Publication statistics

Pub. period:2002-2014
Pub. count:53
Number of co-authors:66



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Chia Shen:33
Daniel Wigdor:13
Ravin Balakrishnan:12

 

 

Productive colleagues

Clifton Forlines's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Saul Greenberg:140
Ravin Balakrishnan:108
Patrick Baudisch:57
 
 
 

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Clifton Forlines

Has also published under the name of:
"C. Forlines"

Personal Homepage:
cliftonforlines.com/biography.php

 

Publications by Clifton Forlines (bibliography)

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2014

Pliable display Technology on a table (3 minutes) (2014)

2012
 
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Miller, Sarah M., Forlines, Clifton and Regan, John (2012): Exploring the Relationship Between Topic Area Knowledge and Forecasting Performance. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2012 Annual Meeting 2012. pp. 318-322. Available online

The Intelligence Community (IC) is often asked to make predictions about future world events. One aspect of predicting the quality of forecasts and forecasters is the knowledge that the forecaster has about the question to be forecast. This paper explores the relationship between factual knowledge about a forecast event and eventual performance on a forecast question. The results demonstrated a significant relationship between a forecaster answering a series of factual questions correctly and answering the corresponding forecast question correctly. This relationship is enhanced when controlling for the relative difficulty of the factual question. When controlling for forecaster performance, roughly half of the impact was due to general forecaster performance and half was due to their specific knowledge about a given forecast question. Interestingly, we found that forecasters with more factual knowledge were less calibrated with respect to their probability forecast whereas forecasters who were less knowledgeable were better calibrated in their probability estimates. We discuss the implication of the results related to improving forecast quality.

© All rights reserved Miller et al. and/or Human Factors and Ergonomics Society

2010
 
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Forlines, Clifton and Wittenburg, Kent (2010): Wakame: sense making of multi-dimensional spatial-temporal data. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces 2010. pp. 33-40. Available online

As our ability to measure the world around us improves, we are quickly generating massive quantities of high-dimensional, spatial-temporal data. In this paper, we concern ourselves with datasets in which the spatial characteristics are relatively static but many dimensions prevail and data is sampled over different time periods. Example applications include building energy management and HVAC unit diagnostics. We present methods employed in our Wakame visualization system to support such tasks as discovering anomalies and comparing performance across multiple time series. Novel methods include animated transitions that relate data in spatially located 3D views with conventional 2D graphs. Additionally, several components of our prototype employ analytics to guide the user to "interesting" portions of the dataset.

© All rights reserved Forlines and Wittenburg and/or their publisher

 
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Weinberg, Garrett, Harsham, Bret, Forlines, Clifton and Medenica, Zeljko (2010): Contextual push-to-talk: shortening voice dialogs to improve driving performance. In: Proceedings of 12th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2010. pp. 113-122. Available online

We present a driving simulator-based evaluation of a new technique for simplifying in-vehicle device interactions and thereby improving driver safety. We show that the use of multiple, contextually linked push-to-talk buttons (Multi-PTT) shortens voice dialog duration versus the use of a conventional, single push-to-talk button (Single-PTT). This benefit comes without detriment to driving performance or visual attention to the forward roadway. Test subjects also preferred the Multi-PTT approach over the conventional approach, and reported that it imposed a lower cognitive workload.

© All rights reserved Weinberg et al. and/or their publisher

2009
 
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Forlines, Clifton and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2009): Improving visual search with image segmentation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1093-1102. Available online

People's ability to accurately locate target objects in images is severely affected by the prevalence of the sought objects. This negative effect greatly impacts critical real world tasks, such as baggage screening and cell slide pathology, in which target objects are rare. We present three novel image presentation techniques that are designed to improve visual search. Our techniques rely on the images being broken into image segments, which are then recombined or displayed in novel ways. The techniques and their underlying design reasoning are described in detail, and three experiments are presented that provide initial evidence that these techniques lead to better search performance in a simulated cell slide pathology task.

© All rights reserved Forlines and Balakrishnan and/or ACM Press

 
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Wigdor, Daniel, Jiang, Hao, Forlines, Clifton, Borkin, Michelle and Shen, Chia (2009): WeSpace: the design development and deployment of a walk-up and share multi-surface visual collaboration system. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1237-1246. Available online

We present WeSpace -- a collaborative work space that integrates a large data wall with a multi-user multi-touch table. WeSpace has been developed for a population of scientists who frequently meet in small groups for data exploration and visualization. It provides a low overhead walk-up and share environment for users with their own personal applications and laptops. We present our year-long effort from initial ethnographic studies, to iterations of design, development and user testing, to the current experiences of these scientists carrying out their collaborative research in the WeSpace. We shed light on the utility, the value of the multi-touch table, the manifestation, usage patterns and the changes in their workflow that WeSpace has brought about.

