Publication statistics

Pub. period:2005-2011
Pub. count:18
Number of co-authors:20



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Brad A. Myers:11
Mary Shaw:8
Margaret M. Burnett:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Christopher Scaffidi's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
Mary Beth Rosson:142
Margaret M. Burnet..:103
 
 
 
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Christopher Scaffidi

Picture of Christopher Scaffidi.
Personal Homepage:
web.engr.oregonstate.edu/~cscaffid/

Christopher Scaffidi is currently an Assistant Professor of Computer Science in the School of EECS at Oregon State University. His research interests are where human-computer interaction and software engineering intersect. Most of his current projects aim to help software users to create code for themselves, and to effectively share that code with one another. He is presently serving as Director of the EUSES Consortium, an international association of seven universities and one company. He was Co-chair for the Poster/Work-in-progress track at the 2009 International Symposium on End-User Development and is on the program committee for the 2010 ACM SIGCHI Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems. He is a member of the ACM and IEEE.

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Publications by Christopher Scaffidi (bibliography)

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2011

Burnett, Margaret M. and Scaffidi, Christopher (2013): End-User Development. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at http://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html

 
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Ko, Andrew J., Abraham, Robin, Beckwith, Laura, Blackwell, Alan, Burnett, Margaret M., Erwig, Martin, Scaffidi, Christopher, Lawrance, Joseph, Lieberman, Henry, Myers, Brad A., Rosson, Mary Beth, Rothermel, Gregg, Shaw, Mary and Wiedenbeck, Susan (2011): The State of the Art in End-User Software Engineering. In ACM Computing Surveys, 43 (3) pp. 1-44

Most programs today are written not by professional software developers, but by people with expertise in other domains working towards goals for which they need computational support. For example, a teacher might write a grading spreadsheet to save time grading, or an interaction designer might use an interface builder to test some user interface design ideas. Although these end-user programmers may not have the same goals as professional developers, they do face many of the same software engineering challenges, including understanding their requirements, as well as making decisions about design, reuse, integration, testing, and debugging. This article summarizes and classifies research on these activities, defining the area of End-User Software Engineering (EUSE) and related terminology. The article then discusses empirical research about end-user software engineering activities and the technologies designed to support them. The article also addresses several crosscutting issues in the design of EUSE tools, including the roles of risk, reward, and domain complexity, and self-efficacy in the design of EUSE tools and the potential of educating users about software engineering principles.

© All rights reserved Ko et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
2010
 
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Myers, Brad A., Burnett, Margaret M., Ko, Andrew J., Rosson, Mary Beth, Scaffidi, Christopher and Wiedenbeck, Susan (2010): End user software engineering: CHI 2010 special interest group meeting. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 3189-3192

End users create software whenever they create, for instance, interactive web pages, games, educational simulations, or spreadsheets. Researchers are working to bring the benefits of rigorous software engineering methodologies to these end users to try to make their software more reliable. Unfortunately, errors are pervasive in end-user software, and the resulting impact is sometimes enormous. This special interest group meeting will bring together the community of researchers who are addressing this topic with the companies that are creating and using end-user programming tools.

© All rights reserved Myers et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Bogart, Christopher, Burnett, Margaret M., Cypher, Allen, Myers, Brad A. and Shaw, Mary (2010): Using traits of web macro scripts to predict reuse. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 21 (5) pp. 277-291

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher (2010): Sharing, finding and reusing end-user code for reformatting and validating data. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 21 (4) pp. 230-245

2009
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Myers, Brad A. and Shaw, Mary (2009): Intelligently creating and recommending reusable reformatting rules. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2009. pp. 297-306.

