Publication statistics

Pub. period:1992-2012
Pub. count:32
Number of co-authors:57


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Cheryl Savery:
Ryan E. Rhodes:
Catherine A. Morton:



Productive colleagues

T. C. Nicholas Graham's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Carl Gutwin:116
Philippe A. Palanq..:66
Laurence Nigay:62

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T. C. Nicholas Graham

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Publications by T. C. Nicholas Graham (bibliography)

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Wallace, James R., Pape, Joseph, Chang, Yu-Ling Betty, McClelland, Phillip J., Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Scott, Stacey D. and Hancock, Mark (2012): Exploring automation in digital tabletop board game. In: Companion Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 231-234.

Digital tabletops present the opportunity to combine the social advantages of traditional tabletop games with the automation and streamlined gameplay of video games. However, it is unclear whether the addition of automation enhances or detracts from the game experience. A study was performed where groups played three versions of the cooperative board game Pandemic, with varying degrees of automation. The study revealed that while game automation can provide advantages to players, it can also negatively impact enjoyment, game state awareness, and flexibility in game play.

© All rights reserved Wallace et al. and/or ACM Press

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Bellay, Quentin, Schumann, Irina and Sepasi, Amir (2012): Toward game orchestration: tangible manipulation of in-game experiences. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Tangible and Embedded Interaction 2012. pp. 187-188.

We define game orchestration as the activity of creating experiences for game players at run-time. This paper presents a design space for game orchestration techniques, and describes two novel game orchestration systems.

© All rights reserved Graham et al. and/or ACM Press

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Ye, Zi, Hernandez, Hamilton A., Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Fehlings, Darcy, Switzer, Lauren, Hamza, Md Ameer and Schumann, Irina (2012): Liberi and the racer bike: exergaming technology for children with cerebral palsy. In: Fourteenth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2012. pp. 225-226.

Children with cerebral palsy (CP) often have limited opportunities to engage in physical exercise and to interact with other children. We report on the design of a multiplayer exercise video game and a novel cycling-based exergaming station that allow children with CP to perform vigorous exercise while playing with other children. The game and the station were designed through an iterative and incremental participatory design process involving medical professionals, game designers, computer scientists, kinesiologists, physiotherapists, and eight children with CP. The station combines a physical platform allowing children with CP to provide pedaling input into a game, and a standard PC gamepad. With this station seven of eight children could play a cycling-based game effectively. The game is a virtual world featuring several minigames, group play, and an in-game money-based reward system. Abilities and limitations associated with CP were considered when designing the game. The data collected during the design sessions shows that the games are fun, engaging and allow the children to reach exertion levels recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine.

© All rights reserved Ye et al. and/or ACM Press

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Gutwin, Carl A., Lippold, Michael and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2011): Real-time groupware in the browser: testing the performance of web-based networking. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 167-176.

Standard web browsers are becoming a common platform for delivering groupware applications, but until recently, the only way to support real-time collaboration was with browser plug-ins. New networking approaches have recently been introduced -- based on re-purposed techniques for delivering web pages (Comet), or integration of real-time communication directly into the browser (HTML5 WebSockets). Little is currently known, however, about whether these new approaches can support real-time groupware. We carried out a study to assess the performance of the three different networking approaches, based on a framework of groupware requirements, in several network settings. We found that web-based networking performs well -- better than plug-in approaches in some cases -- and can support the communication requirements of many types of real-time groupware. We also developed two groupware applications using Comet and WebSockets, and showed that they provided fast and consistent performance on the real-world Internet. Our studies show that web-based networking can support real-time collaboration, and suggest that groupware developers should consider the browser as a legitimate vehicle for real-time multi-user systems.

© All rights reserved Gutwin et al. and/or their publisher

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Savery, Cheryl and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2011): It's about time: confronting latency in the development of groupware systems. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW11 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2011. pp. 177-186.

