Publication statistics

Pub. period:1990-2012
Pub. count:81
Number of co-authors:120



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Richard Harper:15
David Kirk:10
Bill Buxton:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Abigail Sellen's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Tom Rodden:106
Yvonne Rogers:99
Bill Buxton:78
 
 
 
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Abigail Sellen

Picture of Abigail Sellen.
Has also published under the name of:
"Abigail J. Sellen"

Personal Homepage:
research.microsoft.com/en-us/people/asellen/


Abigail Sellen is a Principal Researcher at Microsoft Research Cambridge in the UK and co-manager of Socio-Digital Systems, an interdisciplinary group with a focus on the human perspective in computing. As a group, Socio-Digital Systems is interested in simple technologies, and in learning from everyday life to inform the design of systems which are both useful and compelling.

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Publications by Abigail Sellen (bibliography)

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2012
 
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Golsteijn, Connie, Hoven, Elise van den, Frohlich, David and Sellen, Abigail (2012): Towards a more cherishable digital object. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 655-664.

As we go about our everyday routines we encounter and interact with numerous physical (e.g. furniture or clothes) and digital objects (e.g. photos or e-mails). Some of these objects may be particular cherished, for example because of memories attached to them. As several studies into cherished objects have shown, we have more difficulties identifying cherished digital objects than physical ones. However, cherishing a small collection of digital objects can be beneficial; e.g. it can encourage active selection of digital objects to keep and discard. This paper presents a study that aimed to increase understanding of cherished physical and digital objects, and beyond that, of how we perceive physical and digital objects, and their advantages and disadvantages. We identified design opportunities for novel products and systems that support the creation of more cherishable digital objects by extrapolating the advantages of the physical to the digital, exploiting the reasons for cherishing digital objects, and aiming for meaningful integrations of physical and digital.

© All rights reserved Golsteijn et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Odom, William, Selby, Mark, Sellen, Abigail, Kirk, David, Banks, Richard and Regan, Tim (2012): Photobox: on the design of a slow technology. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 665-668.

We describe the design and implementation of Photobox, a device intended to be used over many years, which occasionally prints a randomly selected photo from the owner's Flickr collection inside of a wooden chest. We describe and reflect on how engaging in the design of this slow technology [5] led to some unexpected challenges and provoked us to re-think approaches to making technologies that are intended to be used over long time scales and which might act infrequently. We also reflect on how living with the device during the implementation phase led to unexpected insights. We conclude with implications for research and practice in the slow technology design space.

© All rights reserved Odom et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Freeman, Dustin, Hilliges, Otmar, Sellen, Abigail, O'Hara, Kenton, Izadi, Shahram and Wood, Kenneth (2012): The role of physical controllers in motion video gaming. In: Proceedings of DIS12 Designing Interactive Systems 2012. pp. 701-710.

Systems that detect the unaugmented human body allow players to interact without using a physical controller. But how is interaction altered by the absence of a physical input device? What is the impact on game performance, on a player's expectation of their ability to control the game, and on their game experience? In this study, we investigate these issues in the context of a table tennis video game. The results show that the impact of holding a physical controller, or indeed of the fidelity of that controller, does not appear in simple measures of performance. Rather, the difference between controllers is a function of the responsiveness of the game being controlled, as well as other factors to do with expectations, real world game experience and social context.

© All rights reserved Freeman et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Whittaker, Steve, Kalnikaité, Vaiva, Petrelli, Daniela, Sellen, Abigail, Villar, Nicolas, Bergman, Ofer, Clough, Paul and Brockmeier, Jens (2012): Socio-Technical Lifelogging: Deriving Design Principles for a Future Proof Digital Past. In Eminds – International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 27 (1) pp. 37-62.

Lifelogging is a technically inspired approach that attempts to address the problem of human forgetting by developing systems that "record everything." Uptake of lifelogging systems has generally been disappointing, however. One reason for this lack of uptake is the absence of design principles for developing digital systems to support memory. Synthesizing multiple studies, we identify and evaluate 4 new empirically motivated design principles for lifelogging: Selectivity, Embodiment, Synergy, and Reminiscence. We first summarize four empirical studies that motivate the principles, then describe the evaluation of four novel systems built to embody these principles. We show that design principles were generative, leading to the development of new classes of lifelogging system, as well as providing strategic guidance about how those systems should be built. Evaluations suggest support for Selection and Embodiment principles, but more conceptual and technical work is needed to refine the Synergy and Reminiscence principles.

© All rights reserved Whittaker et al. and/or Universidad de Oviedo

 
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Banks, Richard, Kirk, David and Sellen, Abigail (2012): A Design Perspective on Three Technology Heirlooms. In Eminds – International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 27 (1) pp. 63-91.

Artifacts play an important role as triggers for personal memory. They help in the recollection of past experience and in reminiscing about people, places, and times gone by. Of particular interest to us is one type of artifact, the heirloom, which may also have rich connections with memory, but often through the lens of the life of a deceased member of a family, or a friend. Issues of personal memory and heirlooms are complex, diverse, and subtle. In this article we describe a design case study investigating the role technology will play as part of the process of inheritance. We describe the process of translating fieldwork related to artifacts and heirlooms into a design space from which a broad set of themes, concepts and prototypes emerged. We describe the development of this space, its thematic arrangement, and finally a number of resultant artifact designs.

© All rights reserved Banks et al. and/or Universidad de Oviedo

 
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O'Hara, Kenton, Helmes, John, Sellen, Abigail, Harper, Richard, Bhömer, Martijn ten and Hoven, Elise van den (2012): Food for Talk: Phototalk in the Context of Sharing a Meal. In Eminds – International Journal of Human Computer Interaction, 27 (1) pp. 124-150.

Photographic mementos are important signifiers of our personal memories. Rather than simply passive representations of memories to "preserve" the past, these photos are actively displayed and consumed in the context of everyday behavior and social practices. Within the context of these settings, these mementos are invoked in particular ways to mobilize particular social relations in the present. Taking this perspective, we explore how photo mementos come to be used in the everyday social setting of sharing meal. Rather than a simple concern with nutritional consumption, the shared meal is a social event and important cultural site in the organization of family and social life with culturally specific rhythms, norms, rights, and responsibilities. We present a system -- 4 Photos -- that situates photo mementos within the social concerns of these settings. The system collates photo mementos from those attending the meal and displays them at the dining table to be interacted with by all. Through a real-world deployment of the system, we explore the social work performed by invoking these personal memory resources in the context of real-world settings of shared eating. We highlight particular features of the system that enable this social work to be achieved.

© All rights reserved O'Hara et al. and/or Universidad de Oviedo

 
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Lindley, Sian E., Meek, Sam, Sellen, Abigail and Harper, Richard (2012): "It's simply integral to what I do": enquiries into how the web is weaved into everyday life. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2012. pp. 1067-1076.

This paper presents findings from a field study of 24 individuals who kept diaries of their web use, across device and location, for a period of four days. Our focus was on how the web was used for non-work purposes, with a view to understanding how this is intertwined with everyday life. While our initial aim was to update existing frameworks of 'web activities', such as those described by Sellen et al. [25] and Kellar et al. [14], our data lead us to suggest that the notion of 'web activity' is only partially useful for an analytic understanding of what it is that people do when they go online. Instead, our analysis leads us to present five modes of web use, which can be used to frame and enrich interpretations of 'activity'. These are respite, orienting, opportunistic use, purposeful use and lean-back internet. We then consider two properties of the web that enable it to be tailored to these different modes, persistence and temporality, and close by suggesting ways of drawing upon these qualities in order to inform design.

