Number of co-authors:82
Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:Tara Matthews:Jennifer Mankoff:Scott Carter:
Scott R. Klemmer's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:James A. Landay:91Terry Winograd:59Jennifer Mankoff:45
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Publications by Scott R. Klemmer (bibliography)
Kumar, Ranjitha, Talton, Jerry O., Ahmad, Salman and Klemmer, Scott R. (2011): Bricolage: example-based retargeting for web design. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 2197-2206. Available online
The Web provides a corpus of design examples unparalleled in human history. However, leveraging existing designs to produce new pages is often difficult. This paper introduces the Bricolage algorithm for transferring design and content between Web pages. Bricolage employs a novel, structured-prediction technique that learns to create coherent mappings between pages by training on human-generated exemplars. The produced mappings are then used to automatically transfer the content from one page into the style and layout of another. We show that Bricolage can learn to accurately reproduce human page mappings, and that it provides a general, efficient, and automatic technique for retargeting content between a variety of real Web pages.
© All rights reserved Kumar et al. and/or their publisher
Kulkarni, Chinmay Eishan and Klemmer, Scott R. (2011): Automatically adapting web pages to heterogeneous devices. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1573-1578. Available online
Smartphones and other handheld devices have become popular and powerful Internet access devices, yet the Web is still largely optimized for the desktop. We describe a system that automatically transforms desktop-optimized pages to ones better suited to the target device. The system leverages existing platform-customized sites as examples of good design, identifies consistent components across these sites, and renders the desktop page into these components.
© All rights reserved Kulkarni and Klemmer and/or their publisher
Ritchie, Daniel, Kejriwal, Ankita Arvind and Klemmer, Scott R. (2011): d.tour: style-based exploration of design example galleries. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 165-174. Available online
In design, people often seek examples for inspiration. However, current example-finding practices suffer many drawbacks: templates present designs without a usage context; search engines can only examine the text on a page. This paper introduces exploratory techniques for finding relevant and inspiring design examples. These novel techniques include searching by stylistic similarity to a known example design and searching by stylistic keyword. These interactions are manifest in d.tour, a style-based design exploration tool. d.tour presents a curated database of Web pages as an explorable design gallery. It extracts and analyzes design features of these pages, allowing it to process style-based queries and recommend designs to the user. d.tour's gallery interface decreases the gulfs of execution and evaluation for design example-finding.
© All rights reserved Ritchie et al. and/or ACM Press
Bhardwaj, Anant P., Luciano, Dave and Klemmer, Scott R. (2011): Redprint: integrating API specific "instant example" and "instant documentation" display interface in IDEs. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 21-22. Available online
Software libraries for most of the modern programming languages are numerous, large and complex. Remembering the syntax and usage of APIs is a difficult task for not just novices but also expert programmers. IDEs (Integrated Development Environment) provide capabilities like autocomplete and intellisense to assist programmers; however, programmers still need to visit search engines like Google to find API (Application Program Interface) documentation and samples. This paper evaluates Redprint -- a browser based development environment for PHP that integrates API specific "Instant Example" and "Instant Documentation" display interfaces. A comparative laboratory study shows that integrating API specific "Instant Example" and "Instant Documentation" display interfaces into a development environment significantly reduces the cost of searching and thus significantly reduces the time to develop software.
© All rights reserved Bhardwaj et al. and/or ACM Press
Patel, Neil, Klemmer, Scott R. and Parikh, Tapan S. (2011): An asymmetric communications platform for knowledge sharing with low-end mobile phones. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 87-88. Available online
We present Awaaz.De ("give voice"), a social platform for communities to access and share knowledge using low-end mobile phones. Awaaz.De features a configurable mobile voice application organized into asynchronous voice mes-sage boards. For poor, remote and marginal communities, the voice-touchtone interface addresses the constraints of low literacy, language diversity, and affordability of only basic mobile devices. Voice content also presents a low barrier to content authoring, encouraging otherwise disconnected communities to actively participate in knowledge exchange. Awaaz.De includes a web-based administration interface for Internet-connected community managers to moderate, annotate, categorize, route, and narrow-cast voice messages. In this paper we describe the platform's design, implementation, and future directions.
