Publication statistics

Pub. period:1960-1999
Pub. count:22
Number of co-authors:20



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Stuart K. Card:5
Bonnie E. John:4
Thomas P. Moran:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Allen Newell's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Stuart K. Card:75
Thomas P. Moran:66
Bonnie E. John:64
 
 
 
Jul 12

To design an easy-to-use interface, pay attention to what users do, not what they say. Self-reported claims are unreliable, as are user speculations about future behavior.

-- Jakob Nielsen

 
 

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Allen Newell

Picture of Allen Newell.
Allen Newell is winner of the 1975 ACM Turing Award, considered the Nobel Prize of Computing. The reason he was given the award is as follows:

"In joint scientific efforts extending over twenty years, initially in collaboration with J. C. Shaw at the RAND Corporation, and subsequentially with numerous faculty and student collegues at Carnegie-Mellon University, they have made basic contributions to artificial intelligence, the psychology of human cognition, and list processing".
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Publications by Allen Newell (bibliography)

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1999
 
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Robertson, G., McCracken, Donald and Newell, Allen (1999): The ZOG Approach to Man-Machine Communication. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 51 (2) pp. 279-306.

ZOG is a rapid response, large network, menu selection system used for man-machine communication. The philosophy behind this style of communication was first developed by the PROMIS (Problem Oriented Medical Information System) Laboratory of the University of Vermont. ZOG has been used in a number of task domains to help explore the limits and potential benefits of the communication philosophy. This paper discusses the basic ideas in ZOG, describes the architecture of a system implemented to carry out that exploration, and discusses our initial experience.

© All rights reserved Robertson et al. and/or Academic Press

1994
 
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John, Bonnie E., Vera, Alonso H. and Newell, Allen (1994): Towards Real-Time GOMS: A Model of Expert Behaviour in a Highly Interactive Task. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 13 (4) pp. 255-267.

We present an analysis of an expert performing a highly interactive computer task. The analysis uses GOMS models, specifying the Goals, Operators, Methods, and Selection rules used by the expert. Two models are presented, one with function-level operators which perform high-level functions in the domain, and one with keystroke-level operators which describe hand movements. For a segment of behaviour in which the expert accomplished about 30 functions in about 30 s, the function-level model predicted the observed behaviour well, while the keystroke-level model predicted only about half of the observed hand movements. These results, including the discrepancy between the models, are discussed.

© All rights reserved John et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1993
 
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Alm, Norman, Todman, John, Elder, Leona and Newell, Allen (1993): Computer Aided Conversation for Severely Physically Impaired Non-Speaking People. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 236-241.

This paper reports the development of a computer-aided conversation prosthesis which is designed for severely physically impaired non-speaking people. The research methodology was to model aspects of conversational structure derived from the field of conversation analysis within a prototype conversational prosthesis. The prototype was evaluated in empirical investigations which also suggested successful strategies for carrying out satisfying conversation using such a system. Two versions have been built and tested, one using an able-bodied operator to test the feasibility of creating conversation from prestored material, the second being used by a physically impaired non-speaking operator. The prototype demonstrated the advantages of this interface design in helping the user to carry out natural sounding and satisfying conversations.

© All rights reserved Alm et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Newell, Allen (1993): MicroCentre, Dundee: Ordinary and Extra-Ordinary HCI Research. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 242-243.

The main feature of the MicroCentre research group is a concern for users with a very wide range of characteristics. In addition to main-stream HCI research, it contains the largest academic group in the world investigating the application of computer systems for disabled people, and has a particular interest in systems for people with communication impairment.

© All rights reserved Newell and/or ACM Press

1991
 
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Dye, R., Arnott, J. L. and Newell, Allen (1991): The Design of a Memory Efficient Palantype Transcription System. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 34 (5) pp. 615-630.

Machine shorthand transcription systems have been used to provide verbatim transcripts of speech in Law Courts and as transcription aids for hearing impaired people for a number of years. All current transcription systems, however, rely heavily on dictionary look-up procedures in order to give a high quality transcription of the shorthand code. These systems require large memories and are usually expensive and non-portable. This paper describes a new transcription technique which results in a very compact and portable transcription system and which is therefore particularly suitable as an aid for the hearing impaired.

© All rights reserved Dye et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Newell, Allen, Arnott, J. L., Dye, R. and Cairns, A. Y. (1991): A Full-Speed Listening Typewriter Simulation. In International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 35 (2) pp. 119-131.