The presence of network latency leads to usability problems in distributed groupware applications. Example problems include difficulty synchronizing tightly-coupled collaboration, jarring changes in the user interface following the repair of conflicting operations, and confusion when participants discuss state that appears differently to each of them. Techniques exist that can help mitigate the effects of latency, both in the user interface and the groupware application. However, as these techniques necessitate the manipulation of state over time, the effort required to implement them can be significant. In this paper, we present timelines, a programming model allowing the explicit treatment of time in groupware applications. The model has been implemented as part of the Janus toolkit.

© All rights reserved Savery and Graham and/or their publisher

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Kurczak, Jason and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2011): TREC: platform-neutral input for mobile augmented reality applications. In: ACM SIGCHI 2011 Symposium on Engineering Interactive Computing Systems 2011. pp. 283-288.

Development of Augmented Reality (AR) applications can be time consuming due to the effort required in accessing sensors for location and orientation tracking data. In this paper, we introduce the TREC framework, designed to handle sensor input and make AR development easier. It does this in three ways. First, TREC generates a high-level abstraction of user location and orientation, so that low-level sensor data need not be seen directly. TREC also automatically uses the best available sensors and fusion algorithms so that complex configuration is unnecessary. Finally, TREC enables extensions of the framework to add support for new devices or customized sensor fusion algorithms.

© All rights reserved Kurczak and Graham and/or ACM Press

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Gutwin, Carl, Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Wolfe, Chris, Wong, Nelson and Alwis, Brian de (2010): Gone but not forgotten: designing for disconnection in synchronous groupware. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 179-188.

Synchronous groupware depends on the assumption that people are fully connected to the others in the group, but there are many situations (network delay, network outage, or explicit departure) where users are disconnected for various periods. There is little research dealing with disconnection in synchronous groupware from a user and application perspective; as a result, most current groupware systems do not handle disconnection events well, and several user-level problems occur. To address this limitation, we developed the Disco framework, a model for handling several types of disconnection in synchronous groupware. The framework considers how disconnections are identified, what senders and receivers should do during an absence, and what should be done with accumulated data upon reconnection. We have implemented the framework in three applications that show the feasibility, generality, and functionality of our ideas. Our framework is the first to deal with a full range of disconnection issues for synchronous groupware, and shows how groupware can better support the realities of distributed collaboration.

© All rights reserved Gutwin et al. and/or their publisher

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Savery, Cheryl, Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Gutwin, Carl (2010): The human factors of consistency maintenance in multiplayer computer games. In: GROUP10 International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2010. pp. 187-196.

Consistency maintenance (CM) techniques are a crucial part of many distributed systems, and are particularly important in networked games. In this paper we describe a framework of the human factors of CM, to help designers of networked games make better decisions about its use. The framework shows that there is wide variance in the CM requirements of different game situations, identifies the types of requirements that can be considered, and analyses the effects of several consistency schemes on user experience factors. To further explore these issues, we carried out a simulation study that compared four CM algorithms. The experiment confirms many of the predictions of the framework, and reveals additional subtleties of the algorithms. Our work is the first to look comprehensively at the tradeoffs and costs of CM, and our results are a strong starting point that will help designers improve on the user's quality of experience in distributed shared environments.

© All rights reserved Savery et al. and/or their publisher

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Stach, Tadeusz, Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Yim, Jeffrey and Rhodes, Ryan E. (2009): Heart rate control of exercise video games. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Graphics Interface 2009. pp. 125-132.

Exercise video games combine entertainment and physical movement in an effort to encourage people to be more physically active. Multiplayer exercise games take advantage of the motivating aspects of group activity by allowing people to exercise together. However, people of significantly different fitness levels can have a hard time playing together, as large differences in performance can be demotivating. To address this problem, we present heart rate scaling, a mechanism where players' in-game performance is based on their effort relative to their fitness level. Specifically, heart rate monitoring is used to scale performance relative to how closely a person adheres to his/her target heart rate zone. We demonstrate that heart rate scaling reduces the performance gap between people of different fitness levels, and that the scaling mechanism does not significantly affect engagement during gameplay.