© All rights reserved Wigdor et al. and/or ACM Press

2008
 
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Jiang, Hao, Wigdor, Daniel, Forlines, Clifton, Borkin, Michelle, Kauffmann, Jens and Shen, Chia (2008): LivOlay: interactive ad-hoc registration and overlapping of applications for collaborative visual exploration. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1357-1360. Available online

The interoperability of disparate data types and sources has been a long standing problem and a hindering factor for the efficacy and efficiency in visual exploration applications. In this paper, we present a solution, called LivOlay, that enables the rapid visual overlay of live data rendered in different applications. Our tool addresses datasets in which visual registration of the information is necessary in order to allow for thorough understanding and visual analysis. We also discuss initial evaluation and user feedback of LivOlay.

© All rights reserved Jiang et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlines, Clifton and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2008): Evaluating tactile feedback and direct vs. indirect stylus input in pointing and crossing selection tasks. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1563-1572. Available online

We present a pair of experiments that explore the effects of tactile-feedback and direct vs. indirect pen input on pointing and crossing selection tasks. While previous work has demonstrated the validity of crossing as a useful selection mechanism for pen-based computing, those experiments were conducted using an indirect input device -- one in which the pen-input and display were separated. We investigate users' performance with pointing and crossing interfaces controlled via not only an indirect input device, but also a direct input device -- one in which the pen-input and display are co-located. Results show that direct input significantly outperforms indirect input for crossing selection, but the two modalities are essentially equivalent in pointing selection. A small amount of tactile feedback is shown to be beneficial for both pointing and crossing selection, most noticeably in crossing tasks when using direct input where visual feedback is often occluded by a hand or stylus.

© All rights reserved Forlines and Balakrishnan and/or ACM Press

 
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Tse, Edward, Greenberg, Saul, Shen, Chia, Forlines, Clifton and Kodama, Ryo (2008): Exploring true multi-user multimodal interaction over a digital table. In: Proceedings of DIS08 Designing Interactive Systems 2008. pp. 109-118. Available online

True multi-user, multimodal interaction over a digital table lets co-located people simultaneously gesture and speak commands to control an application. We explore this design space through a case study, where we implemented an application that supports the KJ creativity method as used by industrial designers. Four key design issues emerged that have a significant impact on how people would use such a multi-user multimodal system. First, parallel work is affected by the design of multimodal commands. Second, individual mode switches can be confusing to collaborators, especially if speech commands are used. Third, establishing personal and group territories can hinder particular tasks that require artefact neutrality. Finally, timing needs to be considered when designing joint multimodal commands. We also describe our model view controller architecture for true multi-user multimodal interaction.

© All rights reserved Tse et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Jiang, Hao, Wigdor, Daniel, Forlines, Clifton and Shen, Chia (2008): System design for the WeSpace: Linking personal devices to a table-centered multi-user, multi-surface environment. In: Third IEEE International Workshop on Tabletops and Interactive Surfaces Tabletop 2008 October 1-3, 2008, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 97-104. Available online

 
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Brandl, Peter, Forlines, Clifton, Wigdor, Daniel, Haller, Michael and Shen, Chia (2008): Combining and measuring the benefits of bimanual pen and direct-touch interaction on horizontal interfaces. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 154-161. Available online

 
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Matusik, Wojciech, Forlines, Clifton and Pfister, Hanspeter (2008): Multiview user interfaces with an automultiscopic display. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 363-366. Available online

 
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Forlines, Clifton and Lilien, Ryan H. (2008): Adapting a single-user, single-display molecular visualization application for use in a multi-user, multi-display environment. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 367-371. Available online

 
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Forlines, Clifton (2008): Content aware video presentation on high-resolution displays. In: Levialdi, Stefano (ed.) AVI 2008 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced Visual Interfaces May 28-30, 2008, Napoli, Italy. pp. 57-64. Available online

2007
 
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Tse, Edward, Shen, Chia, Greenberg, Saul and Forlines, Clifton (2007): How pairs interact over a multimodal digital table. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 215-218. Available online

Co-located collaborators often work over physical tabletops using combinations of expressive hand gestures and verbal utterances. This paper provides the first observations of how pairs of people communicated and interacted in a multimodal digital table environment built atop existing single user applications. We contribute to the understanding of these environments in two ways. First, we saw that speech and gesture commands served double duty as both commands to the computer, and as implicit communication to others. Second, in spite of limitations imposed by the underlying single-user application, people were able to work together simultaneously, and they performed interleaving acts: the graceful mixing of inter-person speech and gesture actions as commands to the system. This work contributes to the intricate understanding of multi-user multimodal digital table interaction.