For automatic speech recognition applications such as a listening typewriter, there is a pressing need for the evaluation of speech input to machine. Unfortunately current recognition technology is not adequate for such evaluation, and thus simulation must be used. Some simulations have been performed where the conversion from speech to orthography was performed by a typist, but these simulations were restricted by the speed at which the typist could input data. This paper describes a simulation based on a palantype shorthand machine and a commercially available transcription system. The use of a shorthand machine rather than a QWERTY keyboard means that the speech rates can be much greater and thus the simulation need not impose unrealistic speed limitations on the speaker.

© All rights reserved Newell et al. and/or Academic Press

1989
 
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John, Bonnie E. and Newell, Allen (1989): Cumulating the Science of HCI: From S-R Compatibility to Transcription Typing. In: Bice, Ken and Lewis, Clayton H. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 89 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 30 - June 4, 1989, Austin, Texas. pp. 109-114.

In keeping with our claim that an applied psychology of HCI must be based on cumulative work within a unified framework, we present two extensions of the Model Human Processor. A model of immediate response behavior and stimulus-response (S-R) compatibility is presented and extended to a new domain: transcription typing. Parameters are estimated using one S-R compatibility experiment, used to make a priori predictions in four other S-R compatibility tasks, and then carried over into the area of typing. A model of expert transcription typing is described and its prediction of typing phenomena is demonstrated and summarized.

© All rights reserved John and Newell and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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John, Bonnie E. and Newell, Allen (1987): Predicting the time to recall computer command abbreviations. In: Graphics Interface 87 (CHI+GI 87) April 5-9, 1987, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 33-40.

1986
 
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Newell, Allen and Card, Stuart K. (1986): Straightening Out Softening Up: Response to Carroll and Campbell. In Human-Computer Interaction, 2 (3) pp. 251-267.

Carroll and Campbell have exercised themselves over a straw man not subscribed to by us. In the process, our position has not been accurately represented. In reply, we restate as clearly as we can the position for which we actually did and do argue. The underlying issue seems to concern the advantages of using technical psychological theories to identify underlying mechanisms in human-computer interaction. We argue that such theories are an important part of a science of human-computer interaction. We argue further that technical theories must be considered in the context of the uses to which they are put. The use of a theory helps to determine what is a good approximation, the degree of formalization that is justified, and the appropriate commingling of qualitative and quantitative techniques. Technical theories encourage cumulative progress by abetting the classical scientific heuristic of divide and conquer.

© All rights reserved Newell and Card and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1986): The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1985
 
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Newell, Allen and Card, Stuart K. (1985): The prospects for psychological science in human-computer interaction. In Human-Computer Interaction, 1 (3) pp. 209-242.

 
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John, Bonnie E., Rosenbloom, Paul S. and Newell, Allen (1985): A Theory of Stimulus-Response Compatibility Applied to Human-Computer Interaction. In: Borman, Lorraine and Curtis, Bill (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 85 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 14-18, 1985, San Francisco, California. pp. 213-219.

A GOMS theory of stimulus-response compatibility is presented and applied to remembering computer command abbreviations. Two abbreviation techniques, vowel-deletion and special-character-plus-first-letter, are compared in an encoding task. Significant differences are found in the time to type the first letter of the abbreviation, and in the time to complete the typing of the abbreviation. These differences are analyzed using the theory which produces an excellent quantitative fit to the data (r{squared} = 0.97).

© All rights reserved John et al. and/or ACM Press

1984
 
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Leedham, C. G., Downton, A. C., Brooks, C. P. and Newell, Allen (1984): On-Line Acquisition of Pitman's Handwritten Shorthand as a Means of Rapid Data Entry. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 145-150.

In this paper we discuss the use of Pitmans shorthand as a means of converting dictation speed speech (up to 120 wpm) directly into readable text for computer entry or direct output. The Pitman shorthand notation is compared to a machinography or machine compatible script and the recognition problems associated with handwritten shorthand are discussed. The requirements of a writing tablet and instrumented pen for on-line acquisition of Pitman shorthand are described and the preprocessing techniques which have been usefully applied to the raw data are outlined.

© All rights reserved Leedham et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Dye, R., Newell, Allen and Arnott, John (1984): An Adaptive Editor for Shorthand Transcription Systems. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 157-161.

