Publication statistics

Pub. period:2001-2011
Pub. count:11
Number of co-authors:24


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Markku Turunen:
Andrew L. Kun:
Alexandar I. Rudnicky:



Productive colleagues

Tim Paek's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Susan Dumais:74
Eric Horvitz:70
Bongshin Lee:25

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Tim Paek


Publications by Tim Paek (bibliography)

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Paek, Tim and Hsu, Bo-June (Paul) (2011): Sampling representative phrase sets for text entry experiments: a procedure and public resource. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2477-2480.

Text entry experiments evaluating the effectiveness of various input techniques often employ a procedure whereby users are prompted with natural language phrases which they are instructed to enter as stimuli. For experimental validity, it is desirable to control the stimuli and present text that is representative of a target task, domain or language. MacKenzie and Soukoreff (2001) manually selected a set of 500 phrases for text entry experiments. To demonstrate representativeness, they correlated the distribution of single letters in their phrase set to a relatively small (by current standards) corpus of English prior to 1966, which may not reflect the style of text input today. In this paper, we ground the notion of representativeness in terms of information theory and propose a procedure for sampling representative phrases from any large corpus so that researchers can curate their own stimuli. We then describe the characteristics of phrase sets we generated using the procedure for email and social media (Facebook and Twitter). The phrase sets and code for the procedure are publicly available for download.

© All rights reserved Paek and Hsu and/or their publisher

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Medenica, Zeljko, Kun, Andrew L., Paek, Tim and Palinko, Oskar (2011): Augmented reality vs. street views: a driving simulator study comparing two emerging navigation aids. In: Proceedings of 13th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2011. pp. 265-274.

Prior research has shown that when drivers look away from the road to view a personal navigation device (PND), driving performance is affected. To keep visual attention on the road, an augmented reality (AR) PND using a heads-up display could overlay a navigation route. In this paper, we compare the AR PND, a technology that does not currently exist but can be simulated, with two PND technologies that are popular today: an egocentric street view PND and the standard map-based PND. Using a high-fidelity driving simulator, we examine the effect of all three PNDs on driving performance in a city traffic environment where constant, alert attention is required. Based on both objective and subjective measures, experimental results show that the AR PND exhibits the least negative impact on driving. We discuss the implications of these findings on PND design as well as methods for potential improvement.

© All rights reserved Medenica et al. and/or ACM Press

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Paek, Tim, Chang, Kenghao, Almog, Itai, Badger, Eric and Sengupta, Tirthankar (2010): A practical examination of multimodal feedback and guidance signals for mobile touchscreen keyboards. In: Proceedings of 12th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2010. pp. 365-368.

Mobile devices with touch capabilities often utilize touchscreen keyboards. However, due to the lack of tactile feedback, users often have to switch their focus of attention between the keyboard area, where they must locate and click the correct keys, and the text area, where they must verify the typed output. This can impair user experience and performance. In this paper, we examine multimodal feedback and guidance signals that keep users' focus of attention in the keyboard area but also provide the kind of information users would normally receive in the text area. We evaluated whether combinations of multimodal signals could improve typing performance in a controlled experiment. One combination reduced keystrokes-per-character by 8% and correction backspaces by 28%.

© All rights reserved Paek et al. and/or their publisher

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Nanavati, Amit Anil, Rajput, Nitendra, Rudnicky, Alexandar I., Turunen, Markku, Kun, Andrew L., Paek, Tim and Tashev, Ivan (2010): SiMPE: 5th workshop on speech in mobile and pervasive environments. In: Proceedings of 12th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2010. pp. 521-524.

With the proliferation of pervasive devices and the increase in their processing capabilities, client-side speech processing has been emerging as a viable alternative. The SiMPE workshop series started in 2006 [5] with the goal of enabling speech processing on mobile and embedded devices to meet the challenges of pervasive environments (such as noise) and leveraging the context they offer (such as location). SiMPE 2010, the 5th in the series, will continue to explore issues, possibilities, and approaches for enabling speech processing as well as convenient and effective speech and multimodal user interfaces. Over the years, SiMPE has been evolving too, and since last year, one of our major goals has been to increase the participation of speech/multimodal HCI designers, and increase their interactions with speech processing experts. Multimodality got more attention in SiMPE 2008 than it has received in the previous years. In SiMPE 2007 [4], the focus was on developing regions. Given the importance of speech in developing regions, SiMPE 2008 had "SiMPE for developing regions" as a topic of interest. Speech User interaction in cars was a focus area in 2009 [2]. Given the multi-disciplinary nature of our goal, we hope that SiMPE will become the prime meeting ground for experts in these varied fields to bring to fruition, novel, useful and usable mobile speech applications.

© All rights reserved Nanavati et al. and/or their publisher

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Gunawardana, Asela, Paek, Tim and Meek, Christopher (2010): Usability guided key-target resizing for soft keyboards. In: Proceedings of the 2010 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2010. pp. 111-118.

