Publication statistics

Pub. period:1998-2014
Pub. count:67
Number of co-authors:24



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Adnan Ahmad:27
Tong Liu:5
Lech Janczewski:4

 

 

Productive colleagues

Brian Whitworth's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Murray Turoff:50
Michael Bieber:38
Jerry Fjermestad:31
 
 
 

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Our Latest Books

 
 
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
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Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
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The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
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The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
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Brian Whitworth

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Personal Homepage:
http://brianwhitworth.com/

Born in England and brought up in New Zealand, Brian Whitworth currently works at Massey University in Auckland, New Zealand. After doing a mathematics degree, and a Master's thesis on split-brain neuropsychology, Brian joined the New Zealand Army, where he was the first specialist to complete regular army officer cadet training. He worked as an army psychologist, and then in computer operational simulations (wargames), while simultaneously raising four wonderful children, until he retired in 1989 as a Major. Brian then completed his doctorate on online groups, and students at his university used the social voting system he built until the World Wide Web arrived. In 1999, he worked in the USA as a professor, and published in journals like Small Group Research, Group Decision and Negotiation, Communications of the AIS, IEEE Computer, Behavior and Information Technology, and Communications of the ACM. More recently, he was the senior editor of the Handbook of Research on Socio-Technical Design and Social Networking Systems, written by over a hundred leading experts worldwide. His interests include computing, psychology, quantum theory and motor-cycle riding.

 

Publications by Brian Whitworth (bibliography)

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2014

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): Socio-Technical System Design. In: Soegaard, Mads and Dam, Rikke Friis (eds.). "The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.". Aarhus, Denmark: The Interaction Design Foundation. Available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

 
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Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

Hundreds of millions of people use social technologies like Wikipedia, Facebook and YouTube every day, but what makes them work? And what is the next step? The Social Design of Technical Systems explores the path from computing revolution to social evolution. Based on the assumption that it is essential to consider social as well as technological requirements, as we move to create the systems of the future, this book explores the ways in which technology fits, or fails to fit, into the social reality of the modern world. Important performance criteria for social systems, such as fairness, synergy, transparency, order and freedom, are clearly explained for the first time from within a comprehensive systems framework, making this book invaluable for anyone interested in socio-technical systems, especially those planning to build social software. This book reveals the social dilemmas that destroy communities, exposes the myth that computers are smart, analyses social errors like the credit meltdown, proposes online rights standards and suggests community-based business models. If you believe that our future depends on merging social virtue and technology power, you should read this book.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and Ahmad and/or The Interaction Design Foundation

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2014): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 87-92964-10-9. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems_2nd_ed.html

2013
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Ahmad, Adnan (2013): The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. Aarhus, Denmark, The Interaction Design Foundation. ISBN: 978-87-92964-03-8. Book available online at https://www.interaction-design.org/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems.html

Hundreds of millions of people use social technologies like Wikipedia, Facebook and YouTube every day, but what makes them work? And what is the next step? The Social Design of Technical Systems explores the path from computing revolution to social evolution. Based on the assumption that it is essential to consider social as well as technological requirements, as we move to create the systems of the future, this book explores the ways in which technology fits, or fails to fit, into the social reality of the modern world. Important performance criteria for social systems, such as fairness, synergy, transparency, order and freedom, are clearly explained for the first time from within a comprehensive systems framework, making this book invaluable for anyone interested in socio-technical systems, especially those planning to build social software. This book reveals the social dilemmas that destroy communities, exposes the myth that computers are smart, analyses social errors like the credit meltdown, proposes online rights standards and suggests community-based business models. If you believe that our future depends on merging social virtue and technology power, you should read this book.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and Ahmad and/or The Interaction Design Foundation

2012
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Sylla, Cheickna (2012): A Social Environment Model of Socio-technical Performance. In International Journal for Networking and Virtual Organizations, 11 (1) pp. 1-29