© All rights reserved Lindley et al. and/or ACM Press

2011
 
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Xu, Yan, Cao, Xiang, Sellen, Abigail, Herbrich, Ralf and Graepel, Thore (2011): Sociable killers: understanding social relationships in an online first-person shooter game. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 197-206.

Online video games can be seen as medium for the formation and maintenance of social relationships. In this paper, we explore what social relationships mean under the context of online First-Person Shooter (FPS) games, how these relationships influence game experience, and how players manage them. We combine qualitative interview and quantitative game log data, and find that despite the gap between the non-persistent game world and potentially persistent social relationships, a diversity of social relationships emerge and they play a central role in the enjoyment of online FPS games. We report the forms, development, and impact of such relationships, and discuss our findings in light of design implications and comparison with other game genres.

© All rights reserved Xu et al. and/or their publisher

 
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O'Hara, Kenton, Sellen, Abigail and Harper, Richard (2011): Embodiment in brain-computer interaction. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 353-362.

With emerging opportunities for using Brain-Computer Interaction (BCI) in gaming applications, there is a need to understand the opportunities and constraints of this interaction paradigm. To complement existing laboratory-based studies, there is also a call for the study of BCI in real world contexts. In this paper we present such a real world study of a simple BCI game called MindFlex®, played as a social activity in the home. In particular, drawing on the philosophical traditions of embodied interaction, we highlight the importance of considering the body in BCI and not simply what is going on in the head. The study shows how people use bodily actions to facilitate control of brain activity but also to make their actions and intentions visible to, and interpretable by, others playing and watching the game. It is the public availability of these bodily actions during BCI that allows action to be socially organised, understood and coordinated with others and through which social relationships can be played out. We discuss the implications of this perspective and findings for BCI.

© All rights reserved O'Hara et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Johnson, Rose, O'Hara, Kenton, Sellen, Abigail, Cousins, Claire and Criminisi, Antonio (2011): Exploring the potential for touchless interaction in image-guided interventional radiology. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 3323-3332.

The growth of image-guided procedures in surgical settings has led to an increased need to interact with digital images under sterile conditions. Traditional touch-based interaction techniques present challenges for managing asepsis in these environments leading to suggestions that new touchless interaction techniques may provide a compelling set of alternatives. In this paper we explore the potential for touchless interaction in image-guided Interventional Radiology (IR) through an ethnographic study. The findings highlight how the distribution of labour and spatial practices of this work are organised with respect to concerns about asepsis and radiation exposure, the physical and cognitive demands of artefact manipulation, patient management, and the construction of "professional vision". We discuss the implications of these key features of the work for touchless interaction technologies within IR and suggest that such issues will be of central importance in considering new input techniques in other medical settings.

© All rights reserved Johnson et al. and/or their publisher

2010
 
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Chew, Boon, Rode, Jennifer A. and Sellen, Abigail (2010): Understanding the everyday use of images on the web. In: Proceedings of the Sixth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2010. pp. 102-111.

This paper presents a qualitative study of domestic Web-based image use, and specifically asks why users access images online. This work is not limited to image search per se, but instead aims to understand holistically the circumstances in which images are accessed through Web-based tools. As such, we move beyond the existing information seeking literature, and instead provide contextual examples of image use as well as an analysis of both how and why images are used. The paper concludes with design recommendations that take into account this wider range of activities.

© All rights reserved Chew et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Chetty, Marshini, Banks, Richard, Harper, Richard, Regan, Tim, Sellen, Abigail, Gkantsidis, Christos, Karagiannis, Thomas and Key, Peter (2010): Who's hogging the bandwidth: the consequences of revealing the invisible in the home. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 659-668.

As more technologies enter the home, householders are burdened with the task of digital housekeeping-managing and sharing digital resources like bandwidth. In response to this, we created and evaluated a domestic tool for bandwidth management called Home Watcher. Our field trial showed that when resource contention amongst different household members is made visible, people's understanding of bandwidth changes and household politics are revealed. In this paper, we describe the consequences of showing real time resource usage in a home, and how this varies depending on the social make up of the household.

© All rights reserved Chetty et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Odom, William, Harper, Richard, Sellen, Abigail, Kirk, David and Banks, Richard (2010): Passing on & putting to rest: understanding bereavement in the context of interactive technologies. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1831-1840.

While it can be a delicate and emotionally-laden topic, new technological trends compel us to confront a range of problems and issues about death and bereavement. This area presents complex challenges and the associated literature is extensive. In this paper we offer a way of slicing through several perspectives in the social sciences to see clearly a set of salient issues related to bereavement. Following this, we present a theoretical lens to provide a way of conceptualizing how the HCI community could begin to approach such issues. We then report field evidence from 11 in-depth interviews conducted with bereaved participants and apply the proposed lens to unpack key emergent problems and tensions. We conclude with a discussion on how the HCI design space might be sensitized to better support the social processes that unfold when bereavement occurs.

© All rights reserved Odom et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
 
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Kalnikaité, Vaiva, Sellen, Abigail, Whittaker, Steve and Kirk, David (2010): Now let me see where i was: understanding how lifelogs mediate memory. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2045-2054.

Lifelogging technologies can capture both mundane and important experiences in our daily lives, resulting in a rich record of the places we visit and the things we see. This study moves beyond technology demonstrations, in aiming to better understand how and why different types of Lifelogs aid memory. Previous work has demonstrated that Lifelogs can aid recall, but that they do many other things too. They can help us look back at the past in new ways, or to reconstruct what we did in our lives, even if we don't recall exact details. Here we extend the notion of Lifelogging to include locational information. We augment streams of Lifelog images with geographic data to examine how different types of data (visual or locational) might affect memory. Our results show that visual cues promote detailed memories (akin to recollection). In contrast locational information supports inferential processes -- allowing participants to reconstruct habits in their behaviour.

© All rights reserved Kalnikaité et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Lindley, Sian E., Harper, Richard and Sellen, Abigail (2010): Designing a technological playground: a field study of the emergence of play in household messaging. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2351-2360.

We present findings from a field study of Wayve, a situated messaging device for the home that incorporates handwriting and photography. Wayve was used by 24 households (some of whom were existing social networks of family and friends) over a three-month period. We consider the various types of playfulness that emerged during the study, both through the sending of Wayve messages and through the local display of photos and notes. The findings are explored in the context of the literature on play, with the aim of identifying aspects of Wayve's design, as well as the context in which it was used, that engendered playfulness. We also highlight the role of play in social relationships, before concluding with design implications.

© All rights reserved Lindley et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kirk, David S., Sellen, Abigail and Cao, Xiang (2010): Home video communication: mediating 'closeness'. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 135-144.

Video-mediated communication (VMC) technologies are becoming rapidly adopted by home users. Little research has previously been conducted into why home users would choose to use VMC or their practices surrounding its use. We present the results of an interview and diary-based study of 17 people about their uses of, and attitudes towards, VMC. We highlight the artful ways in which users appropriate VMC to reconcile a desire for closeness with those with whom they communicate, and we explore the rich ways in which VMC supports different expressions of this desire. We conclude with discussions of how next-generation VMC technologies might be designed to take advantage of this understanding of human values in communicative practice.

© All rights reserved Kirk et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Cao, Xiang, Sellen, Abigail, Brush, A. J. Bernheim, Kirk, David, Edge, Darren and Ding, Xianghua (2010): Understanding family communication across time zones. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 155-158.