© All rights reserved Tse et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wigdor, Daniel, Shen, Chia, Forlines, Clifton and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2007): Perception of elementary graphical elements in tabletop and multi-surface environments. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 473-482. Available online

Information shown on a tabletop display can appear distorted when viewed by a seated user. Even worse, the impact of this distortion is different depending on the location of the information on the display. In this paper, we examine how this distortion affects the perception of the basic graphical elements of information visualization shown on displays at various angles. We first examine perception of these elements on a single display, and then compare this to perception across displays, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of various elements for use in a tabletop and multi-display environment. We found that the perception of some graphical elements is more robust to distortion than others. We then develop recommendations for building data visualizations for these environments.

© All rights reserved Wigdor et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlines, Clifton, Wigdor, Daniel, Shen, Chia and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2007): Direct-touch vs. mouse input for tabletop displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 647-656. Available online

We investigate the differences -- in terms of both quantitative performance and subjective preference -- between direct-touch and mouse input for unimanual and bimanual tasks on tabletop displays. The results of two experiments show that for bimanual tasks performed on tabletops, users benefit from direct-touch input. However, our results also indicate that mouse input may be more appropriate for a single user working on tabletop tasks requiring only single-point interaction.

© All rights reserved Forlines et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Cao, Xiang, Forlines, Clifton and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2007): Multi-user interaction using handheld projectors. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 43-52. Available online

Recent research on handheld projector interaction has expanded the display and interaction space of handheld devices by projecting information onto the physical environment around the user, but has mainly focused on single-user scenarios. We extend this prior single-user research to co-located multi-user interaction using multiple handheld projectors. We present a set of interaction techniques for supporting co-located collaboration with multiple handheld projectors, and discuss application scenarios enabled by them.

© All rights reserved Cao et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wigdor, Daniel, Forlines, Clifton, Baudisch, Patrick, Barnwell, John and Shen, Chia (2007): Lucid touch: a see-through mobile device. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 269-278. Available online

Touch is a compelling input modality for interactive devices; however, touch input on the small screen of a mobile device is problematic because a user's fingers occlude the graphical elements he wishes to work with. In this paper, we present LucidTouch, a mobile device that addresses this limitation by allowing the user to control the application by touching the back of the device. The key to making this usable is what we call pseudo-transparency: by overlaying an image of the user's hands onto the screen, we create the illusion of the mobile device itself being semi-transparent. This pseudo-transparency allows users to accurately acquire targets while not occluding the screen with their fingers and hand. Lucid Touch also supports multi-touch input, allowing users to operate the device simultaneously with all 10 fingers. We present initial study results that indicate that many users found touching on the back to be preferable to touching on the front, due to reduced occlusion, higher precision, and the ability to make multi-finger input.

© All rights reserved Wigdor et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Zwicker, Matthias, Yea, Sehoon, Vetro, Anthony, Forlines, Clifton, Matusik, Wojciech and Pfister, Hanspeter (2007): Display pre-filtering for multi-view video compression. In: Lienhart, Rainer, Prasad, Anand R., Hanjalic, Alan, Choi, Sunghyun, Bailey, Brian P. and Sebe, Nicu (eds.) Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Multimedia 2007 September 24-29, 2007, Augsburg, Germany. pp. 1046-1053. Available online

 
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Tse, Edward, Greenberg, Saul, Shen, Chia and Forlines, Clifton (2007): Multimodal multiplayer tabletop gaming. In Computers in Entertainment, 5 (2) . Available online

2006
 
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Wigdor, Daniel, Shen, Chia, Forlines, Clifton and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2006): Effects of display position and control space orientation on user preference and performance. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 309-318. Available online

In many environments, it is often the case that input is made to displays that are positioned non-traditionally relative to one or more users. This typically requires users to perform interaction tasks under transformed input-display spatial mappings, and the literature is unclear as to how such transformations affect performance. We present two experiments that explore the impact of display space position and input control space orientation on user's subjective preference and objective performance in a docking task. Our results provide guidelines as to optimal display placement and control orientation in collaborative computing environments with one or more shared displays.