This paper analyzes the nature of social performance, to explain how socio-technical systems (STSs) like chat, e-markets, social networks and wikis can succeed despite being free of charge. It defines the non-zero-sum synergy gains of cooperation and how self-interested acts can collapse the society that creates them. How physical human society dealt with this "social dilemma" then relates to the socio-technical advance. In this model society is a social environment within a world environment, so its citizens face the dual requirements of self-interest and social-interest, which can be satisfied by anchoring one demand then managing the other, e.g. competing within a social context, as in markets, or community service within an individual context of sufficiency. The latter, it is proposed, is the new social form that socio-technical systems illustrate and which could be the future of humanity.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and Sylla and/or their publisher

 
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Ahmad, Adnan, Whitworth, Brian and Janczewski, Lech (2012): Dynamic Rights Reallocation in Social Networks. In: 6th International Symposium on Human Aspects of Information Security and Assurance HAISA 2012 6-8 June, 2012, Crete, Greece.

Access control, as part of every software system, has evolved as computing has evolved. Its original aim was to limit unauthorized access to centralized systems, but the rise of social networks like Facebook has changed that. Now each person wants to control who sees photos or makes comments on their local wall by making and unmaking friends, i.e. dynamic, distributed rights control. Social networks already have access control, but there is currently no agreed logical model for their rights, no consistent scheme for allocating and re-allocating permissions to create, edit, delete and view social objects and entities. A socio-technical approach based on social and technical requirements can give the basics of a model. Various rights reallocations like multiply, divide, transfer and delegate are explored. It suggests a theoretical base for access control beyond its security parent.

© All rights reserved Ahmad et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Ahmad, Adnan, Whitworth, Brian and Janczewski, Lech (2012): More Choices, More Control: Extending Access Control by Meta-Rights Reallocation. In: International Workshop on Trust, Security and Privacy in e-Government, e-Systems and Social Networking eGSSN-12 June 25-27, 2012, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

Online Social Networks (OSN) are platforms that let users build relationships by interacting with each other and adding objects. They differ from simple technical systems in having to satisfy social as well as technical requirements, so OSN access control is both more complex and more subtle than traditional. Currently, it is managed by local management of individual domains and local roles like friend. But making friend gives them rights, raising the issue of meta-rights, the right to issue a right. As user move from friend dyads to groups to communities, a systematic scheme to handle etarights (e.g. transferring, delegating, multiplying and dividing rights) is required. This paper outlines a general model to manage meta-rights for OSN in particular and socio-technical systems in general. The model's validity derives from ociotechnical design, where social requirements like ownership and fairness give technical axioms.

© All rights reserved Ahmad et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Whitworth, Brian, Janczewski, Lech and Ahmad, Adnan (2012): A Logic of Creation in Online Social Networks. In: The 2012 World Congress in Computer Science, Computer Engineering and Applied Computing WORLDCOMP12 July 16-19, 2012, Las Vegas, USA.

A community is a social entity that by norms, laws or ethics grants its citizens rights - social permissions to act. It does so to help itself, as a community that prospers helps its members. Online social networks are computer based communities whose social requirements are not too different from any other. Access control in these networks requires some logical foundation to build upon. Without an agreed logical basis to distribute social rights, current access control models are based on intuition, experience or trial and error. This paper suggests anonine entity creation logic based on the socio-technical approach - use the knowledge of physical society as the basis of information rights model for online communities. Social axioms give a theoretical base for rights analysis that could not only satisfy technical requirements like efficiency but also social requirements like fairness.

© All rights reserved Whitworth et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Enggong, Lornie and Whitworth, Brian (2012): Investigating personal and community factors in e-government: a citizen's perspective. In: Pacific Asia Conference on Information Systems PACIS 2012 2012.

This paper investigates the importance of personal factors and community factors in e-government based on the e-consultation aspect of government-to-citizen (G2C) interaction. The personal factors studied were ease of use, usefulness, reliability and security, and the community factors studied were privacy, transparency, participation and accountability. While previous empirical studies have focused mainly on personal factors of e-government web sites, this study also investigates community factors. The data analysis suggested that both personal and community factors are important factors in e-government web sites usage. Working from a socio-technical system design perspective, this paper proposes an e-government framework that reflects a G2C interaction by introducing community factors as a new e-government web site dimension, in addition to the well known personal factors that influence web site usage in general.