Nowadays it has become increasingly common for family members to be distributed in different time zones. These time differences pose specific challenges for communication within the family and result in different communication practices to cope with them. To gain an understanding of current challenges and practices, we interviewed people who regularly communicate with immediate family members living in other time zones. We report primary findings from the interviews, and identify design opportunities for improving the experience of cross time zone family communication.

© All rights reserved Cao et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Cao, Xiang, Lindley, Sian E., Helmes, John and Sellen, Abigail (2010): Telling the whole story: anticipation, inspiration and reputation in a field deployment of TellTable. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 251-260.

We present a field study of TellTable, a new storytelling system designed to support creativity and collaboration amongst children. The application was deployed on a multi-touch interactive table in the library of a primary school, where children could use it to create characters and scenery based on elements of the physical world (captured through photography) as well as through drawing. These could then be used to record a story which could be played back. TellTable allowed children to collaborate in devising stories that mixed the physical and the digital in creative ways and that could include themselves as characters. Additionally, the field deployment illustrated how children took inspiration from one another's stories, how they planned elements of their own tales before using the technology, and how the fact that stories could be accessed in the library led some to become well-known and popular within the school community. The real story here, we argue, needs to take into account all that happens within the wider context of use of this system.

© All rights reserved Cao et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kirk, David S., Izadi, Shahram, Sellen, Abigail, Taylor, Stuart, Banks, Richard and Hilliges, Otmar (2010): Opening up the family archive. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 261-270.

The Family Archive device is an interactive multi-touch tabletop technology with integrated capture facility for the archiving of sentimental artefacts and memorabilia. It was developed as a technology probe to help us open up current family archiving practices and to explore family archiving in situ. We detail the deployment and study of three of these devices in family homes and discuss how deploying a new, potentially disruptive, technology can foreground the social relations and organizing systems in domestic life. This in turn facilitates critical reflection on technology design.

© All rights reserved Kirk et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Neustaedter, Carman, Judge, Tejinder K., Harrison, Steve, Sellen, Abigail, Cao, Xiang, Kirk, David and Kaye, Joseph Jofish (2010): Connecting families: new technologies, family communication, and the impact on domestic space. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2010. pp. 363-366.

 
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Kirk, David S. and Sellen, Abigail (2010): On human remains: Values and practice in the home archiving of cherished objects. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (3) p. 10.

Creating digital archives of personal and family artifacts is an area of growing interest, but which seemingly is often not supported by a thorough understanding of current home archiving practice. In this article we seek to excavate the home archive, exploring those things that people choose to keep rather than simply accumulate. Based on extensive field research in family homes we present an investigation of the kinds of sentimental objects, both physical and digital, to be found in homes, and through in-depth interviews with family members we explore the values behind archiving practices, explaining why and how sentimental artefacts are kept. In doing this we wish to highlight the polysemous nature of things and to argue that archiving practice in the home is not solely concerned with the invocation of memory. In support of this we show how sentimental artifacts are also used to connect with others, to define the self and the family, to fulfill obligations and, quite conversely to efforts of remembering, to safely forget. Such values are fundamental to family life where archiving takes place and consequently we explore how home archiving is achieved as a familial practice in the negotiated spaces of the home. From this grounded understanding of existing practices and values, in context, we derive requirements and implications for the design of future forms of domestic archiving technology.

© All rights reserved Kirk and Sellen and/or ACM Press

2009
 
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Brown, Lorna M., Sellen, Abigail, Krishna, Renan and Harper, Richard (2009): Exploring the potential of audio-tactile messaging for remote interpersonal communication. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1527-1530.

Shake2Talk is a mobile messaging system that allows users to send sounds and tactile sensations to one another via their mobile phones. Messages are created through gestures and then sent to the receiver's phone where they play upon arrival. This paper reports a study of the Shake2Talk system in use by six couples, and begins to uncover the types of messaging practices that occur, and the values and meanings that users ascribe to these messages.

© All rights reserved Brown et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lindley, Sian E., Harper, Richard and Sellen, Abigail (2009): Desiring to be in touch in a changing communications landscape: attitudes of older adults. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1693-1702.

This paper offers an exploration of the attitudes of older adults to keeping in touch with people who are important to them. We present findings from three focus groups with people from 55 to 81 years of age. Themes emerging from the findings suggest that older adults view the act of keeping in touch as being worthy of time and dedication, but also as being something that needs to be carefully managed within the context of daily life. Communication is seen as a means through which skill should be demonstrated and personality expressed, and is understood in a very different context to the lightweight interaction that is increasingly afforded by new technologies. The themes that emerged are used to elicit a number of design implications and to promote some illustrative design concepts for new communication devices.

© All rights reserved Lindley et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

User Experience and Experience Design: [/encyclopedia/user_experience_and_experience_design.html]


 
 
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Helmes, John, Hummels, Caroline and Sellen, Abigail (2009): The other brother: re-experiencing spontaneous moments from domestic life. In: Villar, Nicolas, Izadi, Shahram, Fraser, Mike and Benford, Steve (eds.) TEI 2009 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction February 16-18, 2009, Cambridge, UK. pp. 233-240.

 Cited in the following chapter:

Industrial Design: [/encyclopedia/industrial_design.html]


 
 
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Banks, Richard and Sellen, Abigail (2009): Shoebox: mixing storage and display of digital images in the home. In: Villar, Nicolas, Izadi, Shahram, Fraser, Mike and Benford, Steve (eds.) TEI 2009 - Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction February 16-18, 2009, Cambridge, UK. pp. 35-40.

 
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Sellen, Abigail, Rogers, Yvonne, Harper, Richard and Rodden, Tom (2009): Reflecting human values in the digital age. In Communications of the ACM, 52 (3) pp. 58-66.

 
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Helmes, John, Cao, Xiang, Lindley, Sian E. and Sellen, Abigail (2009): Developing the story: designing an interactive storytelling application. In: Proceedings of the 2009 ACM International Conference on Interactive Tabletops and Surfaces 2009. pp. 49-52.

This paper describes the design of a tabletop storytelling application for children, called TellTable. The goal of the system was to stimulate creativity and collaboration by allowing children to develop their own story characters and scenery through photography and drawing, and record stories through direct manipulation and narration. Here we present the initial interface design and its iteration following the results of a preliminary trial. We also describe key findings from TellTable's deployment in a primary school that relate to its design, before concluding with a discussion of design implications from the process.

© All rights reserved Helmes et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Durrant, Abigail, Taylor, Alex S., Frohlich, David, Sellen, Abigail and Uzzell, David (2009): Photo displays and intergenerational relationships in the family home. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 10-19.

In this paper we describe a design-orientated field study in which we deploy a novel digital display device to explore the potential integration of teenage and family photo displays at home, as well as the value of situated photo display technologies for intergenerational expression. This exploration is deemed timely given the contemporary take-up of digital capture devices by teenagers and the unprecedented volume of photographic content that teens generate. Findings support integration and the display of photos on a standalone device, as well as demonstrating the interventional efficacy of the design as a resource for provoking reflection on the research subject. We also draw upon the theoretical concept of Dialogism to understand how our design mediates intergenerational relationships and interaction aesthetics relating to the notion of 'constructive conflict'.

© All rights reserved Durrant et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Kirk, David, Sellen, Abigail, Taylor, Stuart, Villar, Nicolas and Izadi, Shahram (2009): Putting the physical into the digital: issues in designing hybrid interactive surfaces. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 35-44.