© All rights reserved Wigdor et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlines, Clifton, Shen, Chia, Wigdor, Daniel and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2006): Exploring the effects of group size and display configuration on visual search. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 11-20. Available online

Visual search is the subject of countless psychology studies in which people search for target items within a scene. The bulk of this literature focuses on the individual with the goal of understanding the human perceptual system. In life, visual search is performed not only by individuals, but also by groups -- a team of doctors may study an x-ray and a team of analysts may study a satellite photograph. In this paper, we examine the issues one should consider when searching as a group. We present the details of an experiment designed to investigate the impact of group size on visual search performance, and how different display configurations affected that performance. We asked individuals, pairs, and groups of four people to participate in a baggage screening task in which these teams searched simulated x-rays for prohibited items. Teams conducted these searches on single monitors, a row of four monitors, and on a single horizontal display. Our findings suggest that groups commit far fewer errors in visual search tasks, although they may perform slower than individuals under certain conditions. The interaction between group size and display configuration turned out to be an important factor as well.

© All rights reserved Forlines et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tse, Edward, Greenberg, Saul, Shen, Chia and Forlines, Clifton (2006): Multimodal Multiplayer Tabletop Gaming. In: Proceedings Third International Workshop on Pervasive Gaming Applications (PerGames06), in conjunction with 4th Intl. Conference on Pervasive Computing 2006. pp. 139-148. Available online

There is a large disparity between the rich physical interfaces of co-located arcade games and the generic input devices seen in most home console systems. In this paper we argue that a digital table is a conducive form factor for general co-located home gaming as it affords: (a) seating in collaboratively relevant positions that give all equal opportunity to reach into the surface and share a common view, (b) rich whole handed gesture input normally only seen when handling physical objects, (c) the ability to monitor how others use space and access objects on the surface, and (d) the ability to communicate to each other and interact atop the surface via gestures and verbal utterances. Our thesis is that multimodal gesture and speech input benefits collaborative interaction over such a digital table. To investigate this thesis, we designed a multimodal, multiplayer gaming environment that allows players to interact directly atop a digital table via speech and rich whole hand gestures. We transform two commercial single player computer games, representing a strategy and simulation game genre, to work within this setting.

© All rights reserved Tse et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Tse, Edward, Shen, Chia, Greenberg, Saul and Forlines, Clifton (2006): Enabling Interaction with Single User Applications through Speech and Gestures on a Multi-User Tabletop. In: Proceedings of Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI06) May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 336-343. Available online

Tse, E., Shen, C., Greenberg, S. and Forlines, C. (2006) Enabling Interaction with Single User Applications through Speech and Gestures on a Multi-User Tabletop. Proceedings of Advanced Visual Interfaces (AVI'06), May 23-26, Venezia, Italy, ACM Press, 336 - 343.

© All rights reserved Tse et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlines, Clifton, Vogel, Daniel and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2006): HybridPointing: fluid switching between absolute and relative pointing with a direct input device. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 211-220. Available online

We present HybridPointing, a technique that lets users easily switch between absolute and relative pointing with a direct input device such as a pen. Our design includes a new graphical element, the Trailing Widget, which remains "close at hand" but does not interfere with normal cursor operation. The use of visual feedback to aid the user's understanding of input state is discussed, and several novel visual aids are presented. An experiment conducted on a large, wall-sized display validates the benefits of HybridPointing under certain conditions. We also discuss other situations in which HybridPointing may be useful. Finally, we present an extension to our technique that allows for switching between absolute and relative input in the middle of a single drag-operation.

© All rights reserved Forlines et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Wigdor, Daniel, Leigh, Darren, Forlines, Clifton, Shipman, Samuel, Barnwell, John, Balakrishnan, Ravin and Shen, Chia (2006): Under the table interaction. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 259-268. Available online

We explore the design space of a two-sided interactive touch table, designed to receive touch input from both the top and bottom surfaces of the table. By combining two registered touch surfaces, we are able to offer a new dimension of input for co-located collaborative groupware. This design accomplishes the goal of increasing the relative size of the input area of a touch table while maintaining its direct-touch input paradigm. We describe the interaction properties of this two-sided touch table, report the results of a controlled experiment examining the precision of user touches to the underside of the table, and a series of application scenarios we developed for use on inverted and two-sided tables. Finally, we present a list of design recommendations based on our experiences and observations with inverted and two-sided tables.