Soft keyboards offer touch-capable mobile and tabletop devices many advantages such as multiple language support and room for larger displays. On the other hand, because soft keyboards lack haptic feedback, users often produce more typing errors. In order to make soft keyboards more robust to noisy input, researchers have developed key-target resizing algorithms, where underlying target areas for keys are dynamically resized based on their probabilities. In this paper, we describe how overly aggressive key-target resizing can sometimes prevent users from typing their desired text, violating basic user expectations about keyboard functionality. We propose an anchored key-target method which incorporates usability principles so that soft keyboards can remain robust to errors while respecting usability principles. In an empirical evaluation, we found that using anchored dynamic key-targets significantly reduce keystroke errors as compared to the state-of-the-art.

© All rights reserved Gunawardana et al. and/or their publisher

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Shani, Guy, Meek, Christopher, Paek, Tim, Thiesson, Bo and Venolia, Gina Danielle (2009): Searching large indexes on tiny devices: optimizing binary search with character pinning. In: Proceedings of the 2009 International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 2009. pp. 257-266.

The small physical size of mobile devices imposes dramatic restrictions on the user interface (UI). With the ever increasing capacity of these devices as well as access to large online stores it becomes increasingly important to help the user select a particular item efficiently. Thus, we propose binary search with character pinning, where users can constrain their search to match selected prefix characters while making simple binary decisions about the position of their intended item in the lexicographic order. The underlying index for our method is based on a ternary search tree that is optimal under certain user-oriented constraints. To better scale to larger indexes, we analyze several heuristics that rapidly construct good trees. A user study demonstrates that our method helps users conduct rapid searches, using less keystrokes, compared to other methods.

© All rights reserved Shani et al. and/or their publisher

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Paek, Tim, Lee, Bongshin and Thiesson, Bo (2009): Designing phrase builder: a mobile real-time query expansion interface. In: Proceedings of 11th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2009. p. 7.

As users enter web queries, real-time query expansion (RTQE) interfaces offer suggestions based on an index garnered from query logs. In selecting a suggestion, users can potentially reduce keystrokes, which can be very beneficial on mobile devices with deficient input means. Unfortunately, RTQE interfaces typically provide little assistance when only parts of an intended query appear among the suggestion choices. In this paper, we introduce Phrase Builder, an RTQE interface that reduces keystrokes by facilitating the selection of individual query words and by leveraging back-off query techniques to offer completions for out-of-index queries. We describe how we implemented a small memory footprint index and retrieval algorithm, and discuss lessons learned from three versions of the user interface, which was iteratively designed through user studies. Compared to standard auto-completion and typing, the last version of Phrase Builder reduced more keystrokes-per-character, was perceived to be faster, and was overall preferred by users.

© All rights reserved Paek et al. and/or their publisher

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Kun, Andrew L., Paek, Tim, Medenica, Zeljko, Memarovic, Nemanja and Palinko, Oskar (2009): Glancing at personal navigation devices can affect driving: experimental results and design implications. In: Schmidt, Albrecht, Dey, Anind K., Seder, Thomas and Juhlin, Oskar (eds.) Proceedings of 1st International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications - AutomotiveUI 2009 21-22 September , 2009, Essen, Germany. pp. 129-136.

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Paek, Tim, Thiesson, Bo, Ju, Yun-Cheng and Lee, Bongshin (2008): Search Vox: leveraging multimodal refinement and partial knowledge for mobile voice search. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 141-150.

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Paek, Tim, Dumais, Susan and Logan, Ron (2004): WaveLens: a new view onto Internet search results. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 727-734.

Internet search results are typically displayed as a list conforming to a static style sheet. The difficulty of perusing this list can be exacerbated when screen real estate is limited. When space is limited, either, few results are seen, or result descriptions are abbreviated, making it difficult to know whether to follow a particular web link. In this paper, we describe "WaveLens," a dynamic layout technique for displaying search results, which addresses these issues by combining a fisheye lens with progressive exposure of page content. Results from a usability study showed that participants performed faster and more accurately on a search task with one of two distinct parameter settings of WaveLens as compared to the typical static list. In a post-hoc questionnaire, participants favored that setting over both the static list and another setting which involved animated zoom. We discuss design implications for the retrieval and display of search results.

© All rights reserved Paek et al. and/or ACM Press

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Horvitz, Eric and Paek, Tim (2001): Harnessing Models of Users' Goals to Mediate Clarification Dialog in Spoken Language Systems. In: Bauer, Mathias, Gmytrasiewicz, Piotr J. and Vassileva, Julita (eds.) User Modeling 2001 - 8th International Conference - UM 2001 July 13-17, 2001, Sonthofen, Germany. pp. 3-13.

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