Hybrid surfaces are interactive systems combining techniques of direct-manipulation multi-touch surface interaction with elements of tangible user interfaces (TUIs). The design space for such complex hands-on computing experiences is sufficiently broad that it can be difficult to decide when interface elements should be given either a physical or digital instantiation, and the extent to which different interface functions should be made to model real-world interactions. In this paper we present two case studies of hybrid surface systems we are developing and discuss how we have reasoned through these kinds of design decisions. From this, we derive a set of observations about properties of physical and digital elements, and offer them as a design resource.

© All rights reserved Kirk et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Cockton, Gilbert, Kirk, Dave, Sellen, Abigail and Banks, Richard (2009): Evolving and augmenting worth mapping for family archives. In: Proceedings of the HCI09 Conference on People and Computers XXIII 2009. pp. 329-338.

We describe the process of developing worth maps from field research and initial design sketches for a digital Family Archive, which resulted in a more simple and flexible worth map format. Worth maps support designing as connecting by forming explicit associations between designs and human values. Two supporting worth-centred design resources were developed: one to organize field materials (a worth board) and another to simplify worth map structure (user experience frames). During this process, we identified and refined a range of design elements and relevant human values for initial conceptual exploration of an innovative table top computer application. We end with an evaluation of the process and outcomes, complemented with insights from subsequent applications of worth maps that support recommendations on worth mapping practices. The resulting worth maps and associated resources were (and still remain) valuable, but experiences during this and other uses indicate that further improvements are needed.

© All rights reserved Cockton et al. and/or their publisher

 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
 
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Little, Linda, Sillence, Elizabeth, Sellen, Abigail and Taylor, Alex (2009): The family and communication technologies. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (2) pp. 125-127.

 
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Lindley, Sian E., Banks, Richard, Harper, Richard, Jain, Anab, Regan, Tim, Sellen, Abigail and Taylor, Alex S. (2009): Resilience in the face of innovation: Household trials with BubbleBoard. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (2) pp. 154-164.

We present the results of a field trial in which a visual answer machine, the BubbleBoard, was deployed in five households. The aims of the trial were to create an improved answer machine, but also, and more interestingly, to encourage family members to appropriate it through the inclusion of open and playful design elements. Through making aspects of audio messages visible, BubbleBoard offered a number of improvements over existing answer machines. However, the new affordances associated with this were not appropriated by family members in the ways we had expected. We discuss possible reasons for this, and conclude that attempting to encourage appropriation through 'openness' in design may not be sufficient in the face of well-established social practices.

© All rights reserved Lindley et al. and/or Academic Press

 
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Durrant, Abigail, Frohlich, David, Sellen, Abigail and Lyons, Evanthia (2009): Home curation versus teenage photography: Photo displays in the family home. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 67 (12) pp. 1005-1023.

In this paper we report an empirical study of the photographic portrayal of family members at home. Adopting a social psychological approach and focusing on intergenerational power dynamics, our research explores the use of domestic photo displays in family representation. Parents and their teenagers from eight families in the south of England were interviewed at home about their interpretations of both stored and displayed photos within the home. Discussions centred on particular photographs found by the participants to portray self and family in different ways. The findings show that public displays of digital photos are still curated by mothers of the households, but with more difficulty and less control than with analogue photos. In addition, teenagers both contribute and comply with this curation within the home, whilst at the same time developing additional ways of presenting their families and themselves online that are 'unsupervised' by the curator. We highlight the conflict of interest that is at play within teen and parent practices and consider the challenges that this presents for supporting the representation of family through the design of photo display technology.

© All rights reserved Durrant et al. and/or Academic Press

2008
 
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Oleksik, Gerard, Frohlich, David M., Brown, Lorna M. and Sellen, Abigail (2008): Sonic interventions: understanding and extending the domestic soundscape. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 1419-1428.

This paper presents a new study of the role, importance and meaning of sound in the home. Drawing on interview data and sound recordings gathered from seven households, this study offers fresh insight into the ways in which the domestic soundscape is managed and understood. The data revealed that household members engaged in a wide variety of sound management practices to monitor and control the real-time flow of sonic information throughout the home. They also showed that families were sometimes surprised and delighted by the ability to record fragments of the soundscape for later use. These findings suggest a number of roles for technology in enhancing the domestic soundscape and its associated behaviors, which we present here in the form of example sonic interventions created in a design workshop at the end of the project.

© All rights reserved Oleksik et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Durrant, Abigail, Taylor, Alex S., Taylor, Stuart, Molloy, Mike, Sellen, Abigail, Frohlich, David M., Gosset, Phil and Swan, Laurel (2008): Speculative devices for photo display. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2297-2302.

In this paper, we describe three purposefully provocative, digital photo display technologies designed for home settings. The three devices have been built to provoke questions around how digital photographs might be seen and interacted with in novel ways. They are also intended for speculation about the expressive resources afforded by digital technologies for displaying photos. It is hoped interactions with the devices will help researchers and designers reflect on new design possibilities. The devices are also being deployed as part of ongoing home-oriented field research.

© All rights reserved Durrant et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Lindley, Sian E., Harper, Richard and Sellen, Abigail (2008): Designing for Elders: Exploring the Complexity of Relationships in Later Life. In: Proceedings of the HCI08 Conference on People and Computers XXII 2008. pp. 77-86.

We present a review of literature from the fields of gerontology, HCI and human factors, which focus on the nature of family and peer relationships in old age. We find both simplistic, prevailing models of what it means to be old, as well as deeper insights which often belie these models. In addition, we discover that new technologies are often also based on quite simple assumptions, but that their deployment points to a more complex reality. This paper considers a number of perspectives on relationships in later life, critiques the assumptions underscoring them, and presents an alternative view which we believe is more in line with the perspective of elderly people themselves. We end by discussing what this means in terms of designing new technologies for older people.

© All rights reserved Lindley et al. and/or their publisher

 
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Harper, Richard, Rodden, Tom, Rogers, Yvonne and Sellen, Abigail (2008): Being Human: Human Computer Interaction in 2020. Microsoft Research Ltd

 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
2007
 
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Kirk, David, Sellen, Abigail, Harper, Richard and Wood, Kenneth R. (2007): Understanding videowork. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 61-70.

In this paper we elucidate the patterns of behavior of home movie makers through a study of 12 families and a separate focus group of 7 teenagers. Analogous to a similar study of photowork [13], the goal is to provide a deeper understanding of what people currently do with video technologies, balancing the preponderance of techno-centric work in the area with appropriate user-centric insight. From our analysis, we derive a videowork lifecycle to frame the practices users engage in when working with video technologies in the home, and uncover two broad types of video usage therein. This has implications for how we conceive of and devise tools to support these practices, as we discuss.

© All rights reserved Kirk et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sellen, Abigail, Fogg, Andrew, Aitken, Mike, Hodges, Steve, Rother, Carsten and Wood, Kenneth R. (2007): Do life-logging technologies support memory for the past?: an experimental study using sensecam. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 81-90.

We report on the results of a study using SenseCam, a "life-logging" technology in the form of a wearable camera, which aims to capture data about everyday life in order to support people's memory for past, personal events. We find evidence that SenseCam images do facilitate people's ability to connect to their past, but that images do this in different ways. We make a distinction between "remembering" the past, and "knowing" about it, and provide evidence that SenseCam images work differently over time in these capacities. We also compare the efficacy of user-captured images with automatically captured images and discuss the implications of these findings and others for how we conceive of and make claims about life-logging technologies.