© All rights reserved Wigdor et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlines, Clifton, Esenther, Alan, Shen, Chia, Wigdor, Daniel and Ryall, Kathy (2006): Multi-user, multi-display interaction with a single-user, single-display geospatial application. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 273-276. Available online

In this paper, we discuss our adaptation of a single-display, single-user commercial application for use in a multi-device, multi-user environment. We wrap Google Earth, a popular geospatial application, in a manner that allows for synchronized coordinated views among multiple instances running on different machines in the same co-located environment. The environment includes a touch-sensitive tabletop display, three vertical wall displays, and a TabletPC. A set of interaction techniques that allow a group to manage and exploit this collection of devices is presented.

© All rights reserved Forlines et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Everitt, Katherine, Shen, Chia, Ryall, Kathy and Forlines, Clifton (2006): MultiSpace: Enabling Electronic Document Micro-mobility in Table-Centric, Multi-Device Environments. In: First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Tabletop 2006 5-7 January, 2006, Adelaide, Australia. pp. 27-34. Available online

 
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Ryall, Kathy, Forlines, Clifton, Shen, Chia, Morris, Meredith Ringel and Everitt, Katherine (2006): Experiences with and Observations of Direct-Touch Tabletops. In: First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Tabletop 2006 5-7 January, 2006, Adelaide, Australia. pp. 89-96. Available online

 
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Wu, Mike, Shen, Chia, Ryall, Kathy, Forlines, Clifton and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2006): Gesture Registration, Relaxation, and Reuse for Multi-Point Direct-Touch Surfaces. In: First IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Tabletop 2006 5-7 January, 2006, Adelaide, Australia. pp. 185-192. Available online

 
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Tse, Edward, Shen, Chia, Greenberg, Saul and Forlines, Clifton (2006): Enabling interaction with single user applications through speech and gestures on a multi-user tabletop. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 336-343. Available online

 
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Wigdor, Daniel, Shen, Chia, Forlines, Clifton and Balakrishnan, Ravin (2006): Table-centric interactive spaces for real-time collaboration. In: Celentano, Augusto (ed.) AVI 2006 - Proceedings of the working conference on Advanced visual interfaces May 23-26, 2006, Venezia, Italy. pp. 103-107. Available online

 
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Sidner, Candace L., Lee, Christopher, Morency, Louis-Philippe and Forlines, Clifton (2006): The effect of head-nod recognition in human-robot conversation. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGCHI/SIGART Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2006. pp. 290-296. Available online

This paper reports on a study of human participants with a robot designed to participate in a collaborative conversation with a human. The purpose of the study was to investigate a particular kind of gestural feedback from human to the robot in these conversations: head nods. During these conversations, the robot recognized head nods from the human participant. The conversations between human and robot concern demonstrations of inventions created in a lab. We briefly discuss the robot hardware and architecture and then focus the paper on a study of the effects of understanding head nods in three different conditions. We conclude that conversation itself triggers head nods by people in human-robot conversations and that telling participants that the robot recognizes their nods as well as having the robot provide gestural feedback of its nod recognition is effective in producing more nods.

© All rights reserved Sidner et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Ryall, Kathy, Esenther, Alan, Forlines, Clifton, Shen, Chia, Shipman, Sam, Morris, Meredith Ringel, Everitt, Katherine and Vernier, Frederic (2006): Identity-Differentiating Widgets for Multiuser Interactive Surfaces. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 26 (5) pp. 56-64. Available online

 
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Shen, Chia, Ryall, Kathy, Forlines, Clifton, Esenther, Alan, Vernier, Frederic, Everitt, Katherine, Wu, Mike, Wigdor, Daniel, Morris, Meredith Ringel, Hancock, Mark S. and Tse, Edward (2006): Informing the Design of Direct-Touch Tabletops. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 26 (5) pp. 36-46. Available online

2005
 
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Forlines, Clifton, Balakrishnan, Ravin, Beardsley, Paul, Baar, Jeroen van and Raskar, Ramesh (2005): Zoom-and-pick: facilitating visual zooming and precision pointing with interactive handheld projectors. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2005. pp. 73-82. Available online

Designing interfaces for interactive handheld projectors is an exiting new area of research that is currently limited by two problems: hand jitter resulting in poor input control, and possible reduction of image resolution due to the needs of image stabilization and warping algorithms. We present the design and evaluation of a new interaction technique, called zoom-and-pick, that addresses both problems by allowing the user to fluidly zoom in on areas of interest and make accurate target selections. Subtle design features of zoom-and-pick enable pixel-accurate pointing, which is not possible in most freehand interaction techniques. Our evaluation results indicate that zoom-and-pick is significantly more accurate than the standard pointing technique described in our previous work.

