Publication statistics

Pub. period:1995-2014
Pub. count:32
Number of co-authors:49


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Janienke Sturm:
Berry Eggen:
Bas Groenendaal:



Productive colleagues

Tilde Bekker's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Allison Druin:81
Panos Markopoulos:81
Peter Johnson:55

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Tilde Bekker


Picture of Tilde Bekker.
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Has also published under the name of:
"Mathilde Bekker"

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Current place of employment:
Eindhoven University of Technology

Tilde Bekker is an associate professor in the Industrial Design department at the Eindhoven University of Technology. Her research interests include designing for playful interaction, and designing products for children and older adults. She leads and participates in research projects on playful interactions that examine how to persuade people to a healthier lifestyle. She has over 75 publications in international, peer-reviewed journals and conference proceedings and she is co-founder of the Interaction Design and children conference series.


Publications by Tilde Bekker (bibliography)

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Bekker, Tilde (2014). Commentary on 'Usability Evaluation' by Gilbert Cockton

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Bekker, Tilde and Antle, Alissa N. (2011): Developmentally situated design (DSD): making theoretical knowledge accessible to designers of children's technology. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2531-2540.

There is a wealth of theoretical knowledge about the developmental abilities and skills of children. However, this knowledge is not readily accessible to designers of interactive products. In this paper, we present the requirements, design and evaluation of developmentally situated design (DSD) cards. DSD cards are a design tool that makes age specific information about children's developing cognitive, physical, social, and emotional abilities readily accessible for designers. Initial requirements were elicited through interviews with design practitioners and students. The cards were evaluated through a design-in-use study in which design students used the cards to address three different design problems. Our analysis of observational notes and post-design interviews revealed how the cards' characteristics enabled different kinds of uses including framing, orienting, inspiring, informing, integrating and constraining. We conclude with a discussion of possible refinements and an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses of our approach.

© All rights reserved Bekker and Antle and/or their publisher

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Barendregt, Wolmet and Bekker, Tilde (2011): Children may expect drag-and-drop instead of point-and-click. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1297-1302.

In this paper we present evidence from a pilot study that children may have started to expect the drag-and-drop interaction style. This is in contrast with probably the most cited paper on this topic from 2001, stating that point-and-click is the most appropriate interaction style for children between 6 and 12 years old. Instead of providing children with information on the interaction style expected we developed two point-and-click interfaces and let children explore those interfaces themselves. Children consistently tried to apply the drag-and-drop interaction style both initially and after having discovered the point-and-click style, resulting in problems in interacting with the interfaces. This was especially clear for the type of action having a natural mapping to holding down the mouse-button, such as cutting or drawing lines. In summary, it appears that children have begun to expect the drag-and-drop interaction style and that deviating from this standard may result in serious usability problems.

© All rights reserved Barendregt and Bekker and/or their publisher

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Gilutz, Shuli, Bekker, Tilde, Fisch, Shalom and Blikstein, Paulo (2011): Teaching interaction design & children within diverse disciplinary curricula. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC11 Interaction Design and Children 2011. pp. 257-259.

This one-day workshop will bring together instructors who teach Interaction Design&Children at a university level from a wide spectrum of disciplines and research communities (HCI, Engineering, Design, education, Psychology and Communications). Our goal is to explore the various current ways IDC is taught, and to discuss and develop a core syllabus of literature and teaching activities for the benefit of the IDC community. Topics discussed will include: various disciplines that house IDC and their effect and needs, best practices for IDC teaching methods, and core literature (both disciplinary and multidisciplinary).

© All rights reserved Gilutz et al. and/or ACM Press

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Fernaeus, Ylva, Holopainen, Jussi and Bekker, Tilde (2011): Please enjoy!?: 2nd workshop on playful experiences in mobile HCI. In: Proceedings of 13th Conference on Human-computer interaction with mobile devices and services 2011. pp. 745-748.

This workshop, following one with the same name held at Mobile HCI 2010, aims at further exploring different approaches and challenges in studying playfulness as a mode of interacting with mobile technology.

© All rights reserved Fernaeus et al. and/or ACM Press

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Romero, Natalia, Sturm, Janienke, Bekker, Tilde, Valk, Linda De and Kruitwagen, Sander (2010): Playful persuasion to support older adults' social and physical activities. In Interacting with Computers, 22 (6) pp. 485-495.

