Publication statistics

Pub. period:1989-2002
Pub. count:11
Number of co-authors:23


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Robert J. Glushko:
Mark Frisse:
Peter J. Brown:



Productive colleagues

Polle T. Zellweger's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Thomas P. Moran:66
Takeo Igarashi:66
Jock D. Mackinlay:42

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Polle T. Zellweger


Publications by Polle T. Zellweger (bibliography)

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Zellweger, Polle T., Mangen, Anne and Newman, Paula (2002): Reading and writing fluid Hypertext Narratives. In: Hypertext'02 - Proceedings of the Thirteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 11-15, 2002, College Park, Maryland, USA. pp. 45-54.

We describe a new way to present and author hypertext narratives. The Fluid Reader constructs a unified interactive text from the content of multiple nodes and allows a reader to explore alternative paths within it. The Fluid Reader has been available as a hands-on museum exhibit for nearly a year to date, where it has been enjoyed by readers of all ages. Its success has prompted further interest and development in Fluid hypertexts. We have designed and implemented an authoring tool called the Fluid Writer that uses a new treetable visualization to help authors construct and manage alternative paths in a Fluid hypertext. Finally, an exploration of the narrative implications of Fluid hypertext suggests that it may be more suitable than conventional hypertext for formulaic fictions such as mystery stories.

© All rights reserved Zellweger et al. and/or ACM Press

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Bouvin, Niels Olof, Zellweger, Polle T., Groenbaek, Kaj and Mackinlay, Jock D. (2002): Fluid annotations through open hypermedia: using and extending emerging web standards. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2002. pp. 160-171.

The Fluid Documents project has developed various research prototypes that show that powerful annotation techniques based on animated typographical changes can help readers utilize annotations more effectively. Our recently-developed Fluid Open Hypermedia prototype supports the authoring and browsing of fluid annotations on third-party Web pages. This prototype is an extension of the Arakne Environment, an open hypermedia application that can augment Web pages with externally stored hypermedia structures. This paper describes how various Web standards, including DOM, CSS, XLink, XPointer, and RDF, can be used and extended to support fluid annotations.

© All rights reserved Bouvin et al. and/or ACM Press

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Zellweger, Polle T., Bouvin, Niels Olof, Jehoj, Henning and Mackinlay, Jock D. (2001): Fluid annotations in an open world. In: Hypertext'01 - Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia August 14-18, 2001, Aarhus, Denmark. pp. 9-18.

Fluid Documents use animated typographical changes to provide a novel and appealing user experience for hypertext browsing and for viewing document annotations in context. This paper describes an effort to broaden the utility of Fluid Documents by using the open hypermedia Arakne Environment to layer fluid annotations and links on top of arbitrary HTML pages on the World Wide Web. Changes to both Fluid Documents and Arakne are required.

© All rights reserved Zellweger et al. and/or ACM Press

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Zellweger, Polle T., Regli, Susan Harkness, Mackinlay, Jock D. and Chang, Bay-Wei (2000): The Impact of Fluid Documents on Reading and Browsing: An Observational Study. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 249-256.

Fluid Documents incorporate additional information into a page by adjusting typography using interactive animation. One application is to support hypertext browsing by providing glosses for link anchors. This paper describes an observational study of the impact of Fluid Documents on reading and browsing. The study involved six conditions that differ along several dimensions, including the degree of typographic adjustment and the distance glosses are placed from anchors. Six subjects read and answered questions about two hypertext corpora while being monitored by an eyetracker. The eyetracking data revealed no substantial differences in eye behavior between conditions. Gloss placement was significant: subjects required less time to use nearby glosses. Finally, the reaction to the conditions was highly varied, with several conditions receiving both a best and worst rating on the subjective questionnaires. These results suggest implications for the design of dynamic reading environments.

© All rights reserved Zellweger et al. and/or ACM Press

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Chang, Bay-Wei, Mackinlay, Jock D., Zellweger, Polle T. and Igarashi, Takeo (1998): A Negotiation Architecture for Fluid Documents. In: Mynatt, Elizabeth D. and Jacob, Robert J. K. (eds.) Proceedings of the 11th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 01 - 04, 1998, San Francisco, California, United States. pp. 123-132.

The information presented in a document often consists of primary content as well as supporting material such as explanatory notes, detailed derivations, illustrations, and the like. We introduce a class of user interface techniques for fluid documents that supports the reader's shift to supporting material while maintaining the context of the primary material. Our approach initially minimizes the intrusion of supporting material by presenting it as a small visual cue near the annotated primary material. When the user expresses interest in the annotation, it expands smoothly to a readable size. At the same time, the primary material makes space for the expanded annotation. The expanded supporting material must be given space to occupy, and it must be made salient with respect to the surrounding primary material. These two aspects, space and salience, are subject to a negotiation between the primary and supporting material. This paper presents the components of our fluid document techniques and describes the negotiation architecture for ensuring that the presentations of both primary and supporting material are honored.

© All rights reserved Chang et al. and/or ACM Press

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Zellweger, Polle T., Chang, Bay-Wei and Mackinlay, Jock D. (1998): Fluid Links for Informed and Incremental Link Transitions. In: Hypertext 98 - Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 20-24, 1998, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 50-57.