© All rights reserved Forlines et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlines, Clifton and Shen, Chia (2005): DTLens: multi-user tabletop spatial data exploration. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2005. pp. 119-122. Available online

Supporting groups of individuals exploring large maps and design diagrams on interactive tabletops is still an open research problem. Today\'s geospatial, mechanical engineering and CAD design applications are mostly single-user, keyboard and mouse-based desktop applications. In this paper, we present the design of and experience with DTLens, a new zoom-in-context, multi-user, two-handed, multi-lens interaction technique that enables group exploration of spatial data with multiple individual lenses on the same direct-touch interactive tabletop. DTLens provides a set of consistent interactions on lens operations, thus minimizes tool switching by users during spatial data exploration.

© All rights reserved Forlines and Shen and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Bifocal Display: [/encyclopedia/bifocal_display.html]


 
 
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Dietz, Paul H., Harsham, Bret, Forlines, Clifton, Leigh, Darren, Yerazunis, William, Shipman, Sam, Schmidt-Nielsen, Bent and Ryall, Kathy (2005): DT controls: adding identity to physical interfaces. In: Proceedings of the 2005 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2005. pp. 245-252. Available online

In this paper, we show how traditional physical interface components such as switches, levers, knobs and touch screens can be easily modified to identify who is activating each control. This allows us to change the function performed by the control, and the sensory feedback provided by the control itself, dependent upon the user. An auditing function is also available that logs each user\'s actions. We describe a number of example usage scenarios for our technique, and present two sample implementations.

© All rights reserved Dietz et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Hancock, Mark S., Shen, Chia, Forlines, Clifton and Ryall, Kathy (2005): Exploring non-speech auditory feedback at an interactive multi-user tabletop. In: Graphics Interface 2005 May 9-11, 2005, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. pp. 41-50. Available online

We present two experiments on the use of non-speech audio at an interactive multi-touch, multi-user tabletop display. We first investigate the use of two categories of reactive auditory feedback: affirmative sounds that confirm user actions and negative sounds that indicate errors. Our results show that affirmative auditory feedback may improve one's awareness of group activity at the expense of one's awareness of his or her own activity. Negative auditory feedback may also improve group awareness, but simultaneously increase the perception of errors for both the group and the individual. In our second experiment, we compare two methods of associating sounds to individuals in a co-located environment. Specifically, we compare localized sound, where each user has his or her own speaker, to coded sound, where users share one speaker, but the waveform of the sounds are varied so that a different sound is played for each user. Results of this experiment reinforce the presence of tension between group awareness and individual focus found in the first experiment. User feedback suggests that users are more easily able to identify who caused a sound when either localized or coded sound is used, but that they are also more able to focus on their individual work. Our experiments show that, in general, auditory feedback can be used in co-located collaborative applications to support either individual work or group awareness, but not both simultaneously, depending on how it is presented.

© All rights reserved Hancock et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Everitt, Katherine, Shen, Chia, Ryall, Kathy and Forlines, Clifton (2005): Modal spaces: spatial multiplexing to mediate direct-touch input on large displays. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1359-1362. Available online

We present a new interaction technique for large direct-touch displays called Modal Spaces. Modal interfaces require the user to keep track of the state of the system. The Modal Spaces technique adds screen location as an additional parameter of the interaction. Each modal region on the display supports a particular set of input actions and the visual background indicates the space's use. This "workbench approach" exploits the larger form factor of display. Our spatial multiplexing of the display supports a document-centric paradigm (as opposed to application-centric), enabling input gesture reuse, while complementing and enhancing the current existing practices of modal interfaces. We present a proof-of-concept system and discuss potential applications, design issues, and future research directions.

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Forlines, Clifton and Shen, Chia (2005): Glimpse: a novel input model for multi-level devices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1375-1378. Available online

We describe a technique that supports the previewing of navigation, exploration, and editing operations by providing convenient Undo for unsuccessful and/or undesirable actions on multi-level input devices such as touch screens and pen-based computers. By adding a Glimpse state to traditional three-state pressure sensitive input devices, users are able to preview the effects of their editing without committing to them. From this Glimpse state, users can undo their action as easily as they can commit to it, making Glimpse most appropriate for systems in which the user is likely to try out many variations of an edit before finding the right one. Exploration is encouraged as the cumbersome returning to a menu or keyboard to issue an Undo command is eliminated. Glimpse has the added benefits that the negative effects of inconsistencies in the Undo feature within an application are reduced.