In this paper we describe a case study in which we examine how to develop playful persuasive solutions to motivate older adults to maintain or increase their social and physical activities. By including various stakeholders (older adults, family, and care givers) and by designing for transitions in life we intend to create solutions that can be used by many different user groups. Based on a playful interaction framework and user studies we are designing playful persuasive solutions that incorporate social and physical activities as mutual motivators. Furthermore, the persuasive solutions should be relevant for the life transitions of losing partners or friends, of having to move to a care facility and of declining physical and cognitive capabilities. We describe our experiences with involving older adults in a design process. Finally, we present our initial concept the 'Activator', that provides awareness about upcoming activities and own performances and goals, and provides opportunities for older adults based on physical or social motivators to keep and extend their social circle, and to perform activities of lower and higher physical demand.

© All rights reserved Romero et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Hof, Lisa op't, Pee, Jente de, Sturm, Janienke, Bekker, Tilde and Verbeek, Jos (2010): Prolonged play with the ColorFlares: how does open-ended play behavior change over time?. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference Fun and Games 2010. pp. 99-106.

This paper describes an explorative user study with interactive objects for open-ended play, i.e. play with flexible game goals and rules. Children were asked to play with interactive objects, called the ColorFlares, in three free play sessions over a period of three weeks. We measured social interaction in terms of social play and social communication. We found that group play over all three sessions remained high. We also found that communication in the first session was mainly about the possibilities of the ColorFlares. Later on, communication was related more to the games that were played, giving each other feedback. We also discuss the personal and situational factors that have influence on the test results.

© All rights reserved Hof et al. and/or ACM Press

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Bekker, Tilde and Sturm, Janienke (2009): Stimulating physical and social activity through open-ended play. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC09 Interaction Design and Children 2009. pp. 309-312.

In this paper, we describe our design research on tangible play objects that stimulate social and physical play. We illustrate our work by describing a design case about an open-ended play object for children called the ColorFlare. The ColorFlare is an object that detects the player's movements and provides light feedback and that can communicate with other ColorFlares. A user test is described that examined how children use the ColorFlare to collaboratively create various (physical) games. We relate our research to definitions of embodied interaction, for example by describing how children allocate meaning to the interaction behavior of the play objects and jointly create diverse games during the play sessions.

© All rights reserved Bekker and Sturm and/or ACM Press

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Bekker, Tilde and Eggen, Berry (2008): Designing for children's physical play. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 2871-2876.

In this paper we describe preliminary results of our work on designing innovative sport concepts to stimulate children's physical play. We are exploring how embedding sensor and actuator technology in products can stimulate children to practice sport related skills. It incorporates ideas from game design, persuasive technology and sport motivation theories. We illustrate our approach with two case studies, in the context of football and basketball and discuss our experiences with embedding sensor technology to provide a motivating play experience for children.

© All rights reserved Bekker and Eggen and/or ACM Press

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Sturm, Janienke, Bekker, Tilde, Groenendaal, Bas, Wesselink, Rik and Eggen, Berry (2008): Key issues for the successful design of an intelligent, interactive playground. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC08 Interaction Design and Children 2008. pp. 258-265.

An Intelligent Playground is an environment with interactive objects that, using advanced technology such as sensors and actuators, react to the interaction with the children and actively encourage children to play. Thus, an intelligent playground stimulates children to move and play together. In this way, it provides for a healthy alternative for popular pastimes such as computer games and television. We propose a design research agenda for Intelligent Playgrounds, identifying key issues regarding the design of these playgrounds: social interaction, simplicity, challenge, goals and feedback. We illustrate these issues by referring extensively to related work in this area. In addition, we present our design approach, initial findings and future plans on the basis of two case studies of new intelligent playground concepts.

© All rights reserved Sturm et al. and/or ACM Press

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Thang, Binh, Sluis-Thiescheffer, Wouter, Bekker, Tilde, Eggen, Berry, Vermeeren, Arnold and Ridder, Huib de (2008): Comparing the creativity of children's design solutions based on expert assessment. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC08 Interaction Design and Children 2008. pp. 266-273.

This paper describes a study in which the outcome of early design sessions with eight-to-twelve-year old children is assessed through expert judgment. Experts compare the outcomes of two early design methods: brainstorming and prototyping. The design case was to come up with a solution for incapacitated children that need to attend class from home. The hypothesis is that children will generate more creative design solutions when prototyping than when brainstorming, because we reason that prototyping requires a wider range of intelligences according to Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligences. The outcome of the sessions is assessed on creativity and five explanatory criteria. The results show that a brainstorming method generates design solutions that are more creative. However, both methods produce creative design solutions; the brainstorming sessions generate more surprising and novel design solutions, the prototyping results are considered more relevant and workable.