© All rights reserved Patel et al. and/or ACM Press
Hartmann, Bjorn, Follmer, Sean, Ricciardi, Antonio, Cardenas, Timothy and Klemmer, Scott R. (2010): d.note: revising user interfaces through change tracking, annotations, and alternatives. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 493-502. Available online
Interaction designers typically revise user interface prototypes by adding unstructured notes to storyboards and screen printouts. How might computational tools increase the efficacy of UI revision? This paper introduces d.note, a revision tool for user interfaces expressed as control flow diagrams. d.note introduces a command set for modifying and annotating both appearance and behavior of user interfaces; it also defines execution semantics so proposed changes can be tested immediately. The paper reports two studies that compare production and interpretation of revisions in d.note to freeform sketching on static images (the status quo). The revision production study showed that testing of ideas during the revision process led to more concrete revisions, but that the tool also affected the type and number of suggested changes. The revision interpretation study showed that d.note revisions required fewer clarifications, and that additional techniques for expressing revision intent could be beneficial.
© All rights reserved Hartmann et al. and/or their publisher
Brandt, Joel, Dontcheva, Mira, Weskamp, Marcos and Klemmer, Scott R. (2010): Example-centric programming: integrating web search into the development environment. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 513-522. Available online
The ready availability of online source-code examples has fundamentally changed programming practices. However, current search tools are not designed to assist with programming tasks and are wholly separate from editing tools. This paper proposes that embedding a task-specific search engine in the development environment can significantly reduce the cost of finding information and thus enable programmers to write better code more easily. This paper describes the design, implementation, and evaluation of Blueprint, a Web search interface integrated into the Adobe Flex Builder development environment that helps users locate example code. Blueprint automatically augments queries with code context, presents a code-centric view of search results, embeds the search experience into the editor, and retains a link between copied code and its source. A comparative laboratory study found that Blueprint enables participants to write significantly better code and find example code significantly faster than with a standard Web browser. Analysis of three months of usage logs with 2,024 users suggests that task-specific search interfaces can significantly change how and when people search the Web.
© All rights reserved Brandt et al. and/or their publisher
Hartmann, Bjorn, MacDougall, Daniel, Brandt, Joel and Klemmer, Scott R. (2010): What would other programmers do: suggesting solutions to error messages. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 1019-1028. Available online
Interpreting compiler errors and exception messages is challenging for novice programmers. Presenting examples of how other programmers have corrected similar errors may help novices understand and correct such errors. This paper introduces HelpMeOut, a social recommender system that aids the debugging of error messages by suggesting solutions that peers have applied in the past. HelpMeOut comprises IDE instrumentation to collect examples of code changes that fix errors; a central database that stores fix reports from many users; and a suggestion interface that, given an error, queries the database for a list of relevant fixes and presents these to the programmer. We report on implementations of this architecture for two programming languages. An evaluation with novice programmers found that the technique can suggest useful fixes for 47% of errors after 39 person-hours of programming in an instrumented environment.
© All rights reserved Hartmann et al. and/or their publisher
Lee, Brian, Srivastava, Savil, Kumar, Ranjitha, Brafman, Ronen and Klemmer, Scott R. (2010): Designing with interactive example galleries. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 2257-2266. Available online
Designers often use examples for inspiration; examples offer contextualized instances of how form and content integrate. Can interactive example galleries bring this practice to everyday users doing design work, and does working with examples help the designs they create? This paper explores whether people can realize significant value from explicit mechanisms for designing by example modification. We present the results of three studies, finding that independent raters prefer designs created with the aid of examples, that examples may benefit novices more than experienced designers, that users prefer adaptively selected examples to random ones, and that users make use of multiple examples when creating new designs. To enable these studies and demonstrate how software tools can facilitate designing with examples, we introduce interface techniques for browsing and borrowing from a corpus of examples, manifest in the Adaptive Ideas Web design tool. Adaptive Ideas leverages a faceted metadata interface for viewing and navigating example galleries.
