ethnography of Human-Computer Interaction in an Ambulance Control Centre. In: Thimbleby, Harold, O'Conaill, Brid and Thomas, Peter J. (eds.) Proceedings of the Twelfth Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XII August, 1997, Bristol, England, UK. pp. 263-281.
This paper reports an ethnography of ambulance dispatch work in a large UK metropolitan region. The interplay between control centre ecology, usage of a computerised dispatch system, and cooperative work of control personnel is analysed. The methods by which a 'working division of labour' is sustained to effectively manage dispatch in the face of high workload and manifold contingency are explicated, and contrasted with methods employed by workers in other control room settings known from the literature. The implications of the study for system improvement and for several emphases in HCI research (including discussions of 'affordances') are explored.
© All rights reserved Martin et al. and/or Springer Verlag
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