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Shen, Chia, Hancock, Mark S., Forlines, Clifton and Vernier, Frederic D. (2005): CoR{sup:2}Ds. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1781-1784. Available online

We present a new popup widget, called CoR{sup:2}Ds (Context-Rooted Rotatable Draggables), designed for multi-user direct-touch tabletop environments. CoR{sup:2}Ds are interactive callout popup objects that are visually connected (rooted) at the originating displayed object by a semi-transparent colored swath. CoR{sup:2}Ds can be used to bring out menus, display drilled-down or off-screen ancillary data such as metadata and attributes, as well as instantiate tools. CoR{sup:2}Ds can be freely moved, rotated, and re-oriented on a tabletop display surface by fingers, hands, pointing devices (mice) or marking devices (such as a stylus or light pen). CoR{sup:2}Ds address five issues for interaction techniques on interactive tabletop display surfaces: occlusion, reach, context on a cluttered display, readability, and concurrent/coordinated multi-user interaction. In this paper, we present the design, interaction and implementation of CoR{sup:2}Ds. We also discuss a set of current usage scenarios.

© All rights reserved Shen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Forlines, Clifton, Schmidt-Nielsen, B., Raj, B., Wittenburg, K. and Wolf, P. (2005): A Comparison Between Spoken Queries and Menu-Based Interfaces for In-car Digital Music Selection. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 536-549. Available online

Distracted driving is a significant issue for our society today, and yet information technologies, including growing digital music collections, continue to be introduced into the automobile. This paper describes work concerning methods designed to lessen cognitive load and distracting visual demands on drivers as they go about the task of searching for and listening to digital music. The existing commercial paradigms for retrieval -- graphical or spoken menu traversal, and text-based search -- are unsatisfactory when cognitive resources are limited and keyboards are unavailable. We have previously proposed to use error-tolerant spoken queries [26] combined with direct modalities such as buttons mounted on the steering wheel [7]. In this paper, we present in detail the results of an experiment designed to compare the industry standard approach of hierarchical graphical menus to our approach. We found our proposed interface to be more efficient and less distracting in a simulated driving task.

© All rights reserved Forlines et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Forlines, Clifton, Shen, C., Vernier, F. and Wu, M. (2005): Under My Finger: Human Factors in Pushing and Rotating Documents Across the Table. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 994-997. Available online

When passing a document to someone across a table, the person passing the document often rotates it to face the receiver. In this paper, we present the results of a user evaluation of three Push-and-Rotate schemes that offer different underlying control semantics for how an electronic document can automatically rotate as it is pushed across an interactive tabletop surface. The effects of document size are also discussed.

© All rights reserved Forlines et al. and/or Springer Verlag

 
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Everitt, K., Shen, C., Ryall, K. and Forlines, Clifton (2005): DocuBits and Containers: Providing e-Document Micro-mobility in a Walk-Up Interactive Tabletop Environment. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 998-1001. Available online

A key challenge in supporting face-to-face collaborative work is edocument micro-mobility: supporting movement of digital content amongst shared display surfaces and personal devices at arbitrary levels of document granularity. Micro-mobility is a dexterity that physical paper artifacts afford - the ability to be handled with any position and placement, to be dismantled, cut and torn apart, marked up, reassembled and sorted. To support micromobility for electronic content and group work, we propose DocuBits and Containers. DocuBits offer the metaphor of a paper-cutter and a scanner for electronic documents. A portion of screen 'bits' from any application or any parts of visible display can be cut, grabbed, sent and launched onto a different display surface or device with minimal interaction - merely three mouse/stylus click-select. Once arrived on the target display surface, DocuBits can be arbitrarily positioned, re-oriented, marked up, and pulled into other documents, or again sent to other display surfaces. A Container is a composite draft of DocuBits and other documents, usually composed as the outcome of a collaborative meeting.

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Beardsley, Paul A., Baar, Jeroen van, Raskar, Ramesh and Forlines, Clifton (2005): Interaction Using a Handheld Projector. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 25 (1) pp. 39-43. Available online

2004
 
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Shen, Chia, Vernier, Frederic D., Forlines, Clifton and Ringel, Meredith (2004): DiamondSpin: an extensible toolkit for around-the-table interaction. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 167-174. Available online

DiamondSpin is a toolkit for the efficient prototyping of and experimentation with multi-person, concurrent interfaces for interactive shared displays. In this paper, we identify the fundamental functionality that tabletop user interfaces should embody, then present the toolkit's architecture and API. DiamondSpin provides a novel real-time polar to Cartesian transformation engine that has enabled new, around-the-table interaction metaphors to be implemented. DiamondSpin allows arbitrary document positioning and orientation on a tabletop surface. Polygonal tabletop layouts such as rectangular, octagonal, and circular tabletops can easily be constructed. DiamondSpin also supports multiple work areas within the same digital tabletop. Multi-user operations are offered through multi-threaded input event streams, multiple active objects, and multiple concurrent menus. We also discuss insights on tabletop interaction issues we have observed from a set of applications built with DiamondSpin.