When users combine data from multiple sources into a spreadsheet or dataset, the result is often a mishmash of different formats, since phone numbers, dates, course numbers and other string-like kinds of data can each be written in many different formats. Although spreadsheets provide features for reformatting numbers and a few specific kinds of string data, they do not provide any support for the wide range of other kinds of string data encountered by users. We describe a user interface where a user can describe the formats of each kind of data. We provide an algorithm that uses these formats to automatically generate reformatting rules that transform strings from one format to another. In effect, our system enables users to create a small expert system called a "tope" that can recognize and reformat instances of one kind of data. Later, as the user is working with a spreadsheet, our system recommends appropriate topes for validating and reformatting the data. With a recall of over 80% for a query time of under 1 second, this algorithm is accurate enough and fast enough to make useful recommendations in an interactive setting. A laboratory experiment shows that compared to manual typing, users can reformat sample spreadsheet data more than twice as fast by creating and using topes.

© All rights reserved Scaffidi et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Myers, Brad A. and Shaw, Mary (2009): Fast, Accurate Creation of Data Validation Formats by End-User Developers. In: Pipek, Volkmar, Rosson, Mary Beth, Ruyter, Boris E. R. de and Wulf, Volker (eds.) End-User Development - 2nd International Symposium - IS-EUD 2009 March 2-4, 2009, Siegen, Germany. pp. 242-261

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher (2009). Topes: Enabling End-User Programmers to Validate and Reformat Data, PhD Dissertation, Technical Report CMU-ISR-09-105. Institute for Software Research (ISR), Carnegie Mellon University

Millions of people rely on software for help with everyday tasks. For example, a teacher might create a spreadsheet to compute grades, and a human resources worker might create a web form to collect contact information from co-workers. Yet, too often, software applications offer poor support for automating certain activities, which people must do manually. In particular, many tasks require validating and reformatting short human-readable strings drawn from categories such as company names and employee ID numbers. These string-containing categories have three traits that existing applications do not reflect. First, each category can be multi-format in that each of its instances can be written several different ways. Second, each category can include questionable values that are unusual yet still valid. During user tasks, such strings often are worthy of doublechecking, as they are neither obviously valid nor obviously invalid. Third, each category is application-agnostic in that its rules for validating and reformatting strings are not specific to one software applicationrather, its rules are agreed upon implicitly or explicitly by members of an organization or society. For example, a web form might have a field for entering Carnegie Mellon office phone numbers like 8-3564 or 412-268-3564. Current web form design tools offer no convenient way to create code for putting strings into a consistent format, nor do they help users create code to detect inputs that are unusual but maybe valid, such as 7-3564 (since our office phone numbers rarely start with 7). In order to help users with their tasks, this dissertation presents a new kind of abstraction called a tope and a supporting development environment. Each tope describes how to validate and reformat instances of a data category. Topes are sufficiently expressive for creating useful, accurate rules for validating and reformatting a wide range of data categories commonly encountered by end users. By creating and applying topes, end users can validate and reformat strings more quickly and effectively than they can with currently-practiced techniques. Tope implementations are reusable across applications and by different people, highlighting the leverage provided by end-user programming research aimed at developing new kinds of application-agnostic abstractions. The topes model demonstrates that such abstractions can be successful if they model a shallow level of semantics, thereby retaining usability without sacrificing usefulness for supporting users real-world goals

© All rights reserved Scaffidi and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Bogart, Christopher, Burnett, Margaret M., Cypher, Allen, Myers, Brad A. and Shaw, Mary (2009): Predicting reuse of end-user web macro scripts. In: IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing - VL/HCC 2009 20-24 September, 2009, Corvallis, OR, USA. pp. 93-100

2008
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Myers, Brad A. and Shaw, Mary (2008): Toped: enabling end-user programmers to validate data. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3519-3524.

Inputs to spreadsheets and web forms often contain typos or other errors. However, existing tools require end-user programmers (EUPs) to write regular expressions or even scripts to validate data, which is slow and error-prone. We present a new technique enabling EUPs to describe data as a series of constrained parts. We incorporate our technique in a prototype tool called Toped, which generates validation code for Excel and web forms. Our technique enables EUPs to validate data more quickly and accurately than with existing techniques, finding 90% of invalid inputs in a lab study.

