Publication statistics

Pub. period:1985-2012
Pub. count:32
Number of co-authors:68



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Paul Waddell:6
Batya Friedman:3
Kim Marriott:3

 

 

Productive colleagues

Alan Borning's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Jacob O. Wobbrock:71
Gary M. Olson:45
Richard Anderson:40
 
 
 

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Alan Borning

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Publications by Alan Borning (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Kriplean, Travis, Morgan, Jonathan, Freelon, Deen, Borning, Alan and Bennett, Lance (2012): Supporting reflective public thought with ConsiderIt. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 265-274.

We present a novel platform for supporting public deliberation on difficult decisions. ConsiderIt guides people to reflect on tradeoffs and the perspectives of others by framing interactions around pro/con points that participants create, adopt, and share. ConsiderIt surfaces the most salient pros and cons overall, while also enabling users to drill down into the key points for different groups. We deployed ConsiderIt in a contentious U.S. state election, inviting residents to deliberate on nine ballot measures. We discuss ConsiderIt's affordances and limitations, enriched with empirical data from this deployment. We show that users often engaged in normatively desirable activities, such as crafting positions that recognize both pros and cons, as well as points written by people who do not agree with them.

© All rights reserved Kriplean et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Azenkot, Shiri, Prasain, Sanjana, Borning, Alan, Fortuna, Emily, Ladner, Richard E. and Wobbrock, Jacob O. (2011): Enhancing independence and safety for blind and deaf-blind public transit riders. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3247-3256.

Blind and deaf-blind people often rely on public transit for everyday mobility, but using transit can be challenging for them. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 13 blind and deaf-blind people to understand how they use public transit and what human values were important to them in this domain. Two key values were identified: independence and safety. We developed GoBraille, two related Braille-based applications that provide information about buses and bus stops while supporting the key values. GoBraille is built on MoBraille, a novel framework that enables a Braille display to benefit from many features in a smartphone without knowledge of proprietary, device-specific protocols. Finally, we conducted user studies with blind people to demonstrate that GoBraille enables people to travel more independently and safely. We also conducted co-design with a deaf-blind person, finding that a minimalist interface, with short input and output messages, was most effective for this population.

© All rights reserved Azenkot et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kriplean, Travis, Morgan, Jonathan T., Freelon, Deen, Borning, Alan and Bennett, Lance (2011): ConsiderIt: improving structured public deliberation. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1831-1836.

We designed, built, and deployed ConsiderIt to support the Living Voters Guide, a website where any voter could participate in writing a voters' guide for the 2010 election in Washington. ConsiderIt is a new method of integrating the thoughts of many into a coherent form, while nudging people to consider tradeoffs of difficult decisions with an intuitive interface.

© All rights reserved Kriplean et al. and/or their publisher

2010
 
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Czeskis, Alexei, Dermendjieva, Ivayla, Yapit, Hussein, Borning, Alan, Friedman, Batya, Gill, Brian and Kohno, Tadayoshi (2010): Parenting from the pocket: value tensions and technical directions for secure and private parent-teen mobile safety. In: Proceedings of the 2010 Symposium on Usable Privacy and Security 2010. p. 15.

An increasing number of high-tech devices, such as driver monitoring systems and Internet usage monitoring tools, are advertised as useful or even necessary for good parenting of teens. Simultaneously, there is a growing market for mobile "personal safety" devices. As these trends merge, there will be significant implications for parent-teen relationships, affecting domains such as privacy, trust, and maturation. Not only the teen and his or her parents are affected; other important stakeholders include the teen's friends who may be unwittingly monitored. This problem space, with less clear-cut assets, risks, and affected parties, thus lies well outside of more typical computer security applications. To help understand this problem domain and what, if anything, should be built, we turn to the theory and methods of Value Sensitive Design, a systematic approach to designing for human values in technology. We first develop value scenarios that highlight potential issues, benefits, harms, and challenges. We then conducted semi-structured interviews with 18 participants (9 teens and their parents). Results show significant differences with respect to information about: 1) internal state (e.g., mood) versus external environment (e.g., location) state; 2) situation (e.g., emergency vs. non-emergency); and 3) awareness (e.g., notification vs. non-notification). The value scenario and interview results positioned us to identify key technical challenges -- such as strongly protecting the privacy of a teen's contextual information during ordinary situations but immediately exposing that information to others as appropriate in an emergency -- and corresponding architectural levers for these technologies. In addition to laying a foundation for future work in this area, this research serves as a prototypical example of using Value Sensitive Design to explicate the underlying human values in complex security domains.