© All rights reserved Enggong and Whitworth and/or their publisher

 
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Ahmad, Adnan, Whitworth, Brian and Janczewski, Lech (2012): A Framework of Rights Allocation in Online Social Networks. In: International Conference on Advances in Information Technology December 6-7, 2012, Bangkok, Thailand.

Access control is the process by which authorized users are granted permission over resources. Access control models incorporate application requirements in their design and evolve with the applications. The rise of online social networks (OSN) like Facebook has posed new social requirements over the privacy of users' data. This is partially due to the social structure of users and partially due to the complexity of OSN having millions of users interacting with each other. Currently, there are some access control models for OSN but they lack a systematical scheme to allocate and re-allocate rights over social objects and entities. This paper presents a rights allocation framework based on the characteristics of rights allocation in OSN and provides a reduction tree to design the model based on these properties. The proposed framework extends the availability of rights and can be used as a basis for different rights allocation models in online social networks.

© All rights reserved Ahmad et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Ahmad, Adnan and Whitworth, Brian (2012): COAT: Collaborative Outgoing Anti-Spam Technique. In: International Conference on Advances in Information Technology December 6-7, 2012, Bangkok, Thailand.

Spam and anti-spam techniques are part of email since its birth. Spam is electronic garbage with no anticipating recipient and almost always deleted. In 2010, around 89% of all emails were spam, resulting in an estimated 260 billion spam emails sent every single day. Most of the current anti-spamming systems focus on incoming spam but these messages still travel the internet world and waste bandwidth, storage and processing resources. This research proposes a collaborative outgoing anti-spam technique to reduce the spread of spam on the internet. The technique targets outgoing emails and its use would free the internet from 260 billion spam a day. During real-time experiment, it blocked 99.95% of the total spam generated with 99.57% elimination at sender side.

© All rights reserved Ahmad and Whitworth and/or their publisher

 
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Ahmad, Adnan and Whitworth, Brian (2012): Future Directions in Access Control for Online Social Networks. In: International Conference on Networks and Information November 24-25, 2012, Bangkok, Thailand.

Access control is the process by which authorized users are granted permission over resources. Access control models incorporate application requirements in their design and thus evolve with the applications. The rise of online social networks (OSN), like Facebook, has posed new requirements over the privacy of users' data due to the presence of heterogeneous privacy circle. The traditional models cannot be used for this new type of applications for the complexity of millions of users interacting with each other. Different access control models for OSN are proposed based on relationships, trust, rule semantics, or history between the user and the requestor, however, rights delegation, rights transfer, reputation management and transparency are still ignored by the research community. To address these concerns and challenges, further research is needed. This paper reviews these challenges and presents a number of future research directions for access control models in the context of OSN.

© All rights reserved Ahmad and Whitworth and/or their publisher

 
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Ahmad, Adnan and Whitworth, Brian (2012): Ethical Issues in Online Social Networks. In: International Conference on Networks and Information November 24-25, 2012, Bangkok, Thailand.

A community is a social entity that by norms, laws or ethics grants its citizens rights - social permissions to act. Online social networks are computer based communities whose social requirements are not too different from any other. Access control in these networks requires some logical foundation to build upon. Without an agreed logical basis to distribute social rights, current access control models are based on intuition, experience or trial and error. This paper identifies some ethical issues in online social networks and suggests their solutions by socio-technical approach - use the knowledge of physical society as the basis of information rights model for online communities. Social axioms provide a theoretical base for rights analysis that could not only satisfy technical but also social and ethical requirements.

© All rights reserved Ahmad and Whitworth and/or their publisher

2011
 
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Ahmad, Adnan and Whitworth, Brian (2011): Distributed access control for social networks. In 2011 7th International Conference on Information Assurance and Security IAS, pp. 68-73

Access control is the process by which access to information is granted to users for certain actions based on their identity. Traditional access control models that map every system resource directly to every system user work for organizations with thousands of users but struggle for social network sites like Facebook with millions of users. The problems faced are firstly the technical complexity of mapping millions of users to billions of resources and secondly the social need of users to own the items they post and to control their access, so access policies beyond just public/private are needed. And finally, that if ordinary users are to manage their own access control, they need software support. This paper argues that only distributed access control can meet these challenges and proposes a model based on the socio-technical design paradigm: first define the social requirements then design a technical solution to fulfill them.