We have developed a novel user interface technique for hypertext, called fluid links, that has several advantages over current methods. Fluid links provide additional information at a link source to support readers in choosing among links and understanding the structure of a hypertext. Fluid links present this information in a convenient location that does not obscure the content or layout of the source material. The technique uses perceptually-based animation to provide a natural and lightweight feeling to readers. In their richer forms, fluid links can provide a novel hypertext navigation paradigm that blurs the boundaries of hypertext nodes and can allow readers to fluidly control the focus on the material to support their current reading goals.

© All rights reserved Zellweger et al. and/or ACM Press

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Moran, Thomas P., Palen, Leysia, Harrison, Steve, Chiu, Patrick, Kimberg, Daniel Y., Minneman, Scott, Melle, William van and Zellweger, Polle T. (1997): "I'll Get That Off the Audio": A Case Study of Salvaging Multimedia Meeting Records. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 202-209.

We describe a case study of a complex, ongoing, collaborative work process, where the central activity is a series of meetings reviewing a wide range of subtle technical topics. The problem is the accurate reporting of the results of these meetings, which is the responsibility of a single person, who is not well-versed in all the topics. We provided tools to capture the meeting discussions and tools to "salvage" the captured multimedia recordings. Salvaging is a new kind of activity involving replaying, extracting, organizing, and writing. We observed a year of mature salvaging work in the case study. From this we describe the nature of salvage work (the constituent activities, the use of the workspace, the affordances of the audio medium, how practices develop and differentiate, how the content material affects practice). We also demonstrate how this work relates to the larger work processes (the task demands of the setting, the interplay of salvage with capture, the influence on the people being reported on and reported to). Salvaging tools are shown to be valuable for dealing with free-flowing discussions of complex subject matter and for producing high quality documentation.

© All rights reserved Moran et al. and/or ACM Press

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Buchanan, M. Cecelia, Zellweger, Polle T. and Pier, Ken (1993): Multimedia Documents as User Interfaces. In: Ashlund, Stacey, Mullet, Kevin, Henderson, Austin, Hollnagel, Erik and White, Ted (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 93 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 24-29, 1993, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. pp. 527-528.

Previous work has demonstrated the use of documents as user interfaces, in which static document elements, such as words and pictures, become user interface interaction elements, such as menus and buttons [Bier 90]. In this videotape, we demonstrate our extension of this concept to dynamic multimedia documents, allowing user interface designers to create multimedia documents and to specify dynamic interaction elements within them. This video was taped from the screen of a Sun Microsystems SPARCstation 2. The audio portions of the multimedia documents were recorded and played back using TiogaVoice and the Etherphone voice management system [Zellweger 88].

© All rights reserved Buchanan et al. and/or ACM Press

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Buchanan, M. Cecelia and Zellweger, Polle T. (1992): Specifying Temporal Behavior in Hypermedia Documents. In: Lucarella, D., Nanard, Jocelyne, Nanard, Marc and Paolini, P. (eds.) Proceedings of ECHT 92 the Fourth ACM Conference on Hypertext November 30 - December 04, 1992, Milano, Italy. pp. 262-271.

We have designed and implemented a system for creating, editing, and displaying hypermedia documents. This system uses an improved document model with two major features. First, it allows authors to specify temporal synchronization constraints among events of interest within media segments. Second, it allows asynchronous material, such as user interaction, links, or programs, to be combined with richly coordinated synchronous material in a single hypermedia document. The system incorporates a linear programming algorithm to solve the temporal constraints. This process automatically constructs a schedule for displaying a document and may involve stretching or shrinking media segments. Because synchronization constraints record the author's intentions and because the system creates schedules automatically, both creating documents and maintaining them throughout their life cycles should be easier.

© All rights reserved Buchanan and Zellweger and/or ACM Press

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Bernstein, Mark, Brown, Peter J., Frisse, Mark, Glushko, Robert J., Landow, George P. and Zellweger, Polle T. (1991): Structure, Navigation, and Hypertext: The Status of the Navigation Problem. In: Walker, Jan (ed.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 91 Conference December 15-18, 1991, San Antonio, Texas. pp. 363-366.

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Zellweger, Polle T. (1989): Scripted Documents: A Hypermedia Path Mechanism. In: Halasz, Frank and Meyrowitz, Norman (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 89 Conference November 5-8, 1989, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. pp. 1-14.

The concept of a path, or ordered traversal of some links in a hypertext, has been a part of the hypertext notion from its early formation. Although paths can help to solve two major problems with hypertext systems, namely user disorientation and high cognitive overhead for users, their value has not been recognized. Paths can also provide the backbone for computations over a hypertext, an important issue for the future of hypertext. This paper constructs a framework for understanding path mechanisms for hypertext and explores the basic issues surrounding them. Given this framework, it reviews path mechanisms that have been provided by other hypertext systems. Finally, it describes the Scripted Documents system, which has been developed to test the potential of one powerful path mechanism.

© All rights reserved Zellweger and/or ACM Press

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