© All rights reserved Sellen et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Terrenghi, Lucia, Kirk, David, Sellen, Abigail and Izadi, Shahram (2007): Affordances for manipulation of physical versus digital media on interactive surfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1157-1166.

This work presents the results of a comparative study in which we investigate the ways manipulation of physical versus digital media are fundamentally different from one another. Participants carried out both a puzzle task and a photo sorting task in two different modes: in a physical 3-dimensional space and on a multi-touch, interactive tabletop in which the digital items resembled their physical counterparts in terms of appearance and behavior. By observing the interaction behaviors of 12 participants, we explore the main differences and discuss what this means for designing interactive surfaces which use aspects of the physical world as a design resource.

© All rights reserved Terrenghi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Luff, Paul, Adams, Guy, Bock, Wolfgang, Drazin, Adam, Frohlich, David M., Heath, Christian, Herdman, Peter, King, Heather, Linketscher, Nadja, Murphy, Rachel, Norrie, Moira C. and Sellen, Abigail (2007): Augmented Paper: Developing Relationships between Digital Content and Paper. In: (ed.). "The Disappearing Computer: Interaction Design, System Infrastructures and Applications for Smart Environments, Lecture Notes in Computer Science, LNCS 4500". Springer

 
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Brown, Barry A. T., Taylor, Alex S., Izadi, Shahram, Sellen, Abigail, Kaye, Joseph Jofish and Eardley, Rachel (2007): Locating Family Values: A Field Trial of the Whereabouts Clock. In: Krumm, John, Abowd, Gregory D., Seneviratne, Aruna and Strang, Thomas (eds.) UbiComp 2007 Ubiquitous Computing - 9th International Conference September 16-19, 2007, Innsbruck, Austria. pp. 354-371.

We report the results of a long-term, multi-site field trial of a situated awareness device for families called the “Whereabouts Clock”. The Clock displayed family members' current location as one of four privacy-preserving, deliberately coarse-grained categories (HOME , WORK , SCHOOL or ELSEWHERE) In use, the Clock supported not only family co-ordination but also more emotive aspects of family life such as reassurance, connectedness, identity and social touch. This emphasized aspects of family life frequently neglected in Ubicomp, such as the ways in which families' awareness of each others' activities contributes to a sense of a family's identity. We draw further on the results to differentiate between location as a technical aspect of awareness systems and what we characterize as “location-in-interaction”. Location-in-interaction is revealed as an emotional, accountable and even moral part of family life

© All rights reserved Brown et al. and/or Springer

 Cited in the following chapter:

Usability Evaluation: [/encyclopedia/usability_evaluation.html]


 
 
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Taylor, Alex S., Harper, Richard H. R., Swan, Laurel, Izadi, Shahram, Sellen, Abigail and Perry, Mark (2007): Homes that make us smart. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 11 (5) pp. 383-393.

2006
 
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Hsieh, Gary, Wood, Kenneth R. and Sellen, Abigail (2006): Peripheral display of digital handwritten notes. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 285-288.

We present a system for the peripheral display of digital handwritten notes, motivated by the joint observation that people seldom refer back to their notes and that these notes often contain useful information. We describe the user-led design of the system, incorporating interviews, paper prototypes, and interactive prototypes. A preliminary field trial of the system indicates that users derive value from the system both for low-distraction reminding and for serendipitous idea generation. These promising initial results suggest significant scope for future work.

© All rights reserved Hsieh et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kirk, David, Sellen, Abigail, Rother, Carsten and Wood, Kenneth R. (2006): Understanding photowork. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 761-770.

In this paper we introduce the notion of "photowork" as the activities people perform with their digital photos after capture but prior to end use such as sharing. Surprisingly, these processes of reviewing, downloading, organizing, editing, sorting and filing have received little attention in the literature yet they form the context for a large amount of the 'search' and 'browse' activities so commonly referred to in studies of digital photo software. Through a deeper understanding of photowork using field observation and interviews, we seek to highlight its significance as an interaction practice. At the same time, we discover how "search" as it is usually defined may have much less relevance than new ways of browsing for the design of new digital photo tools, in particular, browsing in support of the photowork activities we describe.

© All rights reserved Kirk et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tohidi, Maryam, Buxton, Bill, Baecker, Ronald M. and Sellen, Abigail (2006): Getting the right design and the design right. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1243-1252.

We present a study comparing usability testing of a single interface versus three functionally equivalent but stylistically distinct designs. We found that when presented with a single design, users give significantly higher ratings and were more reluctant to criticize than when presented with the same design in a group of three. Our results imply that by presenting users with alternative design solutions, subjective ratings are less prone to inflation and give rise to more and stronger criticisms when appropriate. Contrary to our expectations, our results also suggest that usability testing by itself, even when multiple designs are presented, is not an effective vehicle for soliciting constructive suggestions about how to improve the design from end users. It is a means to identify problems, not provide solutions.

© All rights reserved Tohidi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Tohidi, Maryam, Buxton, Bill, Baecker, Ronald M. and Sellen, Abigail (2006): User sketches: a quick, inexpensive, and effective way to elicit more reflective user feedback. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 105-114.

Our aim is to introduce techniques that allow for active involvement of users throughout the design process, starting with the very early stages of ideation and exploration. The approach discussed in this study augments conventional usability testing with a user sketching component. We found that enabling users to sketch their ideas facilitated reflection, and provided a rich medium for discovery and communication of design ideas. We believe that this technique has the potential to complement usability testing in general, in order to generate "reflective" as opposed to purely "reactive" user feedback.

© All rights reserved Tohidi et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Taylor, Alex S., Swan, Laurel, Eardley, Rachel, Sellen, Abigail, Hodges, Steve and Wood, Kenneth R. (2006): Augmenting refrigerator magnets: why less is sometimes more. In: Proceedings of the Fourth Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction 2006. pp. 115-124.

In this paper we present a number of augmented refrigerator magnet concepts. The concepts are shown to be derived from previous research into the everyday use of fridge surfaces. Three broadly encompassing practices have been addressed through the concepts: (i) organization/planning in households; (ii) reminding; and (iii) methods household members use to assign ownership to particular tasks, activities and artifacts. Particular emphasis is given to a design approach that aims to build on the simplicity of magnets so that each of the concepts offers a basic, simple to operate function. The concepts, and our use of what we call this less is more design sensibility are examined using a low-fidelity prototyping exercise. The results of this preliminary work suggest that the concepts have the potential to be easily incorporated into household routines and that the design of simple functioning devices lends itself to this.

© All rights reserved Taylor et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Sellen, Abigail, Harper, Richard, Eardley, Rachel, Izadi, Shahram, Regan, Tim, Taylor, Alex S. and Wood, Kenneth R. (2006): HomeNote: supporting situated messaging in the home. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW06 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2006. pp. 383-392.

In this paper we describe a field trial designed to investigate the potential of remote, situated messaging within the home. Five households used our "HomeNote" device for approximately a month. The results show a diversity of types of communication which highlight the role of messaging both to a household and to a place. It also shows the ways in which these kinds of messages enable subtle ways of requesting action, expressing affection, and marking identity in a household -- communication types which have received little attention in the research literature. These in turn point to new concepts for technology which we describe.

© All rights reserved Sellen et al. and/or ACM Press

2005
 
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Kindberg, Tim, Spasojevic, Mirjana, Fleck, Rowanne and Sellen, Abigail (2005): I saw this and thought of you: some social uses of camera phones. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1545-1548.