© All rights reserved Lee et al. and/or their publisher
Dow, Steven P., Glassco, Alana, Kass, Jonathan, Schwarz, Melissa, Schwartz, Daniel L. and Klemmer, Scott R. (2010): Parallel prototyping leads to better design results, more divergence, and increased self-efficacy. In ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction, 17 (4) p. 18. Available online
Iteration can help people improve ideas. It can also give rise to fixation, continuously refining one option without considering others. Does creating and receiving feedback on multiple prototypes in parallel, as opposed to serially, affect learning, self-efficacy, and design exploration? An experiment manipulated whether independent novice designers created graphic Web advertisements in parallel or in series. Serial participants received descriptive critique directly after each prototype. Parallel participants created multiple prototypes before receiving feedback. As measured by click-through data and expert ratings, ads created in the Parallel condition significantly outperformed those from the Serial condition. Moreover, independent raters found Parallel prototypes to be more diverse. Parallel participants also reported a larger increase in task-specific self-confidence. This article outlines a theoretical foundation for why parallel prototyping produces better design results and discusses the implications for design education.
© All rights reserved Dow et al. and/or ACM Press
Krieger, Michel, Stark, Emily Margarete and Klemmer, Scott R. (2009): Coordinating tasks on the commons: designing for personal goals, expertise and serendipity. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1485-1494. Available online
How is work created, assigned, and completed on large-scale, crowd-powered systems like Wikipedia? And what design principles might enable these federated online systems to be more effective? This paper reports on a qualitative study of work and task practices on Wikipedia. Despite the availability of tag-based community-wide task assignment mechanisms, informants reported that self-directed goals, within-topic expertise, and fortuitous discovery are more frequently used than community-tagged tasks. We examine how Wikipedia editors organize their actions and the actions of other participants, and what implications this has for understanding, and building tools for, crowd-powered systems, or any web site where the main force of production comes from a crowd of online participants. From these observations and insights, we developed WikiTasks, a tool that integrates with Wikipedia and supports both grassroots creation of site-wide tasks and self-selection of personal tasks, accepted from this larger pool of community tasks.
© All rights reserved Krieger et al. and/or ACM Press
Brandt, Joel, Guo, Philip J., Lewenstein, Joel, Dontcheva, Mira and Klemmer, Scott R. (2009): Two studies of opportunistic programming: interleaving web foraging, learning, and writing code. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1589-1598. Available online
This paper investigates the role of online resources in problem solving. We look specifically at how programmers -- an exemplar form of knowledge workers -- opportunistically interleave Web foraging, learning, and writing code. We describe two studies of how programmers use online resources. The first, conducted in the lab, observed participants' Web use while building an online chat room. We found that programmers leverage online resources with a range of intentions: They engage in just-in-time learning of new skills and approaches, clarify and extend their existing knowledge, and remind themselves of details deemed not worth remembering. The results also suggest that queries for different purposes have different styles and durations. Do programmers' queries "in the wild" have the same range of intentions, or is this result an artifact of the particular lab setting? We analyzed a month of queries to an online programming portal, examining the lexical structure, refinements made, and result pages visited. Here we also saw traits that suggest the Web is being used for learning and reminding. These results contribute to a theory of online resource usage in programming, and suggest opportunities for tools to facilitate online knowledge work.
© All rights reserved Brandt et al. and/or ACM Press
Yang, Yeonsoo and Klemmer, Scott R. (2009): Aesthetics matter: leveraging design heuristics to synthesize visually satisfying handheld interfaces. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4183-4188. Available online
We present a tool for automatically generating UI layouts for handheld devices based on design principles. This tool introduces a gestalt approach to visual interface design rather, complementing prior work on user cost minimization. We aim to increase user satisfaction using this approach. The tool automatically generates size and position of widgets drawn from the UI design heuristics of simplicity, structuring, and proportion. Simplicity refers to excluding non-core functionality; structuring to contextual grouping, and proportion to best-practice geometric ratios of width, height, and spacing. Layouts are generated from device constraints and simple XML containing UI component hierarchy. These layouts can be directly manipulated using a GUI editor.
