Publication statistics

Pub. period:1992-1998
Pub. count:7
Number of co-authors:6


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Piyawadee Noi Sukav..:
Jeyakumar Muthukuma..:
Pedro Szekely:



Productive colleagues

Martin R. Frank's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

James D. Foley:49
Pedro Szekely:24
Piyawadee Noi Suka..:7

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Martin R. Frank


Publications by Martin R. Frank (bibliography)

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Frank, Martin R. and Szekely, Pedro (1998): Adaptive Forms: An Interaction Paradigm for Entering Structured Data. In: Marks, Joe (ed.) International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces 1998 January 6-9, 1998, San Francisco, California, USA. pp. 153-160.

Many software applications solicit input from the user via a "forms" paradigm that emulates their paper equivalent. It exploits the users' familiarity with these and is well suited for the input of simple attribute-value data (name, phone number, ...). The paper-forms paradigm starts breaking down when there is user input that may or may not be applicable depending on previous user input. In paper-based forms, this manifests itself by sections marked "fill out only if you entered yes in question 8a above", and simple electronic forms suffer from the same problem -- much space is taken up for input fields that are not applicable. One possible approach to making only relevant sections appear is to hand-write program fragments to hide and show them. As an alternative, we have developed a form specification language based on a context-free grammar that encodes data dependencies of the input, together with an accompanying run-time interpreter that uses novel layout techniques for collapsing already-entered input fields, for "blending" input fields possibly yet to come, and for showing only the applicable sections of the form.

© All rights reserved Frank and Szekely and/or ACM Press

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Frank, Martin R. (1995): Grizzly Bear: A Demonstrational Learning Tool for a User Interface Specification Language. In: Robertson, George G. (ed.) Proceedings of the 8th annual ACM symposium on User interface and software technology November 15 - 17, 1995, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States. pp. 75-76.

Grizzly Bear is a new demonstrational tool for specifying user interface behavior. It can handle multiple application windows, dynamic object instantiation and deletion, changes to any object attribute, and operations on sets of objects. It enables designers to experiment with rubber-banding, deletion by dragging to a trashcan and many other interactive techniques. To the author's best knowledge it is currently the most complete demonstrational user interface design tool that does not base its inferencing on rule-based guessing. There are inherent limitations to the range of user interfaces that can ever be built by demonstration alone. Grizzly Bear is therefore designed to work hand-in-hand with a user interface specification language called the Elements, Events&Transitions model. As designers demonstrate behavior, they can watch Grizzly Bear incrementally build the corresponding textual specification, letting them learn the language on the fly. They can then apply their knowledge by modifying Grizzly Bear's textual inferences, which reduces the need for repetitive demonstrations and provides an escape mechanism for behavior that cannot be demonstrated.

© All rights reserved Frank and/or ACM Press

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Frank, Martin R. and Foley, James D. (1995): Inference Bear: Designing Interactive Interfaces through Before and After Snapshots. In: Proceedings of DIS95: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 1995. pp. 167-175.

We present Inference Bear ("An Inference Creature based on Before and After Snapshots") which lets users build functional graphical user interfaces by demonstration. Inference Bear is unique in its use of a domain-independent reasoning engine. This approach has several advantages over systems that are closely tied to their domains. Most notably, Inference Bear reasons about a class of relationships that is defined by their computational complexity while rule-based systems are limited to reasoning about the class of relationships that the designer foresaw when building the system. However, it is also more difficult to design domain-independent demonstrational systems that are as easy to use as their domain-specific counterparts. The paper addresses this issue, and other issues relating to domain-independence.

© All rights reserved Frank and and/or ACM Press

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Frank, Martin R. and Foley, James D. (1994): A Pure Reasoning Engine for Programming by Demonstration. In: Szekely, Pedro (ed.) Proceedings of the 7th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 02 - 04, 1994, Marina del Rey, California, United States. pp. 95-101.

We present an inference engine that can be used for creating Programming By Demonstration systems. The class of systems addressed are those which infer a state change description from examples of state [9,11]. The engine can easily be incorporated into an existing design environment that provides an interactive object editor. The main design goals of the inference engine are responsiveness and generality. All demonstrational systems must respond quickly because of their interactive use. They should also be general -- they should be able to make inferences for any attribute that the user may want to define by demonstration, and they should be able to treat any other attributes as parameters of this definition. The first goal, responsiveness, is best accommodated by limiting the number of attributes that the inference engine takes into consideration. This, however, is in obvious conflict with the second goal, generality. This conflict is intrinsic to the class of demonstrational system described above. The challenge is to find an algorithm which responds quickly but does not heuristically limit the number of attributes it looks at. We present such an algorithm in this paper. A companion paper describes Inference Bear [4], an actual demonstrational system that we have built using this inference engine and an existing user interface builder [5].

© All rights reserved Frank and Foley and/or ACM Press

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Sukaviriya, Piyawadee Noi, Muthukumarasamy, Jeyakumar, Frank, Martin R. and Foley, James D. (1994): A Model-based User Interface Architecture: Enhancing a Runtime Environment with Declarative Knowledge. In: Paterno, Fabio (ed.) DSV-IS 1994 - Design, Specification and Verification of Interactive Systems94, Proceedings of the First International Eurographics Workshop June 8-10, 1994, Bocca di Magra, Italy. pp. 181-197.

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Frank, Martin R. and Foley, James D. (1993): Model-Based User Interface Design by Example and by Interview. In: Hudson, Scott E., Pausch, Randy, Zanden, Brad Vander and Foley, James D. (eds.) Proceedings of the 6th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology 1993, Atlanta, Georgia, United States. pp. 129-137.

Model-based user interface design is centered around a description of application objects and operations at a level of abstraction higher than that of code. A good model can be used to support multiple interfaces, help separate interface and application, describe input sequencing in a simple way, check consistency and completeness of the interface, evaluate the interface's speed-of-use, generate context-specific help and assist in designing the interface. However, designers rarely use computer-supported application modelling today and prefer less formal approaches such as story boards of user interface prototypes. One reason is that available tools often use cryptic languages for the model specification. Another reason is that these tools force the designers to specify the application model before they can start working on the visual interface, which is their main area of expertise. We present the Interactive User Interface Design Environment (Interactive UIDE), a novel framework for concurrent development of the application model and the user interface which combines story-boarding and model-based interface design. We also present Albert, an intelligent component within this framework, which is able to infer an application model from a user interface and from an interview process with the designer.

© All rights reserved Frank and Foley and/or ACM Press

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Frank, Martin R., Graaff, J. J., Gieskens, Daniel F. and Foley, James D. (1992): Building User Interfaces Interactively Using Pre- and Postconditions. In: Bauersfeld, Penny, Bennett, John and Lynch, Gene (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 92 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference June 3-7, 1992, Monterey, California. pp. 641-642.

A tool is presented which allows graphic layout of a user interface integrated with specification of behavior using pre- and postconditions.

© All rights reserved Frank et al. and/or ACM Press

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