© All rights reserved Stach et al. and/or their publisher

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Wolfe, Christopher, Smith, J. David and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2008): A low-cost infrastructure for tabletop games. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play 2008. pp. 145-151.

Tabletop games provide an intimate gaming experience where groups of friends can interact in a shared space using shared physical props. Digital tabletop games show great promise in bringing this experience to video game players. However the cost of developing tabletop games is high due to the need for expensive hardware and complex software. In this paper, we introduce EquisFTIR, a low-cost hardware and software infrastructure for digital tabletop gaming. We illustrate the infrastructure through Asterocks, a novel tabletop game.

© All rights reserved Wolfe et al. and/or ACM Press

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Yim, Jeffrey, Qiu, Eric and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2008): Experience in the design and development of a game based on head-tracking input. In: Proceedings of the 2008 Conference on Future Play 2008. pp. 236-239.

Tracking technologies, such as eye and head-tracking, provide novel techniques for interacting with video games. For instance, players can shoot with their eyes in a first person shooter using gaze-based input. Head-tracking systems allow players to look around a virtual cockpit by simply moving their head. However, tracking systems are typically based on expensive specialized equipment. The prohibitive costs of such systems have motivated the creation of low-cost head-tracking solutions using simple web cameras and infrared light detection. In this paper, we describe our experience developing a simple shooting game which incorporates such low-cost head-tracking technology.

© All rights reserved Yim et al. and/or ACM Press

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Palanque, Philippe A. (eds.) DSV-IS 2008 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 15th International Workshop July 16-18, 2008, Kingston, Canada.

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Dyck, Jeff, Gutwin, Carl, Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Pinelle, David (2007): Beyond the lan: techniques from network games for improving groupware performance. In: GROUP07: International Conference on Supporting Group Work 2007. pp. 291-300.

Networked games can provide groupware developers with important lessons in how to deal with real-world networking issues such as latency, limited bandwidth and packet loss. Games have similar demands and characteristics to groupware, but unlike the applications studied by academics, games have provided production-quality real-time interaction for many years. The techniques used by games have not traditionally been made public, but several game networking libraries have recently been released as open source, providing the opportunity to learn how games achieve network performance. We examined five game libraries to find networking techniques that could benefit groupware; this paper presents the concepts most valuable to groupware developers, including techniques to deal with limited bandwidth, reliability, and latency. Some of the techniques have been previously reported in the networking literature; therefore, the contribution of this paper is to survey which techniques have been shown to work, over several years, and then to link these techniques to quality requirements specific to groupware. By adopting these techniques, groupware designers can dramatically improve network performance on the real-world Internet.

© All rights reserved Dyck et al. and/or ACM Press

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Smith, J. David, Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Holman, David and Borchers, Jan (2007): Low-Cost Malleable Surfaces with Multi-Touch Pressure Sensitivity. In: Second IEEE International Workshop on Horizontal Interactive Human-Computer Systems Tabletop 2007 October 10-12, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 205-208.

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Grad, Kevin, Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Stewart, A. James (2007): Effective use of the periphery in game displays. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Future Play 2007. pp. 69-76.

The human eye can perceive visual information with high acuity within a narrow foveal view; outside the foveal view (in the periphery), vision has progressively less resolution, and ability to perceive colour is reduced. In this paper, we argue that game displays can be improved by accounting for the part of the visual field in which information is displayed. We present two games in which information is visually encoded for presentation in the periphery. We conclude that the use of peripheral displays may be an interesting way of improving the challenge and entertainment of games involving rich informational displays.

© All rights reserved Grad et al. and/or ACM Press

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Yim, Jeffrey and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2007): Using games to increase exercise motivation. In: Proceedings of the 2007 Conference on Future Play 2007. pp. 166-173.