© All rights reserved Scaffidi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bogart, Christopher, Burnett, Margaret M., Cypher, Allen and Scaffidi, Christopher (2008): End-user programming in the wild: A field study of CoScripter scripts. In: VL-HCC 2008 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 15-19 September, 2008, Herrsching am Ammersee, Germany. pp. 39-46.

 
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Koesnandar, Andhy, Elbaum, Sebastian G., Rothermel, Gregg, Hochstein, Lorin, Scaffidi, Christopher and Stolee, Kathryn T. (2008): Using assertions to help end-user programmers create dependable web macros. In: Harrold, Mary Jean and Murphy, Gail C. (eds.) Proceedings of the 16th ACM SIGSOFT International Symposium on Foundations of Software Engineering November 9-14, 2008, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 124-134

Web macros give web browser users ways to "program" tedious tasks, allowing those tasks to be repeated more quickly and reliably than when performed by hand. Web macros face dependability problems of their own, however: changes in websites or failure on the part of end-user programmers to anticipate possible macro behaviors can cause macros to act incorrectly, often in ways that are difficult to detect. We would like to provide at least some of the benefits of software engineering methodologies to the creators of web macros. To do this we adapt assertions to web-macro programming scenarios. While assertions are well-known to professional software engineers, our web macro assertions are unique in their focus on website evolution, are generated automatically, and encode the expectations and assumptions of a rapidly growing group of users who often have limited formal programming expertise. We have integrated our techniques for assertion generation and evaluation into a web macro tool, and performed an empirical study investigating its use. Our results show that the assertions can help web macro users detect macro failures and correct macro faults.

© All rights reserved Koesnandar et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Cypher, Allen, Elbaum, Sebastian G., Koesnandar, Andhy and Myers, Brad A. (2008): Using scenario-based requirements to direct research on web macro tools. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 19 (4) pp. 485-498

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
2007
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Cypher, Allen, Elbaum, Sebastian G., Koesnandar, Andhy and Myers, Brad A. (2007): Scenario-Based Requirements for Web Macro Tools. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. pp. 197-204.

 
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Scaffidi, Christopher (2007): A Lightweight Model for End Users' Data: Progress and Future Work. In: VL-HCC 2007 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 23-27 September, 2007, Coeur dAlene, Idaho, USA. pp. 268-269.

2006
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Ko, Andrew Jensen, Myers, Brad A. and Shaw, Mary (2006): Dimensions Characterizing Programming Feature Usage by Information Workers. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 59-64.

 
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Scaffidi, Christopher (2006): A Lightweight Model for End Users' Domain-Specific Data. In: VL-HCC 2006 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 4-8 September, 2006, Brighton, UK. pp. 242-243.

2005
 
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Scaffidi, Christopher, Shaw, Mary and Myers, Brad A. (2005): Estimating the Numbers of End Users and End User Programmers. In: VL-HCC 2005 - IEEE Symposium on Visual Languages and Human-Centric Computing 21-24 September, 2005, Dallas, TX, USA. pp. 207-214.

 Cited in the following chapter:

End-User Development: [/encyclopedia/end-user_development.html]


 
 
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27 Oct 2011: Modified
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/christopher_scaffidi.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:2005-2011
Pub. count:18
Number of co-authors:20



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Brad A. Myers:11
Mary Shaw:8
Margaret M. Burnett:6

 

 

Productive colleagues

Christopher Scaffidi's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Brad A. Myers:154
Mary Beth Rosson:142
Margaret M. Burnet..:103
 
 
 
Jul 11

Creative without strategy is called ‘art‘. Creative with strategy is called ‘advertising‘

-- Jef I. Richards

 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

Kumar and Herger 2013: Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software...
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger

 
Start reading

Whitworth and Ahmad 2013: The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities...
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad

 
Start reading

Soegaard and Dam 2013: The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed....
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam

 
Start reading
 
 

Help us help you!