An automatic transcription system for machine shorthand takes the output from a shorthand machine, and converts it into a Draft Transcript. This draft transcript needs to be edited to perfection using word processing techniques. A suite of programmes has been written which takes advantage of the particular characteristics of Palantype transcripts to provide a very efficient editing environment. The editor adapts to the user in a way which improves his efficiency without an overhead of the necessity to learn complex control structures. Some of these facilities are also appropriate to a standard word processing environment.

© All rights reserved Dye et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Newell, Allen (1984): Speech -- The Natural Modality for Man-Machine Interaction?. In: Shackel, Brian (ed.) INTERACT 84 - 1st IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction September 4-7, 1984, London, UK. pp. 231-235.

In recent years the use of speech as a man-machine interface has received considerable prominence. A number of systems have been developed which use speech output from machines, and speech input has been introduced in a small number of cases with rather less effectiveness. In those cases where it is impracticable to look at a display, or the hands are fully occupied, speech has obvious advantages, but often a major justification for the use of speech has been that is the 'natural' method of communication for man, and therefore must be the optimum solution. This contention, however, is a simplification of the situation, and, in general, much greater thought must be given to the choice of modality of input-output means than is implicit in justifications of this nature.

© All rights reserved Newell and/or North-Holland

1983
 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1983): The Psychology of Human-Computer Interaction. Hillsdale, NJ, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

 Cited in the following chapters:

GOMS (Goals, Operators, Methods and Selection Rules): [Not yet published]

Philosophy of Interaction: [/encyclopedia/philosophy_of_interaction.html]

Visual Aesthetics: [/encyclopedia/visual_aesthetics.html]

Semiotics: [/encyclopedia/semiotics_and_human-computer_interaction.html]

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
1980
 
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Card, Stuart K., Moran, Thomas P. and Newell, Allen (1980): The keystroke-level model for user performance with interactive systems. In Communications of the ACM, 23 pp. 396-410.

There are several aspects of user-computer performance that system designers should systematically consider. The authors propose a simple model, the keystroke-level model, for predicting one aspect of performance: the time it takes an expert user to perform a given task on a given computer system. The model is based on counting keystrokes and other low-level operations, including the user's mental preparations and the system's responses. Performance is coded in terms of these operations and operator times summed to give predictions. Heuristic rules are given for predicting where mental preparations occur. When tested against data on 10 different systems, the model's prediction error is 21 percent for individual tasks. An example is given to illustrate how the model can be used to produce parametric predictions and how sensitivity analysis can be used to redeem conclusions in the face of uncertain assumptions. Finally, the model is compared to several simpler versions. The potential role for the keystroke-level model in system design is discussed.

© All rights reserved Card et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapters:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]

Formal Methods: [/encyclopedia/formal_methods.html]


 
1976
 
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Newell, Allen and Simon, Herbert A. (1976): Computer Science as Empirical Inquiry: Symbols and Search. In Communications of the ACM, 19 (3) pp. 113-126.

1972
 
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Newell, Allen and Simon, Herbert A. (1972): Human problem solving. Englewood Cliffs, NJ, USA, Prentice Hall

1965
 
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Tonge, Fred M., Keller, Peter and Newell, Allen (1965): QUICKSCRIPT - a SIMSCRIPT: like language for the G-20. In Communications of the ACM, 8 (6) pp. 350-354.

1963
 
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Newell, Allen (1963): Documentation of IPL-V. In Communications of the ACM, 6 (3) pp. 86-89.

1960
 
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Newell, Allen and Tonge, Fred M. (1960): An Introduction to Information Processing Language V. In Communications of the ACM, 3 (4) pp. 205-211.

 
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Changes to this page (author)

28 Aug 2013: Added
17 Oct 2011: Modified
18 Aug 2009: Modified
17 Aug 2009: Modified
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Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/allen_newell.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1960-1999
Pub. count:22
Number of co-authors:20



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Stuart K. Card:5
Bonnie E. John:4
Thomas P. Moran:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Allen Newell's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Stuart K. Card:75
Thomas P. Moran:66
Bonnie E. John:64
 
 
 
Jul 12

To design an easy-to-use interface, pay attention to what users do, not what they say. Self-reported claims are unreliable, as are user speculations about future behavior.

-- Jakob Nielsen

 
 

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !

 
 

Our Latest Books

Kumar and Herger 2013: Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software...
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger

 
Start reading

Whitworth and Ahmad 2013: The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities...
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad

 
Start reading

Soegaard and Dam 2013: The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed....
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam

 
Start reading
 
 

Help us help you!