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Morris, Meredith Ringel, Ryall, Kathy, Shen, Chia, Forlines, Clifton and Vernier, Frederic (2004): Beyond "social protocols": multi-user coordination policies for co-located groupware. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 262-265. Available online

The status quo for co-located groupware is to assume that "social protocols" (standards of polite behavior) are sufficient to coordinate the actions of a group of users; however, prior studies of groupware use as well as our own observations of groups using a shared tabletop display suggest potential for improving groupware interfaces by incorporating coordination policies - direct manipulation mechanisms for avoiding and resolving conflicts. We discuss our observations of group tabletop usage and present our coordination framework. We conclude with example usage scenarios and discuss future research suggested by this framework.

© All rights reserved Morris et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Ryall, Kathy, Forlines, Clifton, Shen, Chia and Morris, Meredith Ringel (2004): Exploring the effects of group size and table size on interactions with tabletop shared-display groupware. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW04 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2004. pp. 284-293. Available online

Interactive tabletops have been previously proposed and studied in the domain of co-located group applications. However, little fundamental research has been done to explore the issue of size. In this paper we identify a number of size considerations for tabletop design, and present an experiment to explore some of these issues, in particular the effects of group size and table size on the speed at which the task was performed, the distribution of work among group members, issues of shared resources, and user preference for table size. Our findings shed light on (1) how work strategies are affected by group size, (2) how social interaction varies with respect to table size, and (3) how the speed of task performance is influenced by group size but not by table size. In addition, our experiments revealed that for larger groups, designers might need to add additional vertical displays for shared information. This finding opens the door for extending single-display groupware to shared-display groupware settings that involve multiple, shared displays.

© All rights reserved Ryall et al. and/or ACM Press

2003
 
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Wittenburg, Kent, Forlines, Clifton, Lanning, Tom, Esenther, Alan, Harada, Shigeo and Miyachi, Taizo (2003): Rapid serial visual presentation techniques for consumer digital video devices. In: Proceedings of the 16th annural ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology November, 2-5, 2003, Vancouver, Canada. pp. 115-124. Available online

In this paper we propose a new model for a class of rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) interfaces [16] in the context of consumer video devices. The basic spatial layout "explodes" a sequence of image frames into a 3D trail in order to provide more context for a spatial/temporal presentation. As the user plays forward or back, the trail advances or recedes while the image in the foreground focus position is replaced. The design is able to incorporate a variety of methods for analyzing or highlighting images in the trail. Our hypotheses are that users can navigate more quickly and precisely to points of interest when compared to conventional consumer-based browsing, channel flipping, or fast-forwarding techniques. We report on an experiment testing our hypotheses in which we found that subjects were more accurate but not faster in browsing to a target of interest in recorded television content with a TV remote.

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Wittenburg, K., Lanning, T., Forlines, Clifton and Esenther, A. (2003): Rapid Serial Visual Presentation Techniques for Visualizing a 3rd Data Dimension. In: Stephanidis, Constantine (ed.) Proceedings of the Tenth International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction June 22-27, 2003, Crete, Greece. pp. 810-816.

2002
 
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Shen, Chia, Lesh, Neal, Vernier, Frederic D., Forlines, Clifton and Frost, Jeana (2002): Sharing and building digital group histories. In: Churchill, Elizabeth F., McCarthy, Joe, Neuwirth, Christine and Rodden, Tom (eds.) Proceedings of the 2002 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 2002, New Orleans, Louisiana, USA. pp. 324-333. Available online

Organizations, families, institutions evolve a shared culture and history. In this work, we describe a system to facilitate conversation and storytelling about this collective past. Users explore digital archives of shared materials such as photographs, video, and text documents on a tabletop interface. Both the software and the interface encourage natural conversation and reflection. This work is an application of our ongoing research on systems for multiple, co-present users to explore digital collections. In this paper, we present a case study of our own group history along with the software extensions developed for this scenario. These extensions include methods for easily branching off from and returning to previous threads of the exploration, incorporating background contexts that support a variety of view points and flexible story sharing, and supporting the active and passive discovery of relevant information.

© All rights reserved Shen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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