© All rights reserved Ahmad and Whitworth and/or IEEE

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian (2011): The Virtual Reality Conjecture. In Prespacetime Journal, 2 (9) p. 14041433

We take our world to be an objective reality, but is it? The assumption that the physical world exists in and of itself has struggled to assimilate the findings of modern physics for some time now. For example, an objective space and time would just "be", but in relativity, space contracts and time dilates. Likewise objective "things" should just inherently exist, but the entities of quantum theory are probability of existence smears, that spread, tunnel, superpose and entangle in physically impossible ways. Cosmology even tells us that our entire physical universe just "popped up", from nowhere, about 14 billion years ago. This is not how an objectively real world should behave! Yet traditional alternatives don't work much better. That the world is just an illusion of the mind doesn't explain its consistent realism and Descartes dualism, that another reality beyond the physical exists, just doubles the existential problem. It is time to consider an option we might normally dismiss out of hand. This essay explores the virtual reality conjecture, that the physical world is the digital output of nonphysical quantum processing. It finds it neither illogical, nor unscientific, nor incompatible with current physics. In this model, quantum entities are programs, movement is the transfer of processing, interactions are processing overloads and the fields of physics are network properties. It has no empty space, no singularities and all the conservations of physics just conserve processing. Its prediction, that the collision of high frequency light in a vacuum can create permanent matter, will test it. If the physical world has the properties of a processing output, physics must rewrite the story behind its equations.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
2010
 
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Whitworth, Brian (2010): The emergence of the physical world from information processing. In CoRR, 0 . Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian (2010): Simulating space and time. In CoRR, 0 . Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian (2010): The Light of Existence. In CoRR, 0 . Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian and Whitworth, Alex P. (2010): The social environment model: Small heroes and the evolution of human society. In First Monday, 15 (11) . Available online

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
2009
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Liu, Tong (2009): Channel E-mail: A Sociotechnical Response to Spam. In IEEE Computer, 42 (7) pp. 63-72. Available online

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Friedman, Robert S. (2009): Reinventing Academic Publishing Online. Part I: Rigor, Relevance and Practice. In First Monday, 14 (8) . Available online

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Friedman, Robert S. (2009): Reinventing Academic Publishing Online. Part II: A Socio-technical Vision. In First Monday, 14 (9) . Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian and Zealand, New (2009): Politeness as a Social Software requirement. In Outlook, 1 (0) pp. 65-84

 
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Whitworth, Brian (2009): A Comparison of Human and Computer Information Processing. In: Pagani, Margherita (ed.). "Encyclopedia of Multimedia Technology and Networking (2 Volume Set)". Idea Group Publishingp. 230239

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Moor, Aldo de (2009): Handbook of Research on Socio-Technical Design and Social Networking Systems (2-Volumes). Information Science Reference

 
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Whitworth, Brian (2009): The social requirements of technical systems. In: Whitworth, Brian and Moor, Aldo de (eds.). "Handbook of Research on Socio-Technical Design and Social Networking Systems (2-Volumes)". Information Science Reference

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Liu, Tong (2009): Channel email: Evaluating social communication efficiency. In IEEE Computer, 42 (7) pp. 63-72

Spam wastes Internet processing, bandwidth, and storage. Like many other sociotechnical problems computing today faces, it's not solvable by purely technical approaches like filters or social responses like passing laws. Channel e-mail offers a solution that can enable social as well as technical communication efficiency.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and Liu and/or IEEE

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
2008
 
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Whitworth, Brian (2008): Some Implications of Comparing Brain and Computer Processing. In: HICSS 2008 - 41st Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 7-10 January, 2008, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. p. 38. Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian and Friedman, Robert S. (2008): Full access and review: applying socio-technical practice to academia. In: Ekstrom, Joseph J. and Stockman, Mark (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th Conference on Information Technology Education - SIGITE 2008 October 16-18, 2008, Cincinnati, OH, USA. pp. 231-236. Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian (2008): The Physical World as a Virtual Reality. In CoRR, 0 . Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian, Bauls, Victor, Sylla, Cheickna and Mahinda, Edward (2008): Expanding the Criteria for Evaluating Socio-Technical Software. In IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, 38 (4) pp. 777-790. Available online