© All rights reserved Yang and Klemmer and/or ACM Press
Kumar, Ranjitha, Kim, Juho and Klemmer, Scott R. (2009): Automatic retargeting of web page content. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4237-4242. Available online
We present a novel technique for automatically retargeting content from one web page onto the layout of another. Web pages are decomposed into their perceptual hierarchical representations. We then use a structured-prediction algorithm to learn reasonable mappings between the perceptual trees. Using the mappings, we are able to merge the content of one page with the layout of another.
© All rights reserved Kumar et al. and/or ACM Press
Dow, Steven P., Heddleston, Kate and Klemmer, Scott R. (2009): The efficacy of prototyping under time constraints. In: Proceedings of the 2009 Conference on Creativity and Cognition 2009. pp. 165-174. Available online
Iterative prototyping helps designers refine their ideas and discover previously unknown issues and opportunities. However, the time constraints of production schedules can discourage iteration in favor of realization. Is this tradeoff prudent? This paper investigates if -- under tight time constraints -- iterating multiple times provides more benefit than a single iteration. A between-subjects study manipulates participants' ability to iterate on a design task. Participants in the iteration condition outperformed those in the non-iteration condition. Participants with prior experience with the task performed better. Notably, participants in the iteration condition without prior task experience performed as well as non-iterating participants with prior task experience.
© All rights reserved Dow et al. and/or their publisher
Ju, Wendy, Lee, Brian A. and Klemmer, Scott R. (2008): Range: exploring implicit interaction through electronic whiteboard design. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW08 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2008. pp. 17-26. Available online
An important challenge in designing ubiquitous computing experiences is negotiating transitions between explicit and implicit interaction, such as how and when to provide users with notifications. While the paradigm of implicit interaction has important benefits, it is also susceptible to difficulties with hidden modes, unexpected action, and misunderstood intent. To address these issues, this work presents a framework for implicit interaction and applies it to the design of an interactive whiteboard application called Range. Range is a public interactive whiteboard designed to support co-located, ad-hoc meetings. It employs proximity sensing capability to proactively transition between display and authoring modes, to clear space for writing, and to cluster ink strokes. We show how the implicit interaction techniques of user reflection (how systems indicate to users what they perceive or infer), system demonstration (how systems indicate what they are doing), and override (how users can interrupt or stop a proactive system action) can prevent, mitigate, and correct errors in the whiteboard's proactive behaviors. These techniques can be generalized to improve the designs of a wide array of ubiquitous computing experiences.
© All rights reserved Ju et al. and/or ACM Press
Hartmann, Bjorn, Doorley, Scott and Klemmer, Scott R. (2008): Hacking, Mashing, Gluing: Understanding Opportunistic Design. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 7 (3) pp. 46-54. Available online
Carter, Scott, Mankoff, Jennifer, Klemmer, Scott R. and Matthews, Tara (2008): Exiting the Cleanroom: On Ecological Validity and Ubiquitous Computing. In Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (1) pp. 47-99. Available online
Over the past decade and a half, corporations and academies have invested considerable time and money in the realization of ubiquitous computing. Yet design approaches that yield ecologically valid understandings of ubiquitous computing systems, which can help designers make design decisions based on how systems perform in the context of actual experience, remain rare. The central question underlying this article is, What barriers stand in the way of real-world, ecologically valid design for ubicomp? Using a literature survey and interviews with 28 developers, we illustrate how issues of sensing and scale cause ubicomp systems to resist iteration, prototype creation, and ecologically valid evaluation. In particular, we found that developers have difficulty creating prototypes that are both robust enough for realistic use and able to handle ambiguity and error and that they struggle to gather useful data from evaluations because critical events occur infrequently, because the level of use necessary to evaluate the system is difficult to maintain, or because the evaluation itself interferes with use of the system. We outline pitfalls for developers to avoid as well as practical solutions, and we draw on our results to outline research challenges for the future. Crucially, we do not argue for particular processes, sets of metrics, or intended outcomes, but rather we focus on prototyping tools and evaluation methods that support realistic use in realistic settings that can be selected according to the needs and goals of a particular developer or researcher.