This paper presents aspects of a study into how and why people use camera phones. The study examined people's intentions at the time of image capture and subsequent patterns of use. Motivated by current interest in "picture messaging", we focus on images taken to communicate with absent people and look at how they were actually used. We consider the timeliness of communication and the role of common ground to derive implications for design.

© All rights reserved Kindberg et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Kindberg, Tim, Spasojevic, Mirjana, Fleck, Rowanne and Sellen, Abigail (2005): The ubiquitous camera: an in-depth study of camera phone use. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 4 (2) pp. 42-50.

 Cited in the following chapters:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]

Semi-structured qualitative studies: [/encyclopedia/semi-structured_qualitative_studies.html]


 
2004
 
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Harper, Richard H. R., Sellen, Abigail, Kindberg, Tim, Gosett, Phil and Väänänen-Vainio-Mattila, Kaisa (2004): The Myth of the 'Martini Solution'. In: Brewster, Stephen A. and Dunlop, Mark D. (eds.) Mobile Human-Computer Interaction - Mobile HCI 2004 - 6th International Symposium September 13-16, 2004, Glasgow, UK. pp. 536-537.

 
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Kindberg, Tim, Sellen, Abigail and Geelhoed, Erik (2004): Security and Trust in Mobile Interactions: A Study of Users' Perceptions and Reasoning. In: Davies, Nigel, Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Siio, Itiro (eds.) UbiComp 2004 Ubiquitous Computing 6th International Conference September 7-10, 2004, Nottingham, UK. pp. 196-213.

2003
 
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Hyams, J. and Sellen, Abigail (2003): How Knowledge Workers Gather Information from the Web: Implications for Peer-to-Peer File Sharing Tools. In: Proceedings of the HCI03 Conference on People and Computers XVII 2003. pp. 55-72.

2002
 
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Sellen, Abigail, Murphy, Rachel and Shaw, Kate L. (2002): How knowledge workers use the web. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 227-234.

 
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O'Hara, Kenton P., Taylor, Alex, Newman, William M. and Sellen, Abigail (2002): Understanding the materiality of writing from multiple sources. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 56 (3) pp. 269-305.

Writing research has typically focussed on the text production elements of writing. Many everyday writing tasks, however, cannot be characterized simply in terms of text production since they often involve the use of source materials to support the composition process. As such, these tasks are better thought of as hybrid tasks. Such hybrid tasks have been given relatively little attention in the literature and what little work has been done has taken a purely cognitive approach that downplays the material context within which the task takes place. Following Haas' critique of mainstream writing research which advocated the need to consider the material tools and artefacts in theories of writing, this paper takes a similar approach in relation to the hybrid tasks of writing while reading from multiple sources. A study is presented that explores a range of everyday writing from multiple sources in their real-world contexts. The study highlights a number of important characteristics of the interaction with the material artefacts used during these tasks and the impact that these have on the underlying cognitive processes. The hope is that these will begin to offer some grounding on which future theoretical understanding of these hybrid tasks can build, as well as providing useful insights into the design of technologies to support these tasks.

© All rights reserved O'Hara et al. and/or Academic Press

2001
 
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Perry, Mark, O'Hara, Kenton P., Sellen, Abigail, Brown, Barry and Harper, Richard (2001): Dealing with mobility: understanding access anytime, anywhere. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 8 (4) pp. 323-347.

The rapid and accelerating move towards use of mobile technologies has increasingly provided people and organizations with the ability to work away from the office and on the move. The new ways of working afforded by these technologies are often characterized in terms of access to information and people anytime, anywhere. This article presents a study of mobile workers that highlights different facets of access to remote people and information, and different facets of anytime, anywhere. Four key factors in mobile work are identified: the role of planning, working in "dead time," accessing remote technological and informational resources, and monitoring the activities of remote colleagues. By reflecting on these issues, we can better understand the role of technology and artifacts in mobile work and identify the opportunities for the development of appropriate technological solutions to support mobile workers.

© All rights reserved Perry et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Brown, B., Sellen, Abigail and Geelhoed, Erik (2001): Music sharing as a computer supported collaborative application. In: Ecscw 2001 - Proceedings of the Seventh European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 16-20 September, 2001, Bonn, Germany. pp. 179-198.

 
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Brown, B., Geelhoed, Erik and Sellen, Abigail (2001): The Use of Conventional and New Music Media: Implications for Future Technologies. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT01: Human-Computer Interaction 2001, Tokyo, Japan. pp. 67-75.

 
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Brown, Barry A. T. and Sellen, Abigail (2001): Exploring Users' Experiences of the Web. In First Monday, 6 (9) .

 
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Sellen, Abigail and Harper, Richard H. R. (2001): The Myth of the Paperless Office. MIT Press

Over the past thirty years, many people have proclaimed the imminent arrival of the paperless office. Yet even the World Wide Web, which allows almost any computer to read and display another computer's documents, has increased the amount of printing done. The use of e-mail in an organization causes an average 40 percent increase in paper consumption. In The Myth of the Paperless Office, Abigail Sellen and Richard Harper use the study of paper as a way to understand the work that people do and the reasons they do it the way they do. Using the tools of ethnography and cognitive psychology, they look at paper use from the level of the individual up to that of organizational culture.Central to Sellen and Harper's investigation is the concept of "affordances" -- the activities that an object allows, or affords. The physical properties of paper (its being thin, light, porous, opaque, and flexible) afford the human actions of grasping, carrying, folding, writing, and so on. The concept of affordance allows them to compare the affordances of paper with those of existing digital devices. They can then ask what kinds of devices or systems would make new kinds of activities possible or better support current activities. The authors argue that paper will continue to play an important role in office life. Rather than pursue the ideal of the paperless office, we should work toward a future in which paper and electronic document tools work in concert and organizational processes make optimal use of both.

© All rights reserved Sellen and Harper and/or MIT Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Visual Representation: [/encyclopedia/visual_representation.html]


 
2000
 
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Brown, Barry, Sellen, Abigail and O'Hara, Kenton P. (2000): A Diary Study of Information Capture in Working Life. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 438-445.

Despite the increasing number of new devices entering the market allowing the capture or recording of information (whether it be marks on paper, scene, sound or moving images), there has been little study of when and why people want to do these kinds of activities. In an effort to systematically explore design requirements for new kinds of information capture devices, we devised a diary study of 22 individuals in a range of different jobs. The data were used to construct a taxonomy as a framework for design and analysis. Design implications are drawn from the framework and applied to the design of digital cameras and hand held scanners.

© All rights reserved Brown et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Mobile Computing: [/encyclopedia/mobile_computing.html]


 
 
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Matarazzo, Giacinto and Sellen, Abigail (2000): The Value of Video in Work at a Distance: Addition or Distraction?. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 19 (5) pp. 339-348.

This paper reports on a laboratory experiment aimed at exploring the importance of 'person' versus 'task' space in supporting work at a distance through Multimedia Desktop Systems (MDSs). 'Person space' refers to the ability to see and hear remote colleagues while 'task space' refers to the ability to share work-related artifacts. A 2 x 2 x 4 mixed factorial experimental design was used (n = 72) in which video quality (broad band vs narrow band) was varied for the display of remote colleagues, group size (point-to-point vs point-to multipoint), and task. Surprisingly, subjects not only rated the poor quality video conditions more highly than good quality video conditions, but they also completed their tasks faster. These findings are explained in terms of a 'distraction effect' imposed by the display of remote colleagues. This has practical implications for the design of MDSs.

© All rights reserved Matarazzo and Sellen and/or Taylor and Francis

1998
 
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O'Hara, Kenton P., Smith, Fiona, Newman, William M. and Sellen, Abigail (1998): Student Readers' Use of Library Documents: Implications for Library Technologies. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 233-240.