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Liu, Tong (2008): Politeness as a Social Computing Requirement. In: Luppicini, Rocci (ed.). "Handbook of Conversation Design for Instructional Applications (Premier Reference Source)". Information Science Referencepp. 419-436

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian (2008): Some Implications of Comparing Brain and Computer Processing. In: Proceedings of the 41st Annual Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2008.

Like a computer, the human brain inputs, processes, stores and outputs information. Yet the brain evolved along different design principles from those of the Von Neumann architecture that lies behind most computers in operation today. A comparison of human and computer information processing styles suggests basic differences in: 1. Control (Central vs. Distributed), 2. Input (Sequential vs. Parallel), 3. Output (Exclusive vs. Overlaid), 4. Storage (by Address vs. by Content), 5. Initiation (Input vs. Process driven) and 6. Self Processing (Low vs. High). The conclusion is that the brain is a different type of information processor, not an inferior one. This suggests replacing technological utopianism with socio-technical progress, where computers plus people form more powerful systems than either alone. For this to occur, the computer must change its role from clever actor to simple assistant.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
2007
 
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Forman, Bruce Jay and Whitworth, Brian (2007): Information Disclosure and the Online Customer Relationship. In: Quality, Values and Choice Workshop, Computer Human Interaction 2007, Portland, Oregon, USA. pp. 1-7

The issue of eliciting personal information poses ethical and social issues for the designers of electronically mediated human-human and human-organizational information systems. Equally personal information disclosure is central to online trade, because customers who cannot be convinced to disclose cannot trade, as without details like delivery address and credit card there is no trade. A participant's willingness to disclose personal information is an important indicator of trust, as every e-business transaction requires some disclosure, like name, address and credit card. This paper considers the factors that affect disclosure in an online environment, and suggest three: privacy contract, reciprocity and disclosure type. Initial data suggests that disclosure is affected by the type of information requested.

© All rights reserved Forman and Whitworth and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
2006
 
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Whitworth, Brian, Fjermestad, Jerry and Mahinda, Edward (2006): The web of system performance. In Communications of the ACM, 49 (5) pp. 92-99. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian, Moor, Aldo de and Liu, Tong (2006): Towards a Theory of Online Social Rights. In: Meersman, Robert, Tari, Zahir and Herrero, Pilar (eds.) On the Move to Meaningful Internet Systems 2006 OTM 2006 Workshops, OTM Confederated International Workshops and Posters, AWeSOMe, CAMS, COMINF, IS, KSinBIT, MIOS-CIAO, MONET, OnToContent, ORM, PerSys, OTM Academy Doctoral Consortium, RDDS, SWWS, and SeBG 2006. pp. 247-256. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian, DeMoor, Aldo and Liu, Tong (2006): Towards a Theory of Online Social Rights. In The Monist, 52 (4)

This paper takes as a clue for the development of a theory of rights the suggestive fact that an historically important factor in the generation of various rights, Their acknowledgement and implementation, Has been the claims put forward and the demands made by individuals and groups against individuals and groups. It proceeds by considering the conditions which must obtain in a universe for rights-Talk, Generally, To be significantly employed, And argues that we cannot speak of rights existing anterior to or outside of a community. A distinction between claims and (acts of) claimings is introduced, And the conditions under which one may be said to have a claim is discussed. It is then argued that the content of the system of rights of a given community depends upon its social ideals and the relation between types of rights (option and welfare) and the social ideal is treated. Finally, It is maintained that a conception of human rights requires a view of the social ideal and the good life and a view of the nature of human community.

© All rights reserved Whitworth et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Whitworth, Brian (2006): Measuring disagreement. In: Reynolds, Rodney A., Woods, Robert and Baker, Jason D. (eds.). "Handbook of Research on Electronic Surveys and Measurements".