© All rights reserved Carter et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Klemmer, Scott R., Everitt, Katherine M. and Landay, James A. (2008): Integrating Physical and Digital Interactions on Walls for Fluid Design Collaboration. In Human-Computer Interaction, 23 (2) pp. 138-213. Available online
Web designers use pens, paper, walls, and tables for explaining, developing, and communicating ideas during the early phases of design. These practices inspired The Designers' Outpost. With Outpost, users collaboratively author Web site information architectures on an electronic whiteboard using physical media (sticky notes and images), structuring and annotating that information with electronic pens. This interaction is enabled by a touch-sensitive electronic whiteboard augmented with a computer vision system. The Designers' Outpost integrates wall-scale, paper-based design practices with novel electronic tools to better support collaboration during early-phase design. Our studies with professional designers showed this integration to be especially helpful for fluidly transitioning to other design tools, access and exploration of design history, and remote collaboration.
© All rights reserved Klemmer et al. and/or Taylor and Francis
Hartmann, Bjorn, Yu, Loren, Allison, Abel, Yang, Yeonsoo and Klemmer, Scott R. (2008): Design as exploration: creating interface alternatives through parallel authoring and runtime tuning. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 91-100. Available online
Yeh, Ron B., Paepcke, Andreas and Klemmer, Scott R. (2008): Iterative design and evaluation of an event architecture for pen-and-paper interfaces. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 111-120. Available online
Pulli, Kari and Klemmer, Scott R. (2008): Mobile Graphics. In IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications, 28 (4) pp. 18-19. Available online
Hartmann, Bjorn, Abdulla, Leith, Mittal, Manas and Klemmer, Scott R. (2007): Authoring sensor-based interactions by demonstration with direct manipulation and pattern recognition. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 145-154. Available online
Sensors are becoming increasingly important in interaction design. Authoring a sensor-based interaction comprises three steps: choosing and connecting the appropriate hardware, creating application logic, and specifying the relationship between sensor values and application logic. Recent research has successfully addressed the first two issues. However, linking sensor input data to application logic remains an exercise in patience and trial-and-error testing for most designers. This paper introduces techniques for authoring sensor-based interactions by demonstration. A combination of direct manipulation and pattern recognition techniques enables designers to control how demonstrated examples are generalized to interaction rules. This approach emphasizes design exploration by enabling very rapid iterative demonstrate-edit-review cycles. This paper describes the manifestation of these techniques in a design tool, Exemplar, and presents evaluations through a first-use lab study and a theoretical analysis using the Cognitive Dimensions of Notation framework.
© All rights reserved Hartmann et al. and/or ACM Press
Hartmann, Bjorn, Wu, Leslie, Collins, Kevin and Klemmer, Scott R. (2007): Programming by a sample: rapidly creating web applications with d.mix. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 241-250. Available online
Source-code examples of APIs enable developers to quickly gain a gestalt understanding of a library's functionality, and they support organically creating applications by incrementally modifying a functional starting point. As an increasing number of web sites provide APIs, significant latent value lies in connecting the complementary representations between site and service -- in essence, enabling sites themselves to be the example corpus. We introduce d.mix, a tool for creating web mashups that leverages this site-to-service correspondence. With d.mix, users browse annotated web sites and select elements to sample. d.mix's sampling mechanism generates the underlying service calls that yield those elements. This code can be edited, executed, and shared in d.mix's wiki-based hosting environment. This sampling approach leverages pre-existing web sites as example sets and supports fluid composition and modification of examples. An initial study with eight participants found d.mix to enable rapid experimentation, and suggested avenues for improving its annotation mechanism.
© All rights reserved Hartmann et al. and/or ACM Press
Yeh, Ron, Liao, Chunyuan, Klemmer, Scott R., Guimbretiere, Francois, Lee, Brian, Kakaradov, Boyko, Stamberger, Jeannie and Paepcke, Andreas (2006): ButterflyNet: a mobile capture and access system for field biology research. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 571-580. Available online
Through a study of field biology practices, we observed that biology fieldwork generates a wealth of heterogeneous information, requiring substantial labor to coordinate and distill. To manage this data, biologists leverage a diverse set of tools, organizing their effort in paper notebooks. These observations motivated ButterflyNet, a mobile capture and access system that integrates paper notes with digital photographs captured during field research. Through ButterflyNet, the activity of leafing through a notebook expands to browsing all associated digital photos. ButterflyNet also facilitates the transfer of captured content to spreadsheets, enabling biologists to share their work. A first-use study with 14 biologists found this system to offer rich data capture and transformation, in a manner felicitous with current practice.