In recent years, there has been significant work in integrating physical activity into video games. One goal of this work has been to help motivate sedentary people to be more physically active. Konami's Dance Dance Revolution and Nintendo's Wii Sports have shown that exercise games can be both fun and commercially successful. To date, however, there has been little attempt to investigate what properties of exercise games will help motivate sedentary people to start and continue exercise programs. This paper reviews the literature on exercise motivation and derives from it requirements for computer-aided exercise games. The paper then introduces the new Life is a Village exercise game, and uses it to illustrate how these requirements can be met.

© All rights reserved Yim and Graham and/or ACM Press

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Smith, J. David and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2006): Use of eye movements for video game control. In: Ishii, Hiroshi, Lee, Newton, Natkin, Stphane and Tsushima, Katsuhide (eds.) Proceedings of the International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology - ACE 2006 June 14-16, 2006, Hollywood, California, USA. p. 20.

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Roberts, Will (2006): Toward Quality-Driven Development of 3D Computer Games. In: Doherty, Gavin and Blandford, Ann (eds.) DSV-IS 2006 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 13th International Workshop July 26-28, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 248-261.

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Curzon, Paul, Doherty, Gavin, Palanque, Philippe A., Potter, Richard, Roast, Christopher and Smith, Shamus P. (2006): Usability and Computer Games: Working Group Report. In: Doherty, Gavin and Blandford, Ann (eds.) DSV-IS 2006 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 13th International Workshop July 26-28, 2006, Dublin, Ireland. pp. 265-268.

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Wu, James and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2005): The Software Design Board: A Tool Supporting Workstyle Transitions in Collaborative Software Design. In: Bastide, Remi, Palanque, Philippe A. and Roth, Jorg (eds.) Engineering Human Computer Interaction and Interactive Systems, Joint Working Conferences EHCI-DSVIS 2004 July 11-13, 2005, Hamburg, Germany. pp. 363-382.

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Phillips, W. Greg, Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Wolfe, Christopher (2005): A Calculus for the Refinement and Evolution of Multi-user Mobile Applications. In: Gilroy, Stephen W. and Harrison, Michael D. (eds.) DSV-IS 2005 - Interactive Systems, Design, Specification, and Verification, 12th International Workshop July 13-15, 2005, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. pp. 137-148.

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Wu, James, Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Smith, Paul W. (2003): A Study of Collaboration in Software Design. In: ISESE 2003 - International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering 30 September - 1 October, 2003, Rome, Italy. pp. 304-315.

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Jabarin, Baha and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2003): Architectures for Widget-Level Plasticity. In: Jorge, Joaquim A., Nunes, Nuno Jardim and Cunha, Joao Falcao e (eds.) DSV-IS 2003 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 10th International Workshop June 11-13, 2003, Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal. pp. 124-138.

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Phillips, W. Greg and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (2003): Workspaces: A Multi-level Architectural Style for Synchronous Groupware. In: Jorge, Joaquim A., Nunes, Nuno Jardim and Cunha, Joao Falcao e (eds.) DSV-IS 2003 - Interactive Systems. Design, Specification, and Verification, 10th International Workshop June 11-13, 2003, Funchal, Madeira Island, Portugal. pp. 92-106.

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Watts, Leon A., Calvary, Gaelle, Coutaz, Jolle, Dubois, Emmanuel and Nigay, Laurence (2000): A Dimension Space for the Design of Interactive Systems Within their Physical Environments. In: Proceedings of DIS00: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2000. pp. 406-416.

This paper introduces a Dimension Space describing the entities making up richly interactive systems. The Dimension Space is intended to help designers understand both the physical and virtual entities from which their systems are built, and the tradeoffs involved in both the design of the entities themselves and of the combination of these entities in a physical space. Entities are described from the point of view of a person carrying out a task at a particular time, in terms of their attention received, role, manifestation, input and output capacity and informational density. The Dimension Space is applied to two new systems developed at Grenoble, exposing design tradeoffs and design rules for richly interactive systems.