Agreement is an important goal of computer-mediated and face-to-face groups. This chapter suggests a measure of disagreement in groups facing limited choices, as in a multichoice questionnaire. It defi nes a disagreement score between two people, then takes one persons disagreement as the average of their pair-wise scores with the rest of the group, and fi nally, defi nes the group disagreement as the average of its members disagreement. This gives a standard disagreement scale (from 0 to 1) for any group response pattern, for any size group, facing any number of choices. It can be inverted to give agreement, though this does not necessarily predict group coalescence. It is encouraging that when the method is extended to ranked, interval, or ratio scale data, it is equivalent to the score variance, and that it also matches an ecological diversity measure. Unlike variance, this measure can be used with categories, and gives both individual and group values. Being standard, it offers a single score in cases where the group size and number of choices faced is unknown, for example, online computer-based group feedback. Examples are given of how the measure can be used.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and/or his/her publisher

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian (2006): Social-technical systems. In: Ghaoui, Claude (ed.). "Encyclopedia of human computer interaction". Idea Group Referencepp. 533-541

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
2005
 
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Soltis, Jolanta, Patel, Pritesh P. and Whitworth, Brian (2005): Designing a new employee orientation (NEO) system. In: Murnan, Cynthia A., Wainwright, Kelly and Jones, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM SIGUCCS Conference on User Services 2005 November 6-9, 2005, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 349-352. Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian (2005): Polite computing. In Behaviour & IT, 24 (5) pp. 353-363. Available online

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
2004
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Whitworth, Elizabeth (2004): Spam and the Social-Technical Gap. In Computer, 37 (10) pp. 38-45. Available online

According to one source, in 2003 spam cost US companies $10 billion in lost productivity. Another source found that spam has surpassed viruses as the leading unwanted network intrusion. In these spam wars, as filters become more intelligent so do spammers' countermeasures. More than 50 percent of transmitted e-mail now consists of spam that consumes bandwidth and network resources whether users see it or not.The continued growth of spam suggests the need for new countermeasures. Although most see spam as a personal problem, we suggest it is a social problem that needs a social response. The authors propose bridging the gap between society and technology by applying social concepts to technology design.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and Whitworth and/or IEEE

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
2003
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Moor, Aldo de (2003): Legitimate by design: towards trusted socio-technical systems. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 22 (1) pp. 31-51.

Legitimacy or 'fairness' seems a key requirement for trust in computer-mediated social environments. Trust in turn seems necessary for productive community interactions like e-commerce. But unless legitimacy is built into social software, achieving trust may not be possible. This means expressing apparently vague social 'rights' as specific information system (IS) requirements, i.e. carrying out a legitimacy analysis. We suggest a framework for the systematic analysis of who 'owns' what in IS design, assuming basic object types and actions. This analysis not only allows social legitimacy concepts to be expressed in IS design terms, but could also reveal socio-technical system design choices for public review. The technique is illustrated by case examples. Legitimacy analysis can apply to wide variety of social software, from chat rooms to virtual realities. It could lead to future global standards for virtual social environment design, perhaps necessary for the emergence of a global online community.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and Moor and/or Taylor and Francis

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
2002
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Moor, Aldo de (2002): Legitimate by Design: Towards Trusted Virtual Community Environments. In: HICSS 2002 2002. p. 213. Available online

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Bieber, Michael (2002): Legitimate Navigation Links. In: ACM Hypertext 2002, Demonstrations and Posters 2002, Maryland, USA. pp. 26-27

Authoring systems and Web browsers that do not recognize ownership and legitimacy are ill-adapted to support online social activity. But with proper design, they could allow site owners to permit links or not, to restrict them to certain areas, to negotiate bi-directional links, to allow entry or not, and generally, to create the higher level information structures of the original hypertext vision at a community level.