© All rights reserved Czeskis et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Denning, Tamara, Borning, Alan, Friedman, Batya, Gill, Brian T., Kohno, Tadayoshi and Maisel, William H. (2010): Patients, pacemakers, and implantable defibrillators: human values and security for wireless implantable medical devices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 917-926.

Implantable medical devices (IMDs) improve patients' quality of life and help sustain their lives. In this study, we explore patient views and values regarding their devices to inform the design of computer security for wireless IMDs. We interviewed 13 individuals with implanted cardiac devices. Key questions concerned the evaluation of 8 mockups of IMD security systems. Our results suggest that some systems that are technically viable are nonetheless undesirable to patients. Patients called out a number of values that affected their attitudes towards the systems, including perceived security, safety, freedom from unwanted cultural and historical associations, and self-image. In our analysis, we extend the Value Sensitive Design value dams and flows technique in order to suggest multiple, complementary systems; in our discussion, we highlight some of the usability, regulatory, and economic complexities that arise from offering multiple options. We conclude by offering design guidelines for future security systems for IMDs.

© All rights reserved Denning et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Ferris, Brian, Watkins, Kari and Borning, Alan (2010): OneBusAway: results from providing real-time arrival information for public transit. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1807-1816.

Public transit systems play an important role in combating traffic congestion, reducing carbon emissions, and promoting compact, sustainable urban communities. The usability of public transit can be significantly enhanced by providing good traveler information systems. We describe OneBusAway, a set of transit tools focused on providing real-time arrival information for Seattle-area bus riders. We then present results from a survey of OneBusAway users that show a set of important positive outcomes: strongly increased overall satisfaction with public transit, decreased waiting time, increased transit trips per week, increased feelings of safety, and even a health benefit in terms of increased distance walked when using transit. Finally, we discuss the design and policy implications of these results and plans for future research in this area.

© All rights reserved Ferris et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Ferris, Brian, Watkins, Kari and Borning, Alan (2010): Location-Aware Tools for Improving Public Transit Usability. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 9 pp. 13-19.

2007
 
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Schwartzman, Yael and Borning, Alan (2007): The Indicator Browser: A Web-Based Interface for Visualizing UrbanSim Simulation Results. In: HICSS 2007 - 40th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science 3-6 January, 2007, Waikoloa, Big Island, HI, USA. p. 92.

2006
 
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Davis, Janet, Lin, Peyina, Borning, Alan, Friedman, Batya, Jr., Peter H. Kahn and Waddell, Paul (2006): Simulations for Urban Planning: Designing for Human Values. In IEEE Computer, 39 (9) pp. 66-72.

 
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Borning, Alan and Waddell, Paul (2006): UrbanSim: interaction and participation in integrated urban land use, transportation, and environmental modeling. In: Fortes, Jos A. B. and MacIntosh, Ann (eds.) DG.O 2006 - Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research May 21-24, 2006, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 133-134.

 
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Cushing, Judith Bayard, Wilson, Tyrone, Borning, Alan, Delcambre, Lois M. L., Bowker, Geoffrey C., Frame, Mike, Schnase, John L., Sonntag, William, Fulop, Janos, Hert, Carol A., Hovy, Eduard H., Jones, Julia, Landis, Eric, Schweik, Charles M., Brandt, Lawrence, Gregg, Valerie and Spengler, Sylvia (2006): Eco-informatics and natural resource management. In: Fortes, Jos A. B. and MacIntosh, Ann (eds.) DG.O 2006 - Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research May 21-24, 2006, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 381-382.