© All rights reserved Graham et al. and/or ACM Press

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Wright, Timothy N., Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Urnes, Tore (2000): Specifying Temporal Behaviour in Software Architectures for Groupware Systems. In: DSV-IS 2000 2000. pp. 1-17.

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Grundy, John C. (1999): External Requirements of Groupware Development Tools. In: Chatty, Stephane and Dewan, Prasun (eds.) Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction, IFIP TC2/TC13 WG2.7/WG13.4 Seventh Working Conference on Engineering for Human-Computer Interaction September 14-18, 1999, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. pp. 363-376.

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Urnes, Tore and Graham, T. C. Nicholas (1999): Flexibility Mapping Synchronous Groupware Architectures to Distributed Implementations. In: Duke, David J. and Puerta, Angel R. (eds.) DSV-IS 1999 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems99, Proceedings of the Eurographics Workshop June 2-4, 1999, Braga, Portugal. pp. 133-147.

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Brown, Judy, Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Wright, Timothy (1998): The Vista Environment for the Coevolutinary Design of User Interfaces. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 376-383.

User centered design requires the creation of numerous design artifacts such as task hierarchy, task-oriented specification, user interface design, architecture design and code. It is increasingly accepted that such artifacts cannot be created in isolation, but instead incrementally coevolve, where information obtained from the development of one artifact contributes to the development of the others. In user interface development, these artifacts are typically developed by different people with different backgrounds, hindering the communication necessary for coevolution. This paper demonstrates how different design artifacts can be linked, exposing their common elements. Such links can be developed despite the differing points of view and differing levels of detail of the design artifacts. This paper describes Vista, a prototype tool for examining the links between design artifacts, and demonstrates how making these links explicit supports coevolutionary design.

© All rights reserved Brown et al. and/or ACM Press

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Urnes, Tore and Nejabi, Roy (1996): Efficient Distributed Implementation of Semi-Replicated Synchronous Groupware. In: Kurlander, David, Brown, Marc and Rao, Ramana (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 1996, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 1-10.

The Model View Controller (MVC) architecture has proven to be an effective way of organizing synchronous groupware applications. Distributed implementations of MVC, however, can suffer from poor performance. This paper demonstrates how optimized semi-replication of MVC architectures can lead to good performance over both local and wide area networks. We present a series of optimizations to network communication based on specific communication properties of groupware. These optimizations have been implemented in the Clock groupware development toolkit, allowing programmers to develop applications directly in the high-level MVC style, with Clock automatically providing optimized performance. Timings of an application developed in Clock show that usable speed was obtained in a highly interactive groupware application running between Toronto and Calgary, with a typical latency of 190 ms per round trip message. The paper discusses the tradeoffs involved in the algorithms, and presents timings to demonstrate the effectiveness of the different approaches. The timings show that when running over a wide area network, the best optimization can achieve a factor 60 speedup over the naive implementation of distributed MVC.

© All rights reserved Graham et al. and/or ACM Press

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas, Morton, Catherine A. and Urnes, Tore (1996): ClockWorks: Visual Programming of Component-Based Software Architectures. In J. Vis. Lang. Comput., 7 (2) pp. 175-196.

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Graham, T. C. Nicholas and Urnes, Tore (1992): Relational Views as a Model for Automatic Distributed Implementation of Multi-User Applications. In: Proceedings of the 1992 ACM conference on Computer-supported cooperative work November 01 - 04, 1992, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 59-66.

Multi-user applications support multiple users performing a related task in a distributed context. This paper describes Weasel, a system for implementing multi-user applications. Weasel is based on the relational view model, in which user interfaces are specified as relations between program data structures and views on a display. These relations are specified in RVL, a high-level, declarative language. Under this model, an application program and a set of RVL specifications are used to generate a multi-user application in which all issues of network communication, concurrency, synchronization, and view customization are handled automatically. These programs have a scalable distribution property, where adding new participants to a session does not greatly degrade over-all system performance. Weasel has been implemented, and was used to generate all examples in this paper.

© All rights reserved Graham and Urnes and/or ACM Press

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