© All rights reserved Thang et al. and/or ACM Press

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Bekker, Tilde, Sturm, Janienke, Wesselink, Rik, Groenendaal, Bas and Eggen, Berry (2008): Interactive play objects and the effects of open-ended play on social interaction and fun. In: Inakage, Masa and Cheok, Adrian David (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2008 December 3-5, 2008, Yokohama, Japan. pp. 389-392.

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Bekker, Tilde, Robertson, Judy and Skov, Mikael B. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children June 6-8, 2007, Aalborg, Denmark.

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Bekker, Tilde, Robertson, Judy and Skov, Mikael B. (eds.) 6th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children June 6-8, 2007, Aalborg, Denmark.

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Barendregt, Wolmet, Bekker, Tilde, Bouwhuis, Don and Baauw, Esther (2007): Predicting effectiveness of children participants in user testing based on personality characteristics. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 26 (2) pp. 133-147.

This paper describes an experiment to determine which personality characteristics can be used to predict whether a child will make an effective participant in a user test, both in terms of the number of identified problems and the percentage of verbalised problems. Participant selection based on this knowledge can make user testing with young children more effective. The study shows that the personality characteristic Curiosity influences the number of identified problems; a combination of the personality characteristics Friendliness and Extraversion influences the percentage of verbalised problems. Furthermore, the study shows that selection of children based on these criteria does not lead to finding an unrepresentative sample of the product's problems.

© All rights reserved Barendregt et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Baauw, Ester, Bekker, Tilde and Markopoulos, Panos (2006): Assessing the applicability of the structured expert evaluation method (SEEM) for a wider age group. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC06: Interaction Design and Children 2006. pp. 73-80.

This paper describes a study which examines whether a predictive evaluation method (SEEM) is suitable to assess products for an older age group than for which the evaluation method was originally developed. SEEM stands for Structured Expert Evaluation Method and is an analytical evaluation method especially developed for assessing the fun and usability of young children's educational computer games (children from 5 to 7 years old). In the present study SEEM was applied to assess educational computer games for children between 9 and 11 years old. Outcomes on scores for thoroughness (whether SEEM finds all problems), validity (whether SEEM makes predictions that are likely to be true) and appropriateness (whether SEEM is applied correctly) were compared. The results show that the trends for the thoroughness and the validity are the same for the two different age groups; however SEEM scores a bit better for the oldest age group. The appropriateness scores are about the same for the two age groups. The results indicate that SEEM can also be applied for assessing educational computer games for children between 9 and 11 years old.

© All rights reserved Baauw et al. and/or ACM Press

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Barendregt, W., Bekker, Tilde, Bouwhuis, Don and Baauw, E. (2006): Identifying usability and fun problems in a computer game during first use and after some practice. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64 (9) pp. 830-846.

This paper describes an experiment to discover the change in the types of detected problems and the attitude of children towards a game when user testing a computer game for young children during first use and after they have practiced with a game. Both the numbers of different types of identified problems and the severity of the problems are investigated. Based on this knowledge, practitioners could adapt the set up of their user tests to effectively find as many aspects of the game as possible that merit change, according to the aims of the developers. The study shows that usability problems caused by a lack of knowledge were more often identified during first use. Furthermore, fun problems related to a too-high challenge level may disappear after some practice, whereas fun problems caused by the game taking over control for too long while the user wants to proceed playing the game were identified more often after some practice. The study shows that the impact severity of problems detected during first use was higher than when children had more practice with a game. As a result of these changes in experienced problems the commonly used measures efficiency, effectiveness and satisfaction increased when children had practiced with the game. Finally, the study also shows that the set of most severe problems identified during first use may be radically different from the set of most severe problems identified after some practice.

© All rights reserved Barendregt et al. and/or Academic Press

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Baauw, E., Bekker, Tilde and Barendregt, W. (2005): A Structured Expert Evaluation Method for the Evaluation of Children's Computer Games. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT05: Human-Computer Interaction 2005. pp. 457-469.

Inspection-based evaluation methods predicting usability problems can be applied for evaluating products without involving users. A new method (named SEEM), inspired by Norman's theory-of-action model [18] and Malone's concepts of fun [15], is described for predicting usability and fun problems in children's computer games. This paper describes a study to assess SEEM's quality. The results show that the experts in the study predicted about 76% of the problems found in a user test. The validity of SEEM is quite promising. Furthermore, the participating experts were able to apply the inspection-questions in an appropriate manner. Based on this first study ideas for improving the method are presented.

© All rights reserved Baauw et al. and/or Springer Verlag

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Bekker, Tilde, Barendregt, W., Crombeen, S. and Biesheuvel, M. (2004): Evaluating Usability and Challenge during Initial and Extended Use of Children's Computer Games. In: Proceedings of the HCI04 Conference on People and Computers XVIII 2004. pp. 331-346.