We report on a study of graduate students conducting research in libraries, focusing on how they extract and record information as they read. By examining their information recording activities within the context of their work as a whole, it is possible to highlight why students choose particular strategies and styles of recording for what these activities provide both at the time of reading and at subsequent points in time. The implications of these findings for digital library technologies are discussed.

© All rights reserved O'Hara et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Adler, Annette, Gujar, Anuj, Harrison, Beverly L., O'Hara, Kenton P. and Sellen, Abigail (1998): A Diary Study of Work-Related Reading: Design Implications for Digital Reading Devices. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Joëlle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 241-248.

In this paper we describe a diary study of how people read in the course of their daily working lives. Fifteen people from a wide variety of professions were asked to log their daily document activity for a period of 5 consecutive working days. Using structured interviews, we analysed their reading activities in detail. We examine the range of reading activities that our subjects carried out, and then present findings relating to both common characteristics and variation across the sample. From these findings, we discuss some implications for the design of digital reading devices.

© All rights reserved Adler et al. and/or ACM Press

1997
 
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Sellen, Abigail and Harper, Richard H. R. (1997): Paper as an Analytic Resource for the Design of New Technologies. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 319-326.

We report on an examination of work practice in a knowledge-based, document-intensive organisation and describe the role of paper in that work. We show how such an examination can provide a resource for (1) the determination of system design modifications that can be undertaken in the short term; (2) the determination of entirely new systems design requiring longer term research and development; and (3) helping to specify where paper will continue to be used in future document-related work practice.

© All rights reserved Sellen and and/or ACM Press

 
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O'Hara, Kent and Sellen, Abigail (1997): A Comparison of Reading Paper and On-Line Documents. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 335-342.

We report on a laboratory study that compares reading from paper to reading on-line. Critical differences have to do with the major advantages paper offers in supporting annotation while reading, quick navigation, and flexibility of spatial layout. These, in turn, allow readers to deepen their understanding of the text, extract a sense of its structure, create a plan for writing, cross-refer to other documents, and interleave reading and writing. We discuss the design implications of these findings for the development of better reading technologies.

© All rights reserved O'Hara and Sellen and/or ACM Press

 
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Finn, Kathleen E., Sellen, Abigail and Wilbur, Sylvia B. (eds.) (1997): Video-Mediated Communication. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates

1995
 
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Harper, Richard H. R. and Sellen, Abigail (1995): Collaborative Tools and the Practicalities of Professional Work at the International Monetary Fund. In: Katz, Irvin R., Mack, Robert L., Marks, Linn, Rosson, Mary Beth and Nielsen, Jakob (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 95 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference May 7-11, 1995, Denver, Colorado. pp. 122-129.

We show how an ethnographic examination of the International Monetary Fund in Washington, D.C. has implications for the design of tools to support collaborative work. First, it reports how information that requires a high degree of professional judgement in its production is unsuited for most current groupware tools. This is contrasted with the shareability of information which can 'stand-alone'. Second, it reports how effective re-use of documents will necessarily involve paper, or 'paper-like' equivalents. Both issues emphasise the need to take into account social processes in the sharing of certain kinds of information.

© All rights reserved Harper and and/or ACM Press

 
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Heath, Christian, Luff, Paul and Sellen, Abigail (1995): Reconsidering the Virtual Workplace: Flexible Support for Collaborative Activity. In: Marmolin, Hans, Sundblad, Yngve and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 95 - Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 11-15 September, 1995, Stockholm, Sweden. pp. 83-99.

Despite the substantial corpus of research concerned with the design and development of media space, the virtual workplace has failed to achieve its early promise. In this paper, we suggest that a number of problems which have arisen with the design and deployment of media space, derive from their impoverished concept of collaborative work. Drawing from our own studies of video connectivity, coupled with analyses of work and interaction in real-world settings, we consider ways in which we might reconfigure media space in order to provide more satisfactory support for collaboration in organisational environments.

© All rights reserved Heath et al. and/or Kluwer Academic Publishers

 
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Sellen, Abigail (1995): Remote Conversations: The Effects of Mediating Talk with Technology. In Human-Computer Interaction, 10 (4) pp. 401-444.

Three different videoconferencing systems for supporting multiparty, remote conversations are described and evaluated experimentally. The three systems differed by how many participants were visible at once, their spatial arrangement, and control over who was seen. Conversations using these systems were compared to same-room (Experiment 1) and audio-only (Experiment 2) conversations. Specialized speech-tracking equipment recorded the on-off patterns of speech that allowed objective measurement of structural aspects of the conversations, such as turn length, pauses, and interruptions. Questionnaires and interviews also documented participants' opinions and perceptions in the various settings. Contrary to expectation, systems in which visual cues such as selective gaze were absent produced no differences in turn-taking or in any other aspect of the structure of conversation. In fact, turn-taking was unaffected even when visual information was completely absent. Overall, only the same-room condition showed any significant differences from any other condition; people in the same room produced more interruptions and fewer formal handovers of the floor than in any of the technology-mediated conditions. In this respect, the audio-only and video systems examined in these studies were equivalent. However, analyses of participants' perceptions showed that participants felt that visual access in mediated conversations was both important and beneficial in conversation. Further, there were indications that the particular design of the different video systems did affect some aspects of conversational behavior, such as the ability to hold side and parallel conversations.

© All rights reserved Sellen and/or Taylor and Francis

1994
 
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Kabbash, Paul, Buxton, Bill and Sellen, Abigail (1994): Two-Handed Input in a Compound Task. In: Adelson, Beth, Dumais, Susan and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 94 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-28, 1994, Boston, Massachusetts. pp. 417-423.

Four techniques for performing a compound drawing/color selection task were studied: a unimanual technique, a bimanual technique where different hands controlled independent subtasks, and two other bimanual techniques in which the action of the right hand depended on that of the left. We call this latter class of two-handed technique "asymmetric dependent," and predict that because tasks of this sort most closely conform to bimanual tasks in the everyday world, they would give rise to the best performance. Results showed that one of the asymmetric bimanual techniques, called the Toolglass technique, did indeed give rise to the best overall performance. Reasons for the superiority of the technique are discussed in terms of their implications for design. These are contrasted with other kinds of two-handed techniques, and it is shown how, if designed inappropriately, two hands can be worse than one.

© All rights reserved Kabbash et al. and/or ACM Press

1993
 
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Gaver, William W., Sellen, Abigail, Heath, Christian and Luff, Paul (1993): One is Not Enough: Multiple Views in a Media Space. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 335-341.

Media spaces support collaboration, but the limited access they provide to remote colleagues' activities can undermine their utility. To address this limitation, we built an experimental system in which four switchable cameras were deployed in each of two remote offices, and observed participants using the system to collaborate on two tasks. The new views allowed increased access to task-related artifacts; indeed, users preferred these views to more typical "face-to-face" ones. However, problems of establishing a joint frame of reference were exacerbated by the additional complexity, leading us to speculate about more effective ways to expand access to remote sites.

© All rights reserved Gaver et al. and/or ACM Press

 
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Bellotti, Victoria and Sellen, Abigail (1993): Design for Privacy in Ubiquitous Computing Environments. In: Michelis, Giorgio De, Simone, Carla and Schmidt, Kjeld (eds.) ECSCW 93 - Proceedings of the Third European Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work 1993. pp. 77-92.