© All rights reserved Whitworth and Bieber and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
2001
 
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Whitworth, Brian, Gallupe, Brent and McQueen, Robert (2001): Generating agreement in computer-mediated groups. In Small Group Research, 32 (5) pp. 625-665

Agreement is an important social outcome often poorly handled by computermediated groups, presumably because the computer cannot transmit the necessary rich information. A recently proposed cognitive model suggests richness is not the key to social agreement, and that group agreement can be generated by the exchange of anonymous, lean text information across a computer network. This experiment investigates this theory. Self-chosen groups of five completed three answer rounds on limited choice problems while exchanging a few characters of position information. These asynchronous, anonymous computer-mediated groups generated agreement without any rich information exchange. The key software design criteria for enacting agreement is proposed to be not richness, but dynamic many-to-many linkage. The resulting "electronic voting" may be as different from traditional voting as e-mail is from traditional mail. It may also imply a new generation of groupware that recognizes social influence.

© All rights reserved Whitworth et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
2000
 
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Whitworth, Brian, Gallupe, Brent and McQueen, Robert (2000): A cognitive three-process model of computer-mediated group interaction. In Group Decision and Negotiation, 9 (5) pp. 431-456

Current theories imply text-based computer networks are socially barren, but computer-mediated interaction (CMI) research contradicts this. A cognitive perspective suggests individuals in groups construct cognitions regarding the task (purpose), other people (relationships), and the group (identity), and these drive the interaction. Three core psychological process follow: resolving task information, relating to others and representing the group. This gives three types of influence: informational, personal and normative, and three group purposes: task resolution, interpersonal relationships and group unity. Group unity occurs when group members represent a common identity. The traditional communication threads of message content and sender context therefore require a third - behavioural position. Many-to-many exchange of member positions allows the group position to be transmitted to the group. A picture emerges of three parallel processes overlapping in behaviour, although CMI allows them to be isolated and investigated. This model extends most theories of computer-mediated group interaction. It implies there is no "best" type of group interaction support, because there is no best process. The groupware challenge is to offer the flexibility to support all three processes in combination.

© All rights reserved Whitworth et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapters:

Socio-Technical System Design: [/encyclopedia/socio-technical_system_design.html]

The Evolution of Computing: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/the_evolution_of_computing.html]


 
 
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Whitworth, Brian, Walle, Bartel Van de and Turoff, Murray (2000): Beyond Rational Decision Making. In: Group Decision and Negotiation 2000 2000. pp. 1-13

We review in this paper the assumptions of rational decision making, and present business situations where its assumptions are not met. We then explore how managers deal with such situations. The result is an expanded model of group decision making, which includes relational and group processes, which generate personal trust and group agreement respectively. Managers use these non-rational processes to extend decision making into many areas otherwise beyond pure rational analysis. They expect to use all three processes in group decision making, and judge the usefulness of decision support software accordingly. Unfortunately for software designers, each process demands different data structures and communication environment properties. For example anonymity improves rational analysis but not interpersonal relationships. Supporting all three overlapping processes in a flexible manner is the challenge facing groupware today. The "tragedy of the commons", where individuals compete for a limited common resource, illustrates a problem situation beyond simple rational analysis and occurring in conservation negotiations today. There seems no rational solution - each individual seems rationally driven to a course of action that destroys the common resource, to the detriment of all. The solution we propose is to focus on changing the decision making entity, by designing decision support systems to integrate agreement generation with protocols, structures and decision aids. How this could be done is considered. By including group and relational support, we hope to develop groupware that is used as widely as e-mail is now.

© All rights reserved Whitworth et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
 Cited in the following chapter:

Design Spaces: [/books/the_social_design_of_technical_systems/design_spaces.html]


 
1999
 
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Whitworth, Brian and McQueen, Robert J. (1999): Voting before Discussing: Computer Voting as Social Communication. In: HICSS 1999 1999. . Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian and Felton, Roy (1999): Measuring Disagreement in Groups Facing Limited-Choice Problems. In Data Base, 30 (3) pp. 22-33.

1998
 
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Whitworth, Brian and Felton, Roy (1998): Measuring Disagreement in Groups Facing Limited Choice Problems. In: HICSS 1998 1998. pp. 351-359. Available online

 
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Whitworth, Brian (1998): The web of system properties: a general view of systems. In SIGCSE Bulletin, 30 (4) pp. 46-50. Available online

 
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