© All rights reserved Yeh et al. and/or ACM Press
Brzozowski, Mike, Carattini, Kendra, Klemmer, Scott R., Mihelich, Patrick, Hu, Jiang and Ng, Andrew Y. (2006): groupTime: preference based group scheduling. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2006 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2006. pp. 1047-1056. Available online
As our business, academic, and personal lives continue to move at an ever-faster pace, finding times for busy people to meet has become an art. One of the most perplexing challenges facing groupware is effective asynchronous group scheduling (GS). This paper presents a lightweight interaction model for GS that can extend its reach beyond users of current group calendaring solutions. By expressing availability in terms of preferences, we create a flexible framework for GS that preserves plausible deniability while exerting social pressure to encourage honesty among users. We also propose an ontology that enables us to model user preferences with machine learning, predicting user responses to further lower cognitive load. The combination of visualization/direct manipulation with machine learning allows users to easily and efficiently optimize meeting times. We also suggest resulting design implications for this class of intelligent user interfaces.
© All rights reserved Brzozowski et al. and/or ACM Press
Klemmer, Scott R., Hartmann, Bjorn and Takayama, Leila (2006): How bodies matter: five themes for interaction design. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 140-149. Available online
Our physical bodies play a central role in shaping human experience in the world, understandingof the world, and interactions in the world. This paper draws on theories of embodiment -- from psychology, sociology, and philosophy -- synthesizing five themes we believe are particularly salient for interaction design: thinking through doing, performance, visibility, risk, and thick practice. We introduce aspects of human embodied engagement in the world with the goal of inspiring new interaction design approaches and evaluations that better integrate the physical and computational worlds.
© All rights reserved Klemmer et al. and/or ACM Press
Hartmann, Bjorn, Klemmer, Scott R., Bernstein, Michael, Abdulla, Leith, Burr, Brandon, Robinson-Mosher, Avi and Gee, Jennifer (2006): Reflective physical prototyping through integrated design, test, and analysis. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2006. pp. 299-308. Available online
Prototyping is the pivotal activity that structures innovation, collaboration, and creativity in design. Prototypes embody design hypotheses and enable designers to test them. Framin design as a thinking-by-doing activity foregrounds iteration as a central concern. This paper presents d.tools, a toolkit that embodies an iterative-design-centered approach to prototyping information appliances. This work offers contributions in three areas. First, d.tools introduces a statechart-based visual design tool that provides a low threshold for early-stage prototyping, extensible through code for higher-fidelity prototypes. Second, our research introduces three important types of hardware extensibility - at the hardware-to-PC interface, the intra-hardware communication level, and the circuit level. Third, d.tools integrates design, test, and analysis of information appliances. We have evaluated d.tools through three studies: a laboratory study with thirteen participants; rebuilding prototypes of existing and emerging devices; and by observing seven student teams who built prototypes with d.tools.
© All rights reserved Hartmann et al. and/or ACM Press
Winograd, Terry and Klemmer, Scott R. (2005): HCI at Stanford University. In Interactions, 12 (5) pp. 30-31.
Olsen, Dan R. and Klemmer, Scott R. (2005): The future of user interface design tools. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2134-2135. Available online
This workshop aims to gather researchers in the field of user interface design tools to identify important themes for the next decade of research. These tools aid in the design and development of interactive systems: they include interface builders, development environments for writing code, and toolkits that provide software architectures and building blocks to aid development. These tools have provided tremendous benefit for the designers and developers of graphical user interfaces. The CHI community has shown that the next generation of user interfaces is moving off the desktop: these emerging interfaces employ novel input techniques such as tangible, haptic, and camera-based interaction, access to vast information repositories and sensor networks, and information presentation to a wide range of devices. In this workshop, we will discuss common themes, conflicting ideas, and future directions for the next generation of software tools that will support ubiquitous computing.