 
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Waddell, Paul, Borning, Alan, Sevcikova, Hana and Socha, David (2006): Opus (the Open Platform for Urban Simulation) and UrbanSim 4. In: Fortes, Jos A. B. and MacIntosh, Ann (eds.) DG.O 2006 - Proceedings of the 7th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research May 21-24, 2006, San Diego, California, USA. pp. 360-361.

2005
 
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Walldius, ke, Sundblad, Yngve and Borning, Alan (2005): A first analysis of the UsersAward programme from a value sensitive design perspective. In: Bertelsen, Olav W., Bouvin, Niels Olof, Krogh, Peter Gall and Kyng, Morten (eds.) Proceedings of the 4th Decennial Conference on Critical Computing 2005 August 20-24, 2005, Aarhus, Denmark. pp. 199-202.

 
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Brush, A. J. Bernheim and Borning, Alan (2005): 'Today' Messages: Lightweight Support for Small Group Awareness via Email. In: HICSS 2005 - 38th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 3-6 January, 2005, Big Island, HI, USA. .

 
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Cushing, Judith Bayard, Wilson, Tyrone, Borning, Alan, Delcambre, Lois M. L., Bowker, Geoffrey C., Frame, Mike, Schnase, John L., Sonntag, William, Fulop, Janos, Hert, Carol A., Hovy, Eduard H., Jones, Julia, Landis, Eric, Schweik, Charles M., Brandt, Lawrence, Gregg, Valerie and Spengler, Sylvia (2005): Eco-informatics and natural resource management. In: Delcambre, Lois M. L. and Giuliano, Genevieve (eds.) DG.O 2005 - Proceedings of the 2005 National Conference on Digital Government Research May 15-18, 2005, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 211-212.

2004
 
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Borning, Alan and Waddell, Paul (2004): Integrated Land Use, Transportation and Environmental Simulation: UrbanSim. In: DG.O 2004 2004. .

 
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Borning, Alan and Waddell, Paul (2004): A Technical Modeler's Interface for UrbanSim, a System for Integrated. Land Use, Transportation, and Environmental Modeling. In: DG.O 2004 2004. .

2003
 
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Borning, Alan (2003): Panel Report: Modeling Land Use, Transportation, and Environmental Impacts. In: DG.O 2003 2003. .

 
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Waddell, Paul and Borning, Alan (2003): Case Study: Developing and Applying UrbanSim, a System for Simulating Urban Land Use, Transportation, and Environmental Impacts. In: DG.O 2003 2003. .

2001
 
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Badros, Greg J., Borning, Alan and Stuckey, Peter J. (2001): The Cassowary linear arithmetic constraint solving algorithm. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 8 (4) pp. 267-306.

Linear equality and inequality constraints arise naturally in specifying many aspects of user interfaces, such as requiring that one window be to the left of another, requiring that a pane occupy the leftmost third of a window, or preferring that an object be contained within a rectangle if possible. Previous constraint solvers designed for user interface applications cannot handle simultaneous linear equations and inequalities efficiently. This is a major limitation, as such systems of constraints arise often in natural declarative specifications. We describe Cassowary -- an incremental algorithm based on the dual simplex method, which can solve such systems of constraints efficiently. We have implemented the algorithm as part of a constraint-solving toolkit. We discuss the implementation of the toolkit, its application programming interface, and its performance.

© All rights reserved Badros et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Badros, Greg J., Tirtowidjojo, Jojada J., Marriott, Kim, Meyer, Bernd, Portnoy, Will and Borning, Alan (2001): A constraint extension to scalable vector graphics. In: Proceedings of the 2001 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2001. pp. 489-498.

1999
 
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Badros, Greg J., Borning, Alan, Marriott, Kim and Stuckey, Peter (1999): Constraint Cascading Style Sheets for the Web. In: Zanden, Brad Vander and Marks, Joe (eds.) Proceedings of the 12th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 07 - 10, 1999, Asheville, North Carolina, United States. pp. 73-82.