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Markopoulos, Panos and Bekker, Tilde (2003): Interaction design and children. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (2) pp. 141-149.

This editorial paper introduces an emerging area for human-computer interaction research, which concerns interaction design and children. To avoid treating children as a homogeneous user group, it discusses some perspectives on their development, their use of technology for entertainment and education and, finally, how to involve children in the various stages of the design process.

© All rights reserved Markopoulos and Bekker and/or Elsevier Science

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Bekker, Tilde, Beusmans, Julie, Keyson, David and Lloyd, Peter (2003): KidReporter: a user requirements gathering technique for designing with children. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (2) pp. 187-202.

This paper describes a design method, novel to the domain of interaction design, for gathering user requirements from children called the KidReporter method. The KidReporter method was chosen and further refined based on assumptions about User-Centred Design. The method was considered to be suitable and appealing for children in terms of participating in design. Two school classes participated in making a newspaper about a zoo, to gather requirements for the design process of an interactive educational game. The educational game was developed to educate children about animals while walking through a zoo. The KidReporter method's main strengths are that it combines many techniques for eliciting information from children, such as interviews, drawing and making pictures. In this paper we describe how the KidReporter method was applied, in what manner it was successful and what we would do differently next time.

© All rights reserved Bekker et al. and/or Elsevier Science

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Markopoulos, Panos and Bekker, Tilde (2003): On the assessment of usability testing methods for children. In Interacting with Computers, 15 (2) pp. 227-243.

The paper motivates the need to acquire methodological knowledge for involving children as test users in usability testing. It introduces a methodological framework for delineating comparative assessments of usability testing methods for children participants. This framework consists in three dimensions: (1) assessment criteria for usability testing methods, (2) characteristics describing usability testing methods and, finally, (3) characteristics of children that may impact upon the process and the result of usability testing. Two comparative studies are discussed in the context of this framework along with implications for future research.

© All rights reserved Markopoulos and Bekker and/or Elsevier Science

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Kesteren, Ilse E. H. van, Bekker, Tilde, Vermeeren, Arnold P. O. S. and Lloyd, Peter A. (2003): Assessing usability evaluation methods on their effectiveness to elicit verbal comments from children subjects. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC03: Interaction Design and Children 2003. pp. 41-49.

An exploratory study is described looking at children's ability to provide verbal comments in usability evaluation sessions. Six evaluation methods were applied to test an interactive toy by children aged 6 and 7. The results show that most verbal comments were gathered during Active Intervention sessions, by asking children questions during tasks. Unexpectedly, the Co-Discovery sessions were less successful, because children did not collaborate very well. Children also provided useful comments in the Thinking Aloud, Retrospection, and Peer Tutoring sessions. They could reflect on their actions at the end of Retrospection sessions, and were able to teach other children how to interact with the toy in Peer Tutoring sessions.

© All rights reserved Kesteren et al. and/or ACM Press

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Gilutz, Shuli, Bekker, Tilde, Druin, Allison, Fisch, Shalom and Read, Janet (2003): Children's online interfaces: is usability testing worthwhile?. In: Proceedings of ACM IDC03: Interaction Design and Children 2003. pp. 143-145.

'Designing for usability' refers to the activity of incorporating research about how people use interactive interfaces into the design process. In our specific case, it refers to designers of children's products taking into consideration how the children use different software that they encounter. Many organizations that develop new interactive environments for children do not incorporate usability studies, or they do so without a good understanding of the complexity and consequences of these issues. The end results are websites and programs that children cannot use - and therefore will not use. In some cases many of the educational benefits and creative ideas developed are never utilized, because children do not pass the interface hurdle. The participating panel members have unique views about the role and value of usability studies on the design process. With an emphasis on the design of online environments, they will discuss their personal experiences of designing for usability, and will offer their understanding of the significance of usability in the design of interactive environments for kids.

© All rights reserved Gilutz et al. and/or ACM Press

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Vermeeren, Arnold, Kesteren, Ilse van and Bekker, Tilde (2003): Managing the 'Evaluator Effect' in User Testing. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 647.

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Barendregt, Wolmet, Bekker, Tilde and Speerstra, Mathilde (2003): Empirical evaluation of usability and fun in computer games for children. In: Proceedings of IFIP INTERACT03: Human-Computer Interaction 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. p. 705.