© All rights reserved Olsen and Klemmer and/or ACM Press
Klemmer, Scott R., Verplank, Bill and Ju, Wendy (2005): Teaching embodied interaction design practice. In: Proceedings of the Conference on Designing for User Experiences DUX05 2005. p. 26. Available online
Increasingly, user experiences are addressing our interactions in the world -- the physical, the social, and the situated. This sketch presents our experiences introducing embodied interaction themes to a project-based Interaction Design studio course. We present and discuss examples of student-created designs, illustrating the relationship between these design methods, domains, and artifacts created. These in-the-world domains and methods appealed to budding interaction designers because it encouraged them to transcend the computer screen and design for the world at large. However, the challenge of effectively evaluating in-the-world interactions inhibited iteration. Balancing observation, craft, and evaluation was critical to project success, and we are exploring how to help students navigate these process tradeoffs.
© All rights reserved Klemmer et al. and/or ACM Press
Klemmer, Scott R. (2005): Integrating Physical and Digital Interactions. In IEEE Computer, 38 (10) pp. 111-113. Available online
Klemmer, Scott R., Li, Jack, Lin, James and Landay, James A. (2004): Papier-Mache: toolkit support for tangible input. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 399-406. Available online
Tangible user interfaces (TUIs) augment the physical world by integrating digital information with everyday physical objects. Currently, building these UIs requires "getting down and dirty" with input technologies such as computer vision. Consequently, only a small cadre of technology experts can currently build these UIs. Based on a literature review and structured interviews with nine TUI researchers, we created Papier-Mache, a toolkit for building tangible interfaces using computer vision, electronic tags, and barcodes. Papier-Mache introduces a high-level event model for working with these technologies that facilitates technology portability. For example, an application can be prototyped with computer vision and deployed with RFID. We present an evaluation of our toolkit with six class projects and a user study with seven programmers, finding the input abstractions, technology portability, and monitoring window to be highly effective.
© All rights reserved Klemmer et al. and/or ACM Press
Klemmer, Scott R., Graham, Jamey, Wolff, Gregory J. and Landay, James A. (2003): Books with voices: paper transcripts as a physical interface to oral histories. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 89-96.
Everitt, Katherine M., Klemmer, Scott R., Lee, Robert and Landay, James A. (2003): Two worlds apart: bridging the gap between physical and virtual media for distributed design collaboration. In: Cockton, Gilbert and Korhonen, Panu (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2003 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 5-10, 2003, Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, USA. pp. 553-560.
Klemmer, Scott R., Thomsen, Michael, Phelps-Goodman, Ethan, Lee, Robert and Landay, James A. (2002): Where do web sites come from?: capturing and interacting with design history. In: Terveen, Loren (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2002 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 20-25, 2002, Minneapolis, Minnesota. pp. 1-8.
Klemmer, Scott R., Newman, Mark W., Farrell, Ryan, Bilezikjian, Mark and Landay, James A. (2001): The designers' outpost: a tangible interface for collaborative web site. In: Marks, Joe and Mynatt, Elizabeth D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 14th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 11 - 14, 2001, Orlando, Florida. pp. 1-10. Available online
In our previous studies into web design, we found that pens, paper, walls,
and tables were often used for explaining, developing, and communicating ideas
during the early phases of design. These wall-scale paper-based design
practices inspired The Designers' Outpost, a tangible user interface that
combines the affordances of paper and large physical workspaces with the
advantages of electronic media to support information design. With Outpost,
users collaboratively author web site information architectures on an
electronic whiteboard using physical media (Post-it notes and images),
structuring and annotating that information with electronic pens. This
interaction is enabled by a touch-sensitive SMART Board augmented with a robust
computer vision system, employing a rear-mounted video camera for capturing
movement and a front-mounted high-resolution camera for capturing ink. We
conducted a participatory design study with fifteen professional web designers.
The study validated that Outpost supports information architecture work
practice, and led to our adding support for fluid transitions to other tools.
© All rights reserved Klemmer et al. and/or ACM Press
Klemmer, Scott R., Sinha, Anoop K., Chen, Jack, Landay, James A., Aboobaker, Nadeem and Wang, Annie (2000): Suede: A Wizard of Oz Prototyping Tool for Speech User Interfaces. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 1-10. Available online
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