Cascading Style Sheets have been introduced by the W3C as a mechanism for controlling the appearance of HTML documents. In this paper, we demonstrate how constraints provide a powerful unifying formalism for declaratively understanding and specifying style sheets for web documents. With constraints we can naturally and declaratively specify complex behavior such as inheritance of properties and cascading of conflicting style rules. We give a detailed description of a constraint-based style sheet model, CCSS, which is compatible with virtually all of the CSS 2.0 specification. It allows more flexible specification of layout, and also allows the designer to provide multiple layouts that better meet the desires of the user and environmental restrictions. We also describe a prototype extension of the Amaya browser that demonstrates the feasibility of CCSS.

© All rights reserved Badros et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Borning, Alan, Marriott, Kim, Stuckey, Peter and Xiao, Yi (1997): Solving Linear Arithmetic Constraints for User Interface Applications. In: Robertson, George G. and Schmandt, Chris (eds.) Proceedings of the 10th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 14 - 17, 1997, Banff, Alberta, Canada. pp. 87-96.

Linear equality and inequality constraints arise naturally in specifying many aspects of user interfaces, such as requiring that one window be to the left of another, requiring that a pane occupy the leftmost 1/3 of a window, or preferring that an object be contained within a rectangle if possible. Current constraint solvers designed for UI applications cannot efficiently handle simultaneous linear equations and inequalities. This is a major limitation. We describe incremental algorithms based on the dual simplex and active set methods that can solve such systems of constraints efficiently.

© All rights reserved Borning et al. and/or ACM Press

1996
 
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Borning, Alan, Anderson, Richard and Freeman-Benson, Bjorn (1996): Indigo: A Local Propagation Algorithm for Inequality Constraints. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 129-136.

Inequality constraints are useful for specifying various aspects of user interfaces, such as constraints that one window is to the left of another, or that an object is contained within a rectangle. However, current local propagation constraint solvers can't handle inequality constraints. We present Indigo, an efficient local propagation algorithm for satisfying acyclic constraint hierarchies, including inequality constraints.

© All rights reserved Borning et al. and/or ACM Press

1993
 
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Salisbury, Michael and Borning, Alan (1993): A User Interface for the Electronic Encyclopedia Exploratorium. In: Gray, Wayne D., Hefley, William and Murray, Dianne (eds.) International Workshop on Intelligent User Interfaces 1993 January 4-7, 1993, Orlando, Florida, USA. pp. 263-267.

The Electronic Encyclopedia Exploratorium (E{cubed}) is a vision of a future computer system -- a kind of electronic "How Things Work" book. Typical articles in E{cubed} will describe such mechanisms as compression refrigerators, engines, telescopes, and mechanical linkages. Each article will provide simulations, three-dimensional animated graphics that the user can manipulate, laboratory areas that allow a user to modify the device or experiment with related artifacts, and a facility for asking questions and receiving customized, computer-generated English-language explanations. During the past year we have implemented an initial prototype of an article on refrigerators and are currently implementing a more sophisticated second version. In this short paper we focus on the user interfaces for these prototypes.

© All rights reserved Salisbury and Borning and/or ACM Press

1991
 
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Borning, Alan and Travers, Michael (1991): Two Approaches to Casual Interaction Over Computer and Video Networks. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 13-19.

We describe two systems that use interactive computer-controlled video for shared awareness and casual communication. Polyscope lets users monitor a large number of video sources simultaneously. Observers are provided with a window containing a collection of frame-grabbed bitmap images or animations. These images can be used to access additional video services, such as videophone. Vrooms is a follow-on system, which employs a strong spatial metaphor. Users can enter and leave virtual rooms. Once in a virtual room, users can see and be seen by all the other occupants, and have easy access to other video, audio, and text-based communication tools.