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Bekker, Tilde and Long, John (2000): User Involvement in the Design of Human-Computer Interactions: Some Similarities and Differences between Design Approaches. In: Proceedings of the HCI00 Conference on People and Computers XIV 2000. pp. 135-148.

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Wilson, Stephanie, Bekker, Tilde, Johnson, Peter and Johnson, Hilary (1997): Helping and Hindering User Involvement -- A Tale of Everyday Design. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 178-185.

The importance of an early and on-going focus on users in interactive system design is widely accepted. However, in practice, involving users poses many problems and requires designers to balance conflicting demands. Various factors can hinder or ease the involvement of users. This paper reports a case study involving the design of a bespoke application and gives a detailed account of the obstacles and facilitators to user involvement encountered during the design activity. The obstacles and facilitators are presented in terms of issues such as contacting and selecting users, motivating users, facilitating and mediating meetings and offering points of focus for user contributions. We report and contrast the views of various stakeholders in the design process, and supplement these with our own observations as non-participant observers. Finally, we discuss issues raised by the study and draw out a number of lessons for the CHI community.

© All rights reserved Wilson et al. and/or ACM Press

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Wilson, Stephanie, Bekker, Tilde, Johnson, Hilary and Johnson, Peter (1996): Costs and Benefits of User Involvement in Design: Practitioners' Views. In: Sasse, Martina Angela, Cunningham, R. J. and Winder, R. L. (eds.) Proceedings of the Eleventh Conference of the British Computer Society Human Computer Interaction Specialist Group - People and Computers XI August, 1996, London, UK. pp. 221-240.

Many design approaches recommend some form of user involvement in the design of interactive systems, although there has been little empirical research directed towards assessing the benefits to be gained, and costs to be incurred, from having users involved during the design process. Moreover, the work that does exist has tended to take a narrow view, considering the gains and losses primarily from an organizational perspective. This paper offers richer definitions of the costs and benefits by which user involvement might be assessed, emphasizing the contrasting views of different 'stakeholders' in the design process. It presents and discusses two empirical studies conducted in the light of these definitions to examine the costs and benefits of user involvement as perceived by design practitioners.

© All rights reserved Wilson et al. and/or Springer Verlag

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Bekker, Tilde and Vermeeren, Arnold P. O. S. (1996): An Analysis of User Interface Design Projects: Information Sources and Constraints in Design. In Interacting with Computers, 8 (1) pp. 112-116.

To provide input for the development of user interface design support the authors distributed questionnaires to people involved in the development of user interfaces in The Netherlands. They studied the background and experience of designers of user interfaces, the contexts in which they worked, the design support they currently used and what new or improved design support they would need. The results indicated two areas that require further study: how to gather information about users and applications. When developing design support for these areas it might be useful to take into account the finding that designers work in a wide range of design practices, each with their own constraints on interface design practice.

© All rights reserved Bekker and Vermeeren and/or Elsevier Science

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Bekker, Tilde, Nes, F. L. Van and Juola, J. F. (1995): A Comparison of Mouse and Speech Input Control of a Text-Annotation System. In Behaviour and Information Technology, 14 (1) pp. 14-22.

An experiment was designed to determine whether speech input is a valuable alternative or addition to manual input. Subjects used both speech and mouse input for control purposes in a document-annotation system. Speech recognition was realized by a speaker-dependent speech-recognition board. In separate sessions, subjects used either a mouse or speech interface, and comparisons were made between the two media in performance speed, number of commands, and number of errors. In a third session, subjects were free to use either input medium, and measures included both objective (usage) and subjective (questionnaire) preferences for the two media. The main results were that: (1) 9 out of 24 subjects used speech more than the mouse when they were free to use both; (2) 21% of the subjects preferred speech control, because it allowed other devices to be operated manually; and (3) 37% of the subjects preferred to control the system with both input devices available. Speech can be a valuable addition to other input media enabling users to adapt their choice of media to specific task situations.

© All rights reserved Bekker et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Bekker, Tilde, Olson, Judith S. and Olson, Gary M. (1995): Analysis of Gestures in Face-to-Face Design Teams Provides Guidance for How to Use Groupware in Design. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 157-166.

Many phases of design projects are done in groups. Communication in these groups is naturally supported through a variety of gestures. We catalog four types of gestures that people use when engaged in design (kinetic, spatial, pointing, and other), and overlay it with the purpose of the design subtask, -- design, meeting management, and other. From this and other observations, we list recommendations for supporting this kind of communication in settings which have technology support, either face-to-face with group editors (where people do not necessarily see the same thing at the same time), and remote work (where people see neither the same view of the object nor a full room view of the other participants).

© All rights reserved Bekker et al. and/or ACM Press

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