Current developments in information technology are leading to increasing capture and storage of information about people and their activities. This raises serious issues about the preservation of privacy. In this paper we examine why these issues are particularly important in the introduction of ubiquitous computing technology into the working environment. Certain problems with privacy are closely related to the ways in which the technology attenuates natural mechanisms of feedback and control over information released. We describe a framework for design for privacy in ubiquitous computing environments and conclude with an example of its application.

© All rights reserved Bellotti and Sellen and/or Kluwer

 
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Kurtenbach, Gordon, Sellen, Abigail and Buxton, Bill (1993): An Empirical Evaluation of Some Articulatory and Cognitive Aspects of Marking Menus. In Human-Computer Interaction, 8 (1) pp. 1-23.

We describe marking menus, an extension of pie menus, which are well suited for stylus-based interfaces. Pie menus are circular menus subdivided into sectors, each of which might correspond to a different command. One moves the cursor from the center of the pie into the desired sector. Marking menus are invisible pie menus in which the movement of the cursor during a selection leaves an "ink trail" similar to a pen stroke on paper. The combination of a pie menu and a marking menu supports an efficient transition from novice to expert performance. Novices can "pop-up" a pie menu and make a selection, whereas experts can simply make the corresponding mark without waiting for the menu to appear. This article describes an experiment in which we explored both articulatory and cognitive aspects of marking menus for different numbers of items per menu and using different input devices (mouse, trackball, and stylus). The articulatory aspects are how well subjects could execute the physical actions necessary to select from pie marking menus. Articulatory aspects were investigated by presenting one group of subjects with the task of selecting from fully visible menus. Because one feature of marking menus is that users should be able to select from them without seeing the menus (by making a mark), we also ran two groups of subjects with invisible pie menus: one group with an ink trail and one without. These subjects were therefore faced with the task of either mentally representing the menu or associating marks with the commands they invoked through practice. These then are the cognitive aspects to which we refer. Our results indicate that subjects' performance degraded as the number of items increased. When menus were hidden, however, subjects performance did not degrade as rapidly when menus contained even numbers of items. We also found subjects performed better with the mouse and stylus than with the trackball.

© All rights reserved Kurtenbach et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1992
 
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Sellen, Abigail (1992): Speech Patterns in Video-Mediated Conversations. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 49-59.

This paper reports on the first of a series of analyses aimed at comparing same room and video-mediated conversations for multiparty meetings. This study compared patterns of spontaneous speech for same room versus two video-mediated conversations. One video system used a single camera, monitor and speaker, and a picture-in-a-picture device to display multiple people on one screen. The other system used multiple cameras, monitors, and speakers in order to support directional gaze cues and selective listening. Differences were found between same room and video-mediated conversations in terms of floor control and amount of simultaneous speech. While no differences were found between the video systems in terms of objective speech measures, other important differences are suggested and discussed.

© All rights reserved Sellen and/or ACM Press

 
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Sellen, Abigail, Buxton, Bill and Arnott, John (1992): Using Spatial Cues to Improve Videoconferencing. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 651-652.

 
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Sellen, Abigail, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1992): The Prevention of Mode Errors Through Sensory Feedback. In Human-Computer Interaction, 7 (2) pp. 141-164.

The use of different kinds of feedback in preventing mode errors was investigated. Two experiments examined the frequency of mode errors in a text-editing task where a mode error was defined as an attempt to issue navigational commands while in insert mode, or an attempt to insert text while in command mode. In Experiment 1, the effectiveness of kinesthetic versus visual feedback was compared in four different conditions: the use of keyboard versus foot pedal for changing mode (kinesthetic feedback), crossed with the presence or absence of visual feedback to indicate mode. The results showed both kinesthetic and visual feedback to be effective in reducing mode errors. However, kinesthetic was more effective than visual feedback both in terms of reducing errors and in terms of reducing the cognitive load associated with mode changes. Experiment 2 tested the hypothesis that the superiority of this kinesthetic feedback was due to the fact that the foot pedal required subjects actively to maintain insert mode. The results confirmed that the use of a nonlatching foot pedal for switching modes provided a more salient source of information on mode state than the use of a latching pedal. On the basis of these results, we argue that user-maintained mode states prevent mode errors more effectively than system-maintained mode states.

© All rights reserved Sellen et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

1991
 
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MacKenzie, I. Scott, Sellen, Abigail and Buxton, Bill (1991): A Comparison of Input Devices in Elemental Pointing and Dragging Tasks. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 161-166.

An experiment is described comparing three devices (a mouse, a trackball, and a stylus with tablet) in the performance of pointing and dragging tasks. During pointing, movement times were shorter and error rates were lower than during dragging. It is shown that Fitts' law can model both tasks, and that within devices the index of performance is higher when pointing than when dragging. Device differences also appeared. The stylus displayed a higher rate of information processing than the mouse during pointing but not during dragging. The trackball ranked third for both tasks.

© All rights reserved MacKenzie et al. and/or ACM Press

 Cited in the following chapter:

Fitts's Law: [/encyclopedia/fitts_law.html]


 
 
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Mantei, Marilyn, Baecker, Ronald M., Sellen, Abigail, Buxton, Bill, Milligan, Thomas and Wellman, Barry (1991): Experiences in the Use of a Media Space. In: Robertson, Scott P., Olson, Gary M. and Olson, Judith S. (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 91 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 28 - June 5, 1991, New Orleans, Louisiana. pp. 203-208.

A media space is a system that uses integrated video, audio, and computers to allow individuals and groups to work together despite being distributed spatially and temporally. Our media space, CAVECAT (Computer Audio Video Enhanced Collaboration And Telepresence), enables a small number of individuals or groups located in separate offices to engage in collaborative work without leaving their offices. This paper presents and summarizes our experiences during initial use of CAVECAT, including unsolved technological obstacles we have encountered, and the psychological and social impact of the technology. Where possible we discuss relevant findings from the psychological literature, and implications for design of the next-generation media space.

© All rights reserved Mantei et al. and/or ACM Press

1990
 
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Sellen, Abigail, Kurtenbach, Gordon and Buxton, Bill (1990): The Role of Visual and Kinesthetic Feedback in the Prevention of Mode Errors. In: Diaper, Dan, Gilmore, David J., Cockton, Gilbert and Shackel, Brian (eds.) INTERACT 90 - 3rd IFIP International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction August 27-31, 1990, Cambridge, UK. pp. 667-673.

The use of visual and kinesthetic feedback in preventing mode errors was investigated. Mode errors were defined in the context of text editing as attempting to issue navigation commands while in insert mode, or attempting to insert text while in command mode. Twelve novices and twelve expert users of the Unix-based text editor vi performed a simple text editing task in conjunction with a distractor task in four different conditions. These conditions consisted of comparing the use of keyboard versus foot pedal for changing mode, crossed with the presence or absence of visual feedback to indicate mode. Both visual and kinesthetic feedback were effective in reducing mode errors, although for experts visual feedback was redundant given that they were using a foot pedal. Other measures of system usability indicate the superiority of the use of a foot pedal over visual feedback in delivering system state information for this type of task.

© All rights reserved Sellen et al. and/or North-Holland

 
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Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team
URL: http://www.interaction-design.org/references/authors/abigail_sellen.html

Publication statistics

Pub. period:1990-2012
Pub. count:81
Number of co-authors:120



Co-authors

Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Richard Harper:15
David Kirk:10
Bill Buxton:9

 

 

Productive colleagues

Abigail Sellen's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Tom Rodden:106
Yvonne Rogers:99
Bill Buxton:78
 
 
 
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