© All rights reserved Borning and Travers and/or ACM Press

1990
 
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Freeman-Benson, Bjrn N., Maloney, John and Borning, Alan (1990): An Incremental Constraint Solver. In Communications of the ACM, 33 (1) pp. 54-63.

1988
 
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Olson, Gary M., Borning, Alan, diSessa, Andrea A., Lewis, Clayton H., Sherwood, Bruce and Smith, Randall B. (1988): Making Interactive Graphics Accessible: Comparison of Approaches. In: Soloway, Elliot, Frye, Douglas and Sheppard, Sylvia B. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 88 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 15-19, 1988, Washington, DC, USA. p. 249.

The participants have all created systems designed to make it easier to build interactive graphics applications such as animated physics demonstrations: Borning, ThingLab; DiSessa, BOXER; Lewis, NoPumpG; Sherwood, CMU Tutor; Smith, Alternate Reality Kit. These systems represent a wide variety of technical approaches, including spreadsheet extensions, object-oriented programming, constraint management, and procedural languages. In preparation for the panel, the panelists have exchanged problems selected to demonstrate the strengths and weaknesses of their systems, and each has undertaken to solve all of the problems. Based on this experience the panelists will discuss general issues raised by the problems, the advantages and limitations of their systems, and what suggestions can be made about the value of particular approaches to making interactive graphics accessible to a wide audience.

© All rights reserved Olson et al. and/or ACM Press

1987
 
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Borning, Alan (1987): Computer System Reliability and Nuclear War. In Communications of the ACM, 30 (2) pp. 112-131.

1986
 
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Borning, Alan (1986): Graphically Defining New Building Blocks in ThingLab. In Human-Computer Interaction, 2 (4) pp. 269-295.

ThingLab is a constraint-oriented, interactive graphical system for building simulations. A typical problem in ThingLab (and in systems like it) is that, to define an object with a new kind of constraint, the user must leave the graphical domain and write code in the underlying implementation language. This makes it difficult for less experienced users to add new kinds of constraints or to modify existing ones. As a step toward solving this problem, the system described here allows the graphical definition of objects that include new kinds of constraints. This is supported by an interface in which a user can open two views on an object being defined, a use view and a construction view. The use view shows the object's normal appearance; the construction view contains additional objects and constraints, which serve to graphically specify the new constraints on the defined object.

© All rights reserved Borning and/or Taylor and Francis

 
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Borning, Alan and Duisberg, Robert (1986): Constraint-Based Tools for Building User Interfaces. In ACM Transactions on Graphics, 5 (4) pp. 345-374.

A constraint describes a relation that must be maintained. Constraints provide a useful mechanism to aid in the construction of interactive graphical user interfaces. They can be used to maintain consistency between data and a view of the data, to maintain consistency among multiple views, to specify layout, and to specify relations between events and responses for describing animations of interactive systems and event-driven simulations. Object-oriented techniques for constraint representation and satisfaction are presented, and a range of examples that demonstrate the practical use of static and temporal constraints for such purposes is presented. These examples include animations of algorithms and physics simulations, and constructing user-interface elements such as file browsers, views onto statistical data, and an interactive monitor or a simulated operating system.

© All rights reserved Borning and Duisberg and/or ACM Press

1985
 
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Weyer, Stephen A. and Borning, Alan (1985): A Prototype Electronic Encyclopedia. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 3 (1) pp. 63-88.

We describe a prototype electronic encyclopedia implemented on a powerful personal computer, in which user interface, media presentation, and knowledge representation techniques are applied to improving access to a knowledge resource. In itself, an electronic encyclopedia is an important information resource, but this work also illustrates the issues and approaches for many types of electronic information retrieval environments. In the prototype we make dynamic use of the structure and semantics of the text articles and index of an existing encyclopedia, while experimenting with other forms of representation, such as simulation and videodisc images. We present a long- term vision of an intelligent user-interface agent; summarize previous work related to futuristic encyclopedias, electronic books, decision support systems, and knowledge libraries; and outline current and potential research directions.

© All rights reserved Weyer and Borning and/or ACM Press

 
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