Publication statistics

Pub. period:2001-2012
Pub. count:28
Number of co-authors:63


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Shengdong Zhao:
Daniel Wigdor:
Nigel R. Shadbolt:



Productive colleagues

M. C. Schraefel's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Mark S. Ackerman:67
Ryen W. White:59
Patrick Baudisch:57

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M. C. Schraefel

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Publications by M. C. Schraefel (bibliography)

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Schraefel, M. C., Kellog, Wendy, Ackerman, Mark S., Marsden, Gary, Boedker, Susanne, Wyche, Susan, Reddy, Madhu and Rouncefield, Mark (2012): Domain crossing: how much expertise is enough?. In: Companion Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 29-32.

In CSCW, how much do we need to know about another domain/culture before we observe, intersect and intervene with designs. What optimally would that other culture need to know about us? Is this a "how long is a piece of string" question, or an inquiry where we can consider a variety of contexts and to explicate best practice. The goal of this panel will be to develop heuristics for such practice.

© All rights reserved Schraefel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Gao, Feng, Costanza, Enrico and Schraefel, M. C. (2012): "Honey=sugar" means unhealthy: investigating how people apply knowledge to rate food's healthiness. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 71-80.

While previous research studied the high level attributes people consider when they assess the healthiness of food they are familiar with, little work has looked at how people assess arbitrary, potentially unfamiliar, food to decide whether it is a healthy choice. Since there is a growing body of work in Ubicomp around health practices, including systems to support healthy eating, it is important to understand how people apply the knowledge they have to food decisions. In our studies we identified 8 attributes participants use for determining if they think a food is "healthy" or not. Based upon our analysis, we reflect on current system designs and propose four future design opportunities: capturing context of healthy eating, preparation and reflection on healthy eating understanding, sharing understanding and in situ information support.

© All rights reserved Gao et al. and/or ACM Press

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Andr, Paul, Schraefel, M. C., Dix, Alan and White, Ryen W. (2011): Expressing well-being online: towards self-reflection and social awareness. In: Proceedings of the 2011 iConference 2011. pp. 114-121.

Medicine, psychology and quality of life literature all point to the importance of not just asking 'how are you?', but assessing and being aware of self and others' well-being. Social networking has been shown to have a variety of uses and benefits, but does not currently offer explicit expression of a well-being state. We developed and deployed Healthii, a social networking tool to convey well-being using a set of pre-defined discrete categories. We sought to understand how communicating this in a lightweight fashion may be used and valued. Using a hybrid methodology, over five weeks ten participants used the tool on Facebook, Twitter, or on the desktop, and in group meetings discussed the affect and effect of the tool, before a final individual survey. The trial showed that participants used and valued status expression for its support to convey state, and for self-reflection and group awareness. We discuss these findings as well as future opportunities for awareness visualization and automatic data integration.

© All rights reserved Andr et al. and/or ACM Press

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Schraefel, M. C., Golbeck, Jennifer, Degler, Duane, Bernstein, Abraham and Rutledge, Lloyd (2008): Semantic web user interactions: exploring HCI challenges. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2008 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 5-10, 2008. pp. 3929-3932.

The purpose of this workshop is to engage interaction researchers and designers in the user interaction challenges posed by the Semantic Web. The workshop will be the fifth workshop in the SWUI series -- it has previously been hosted at either the World Wide Web Conference or the International Semantic Web Conference. We have sufficient exemplars of both tools and approaches now that we can demonstrate the concepts of the space to participants and make it very clear why there are design/research challenges for the CHI community. We want to explore current and future CHI research that fits this problem space, and so invite participants exploring many interaction issues.

© All rights reserved Schraefel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Bernstein, Michael, Kleek, Max Van, Karger, David and Schraefel, M. C. (2008): Information scraps: How and why information eludes our personal information management tools. In ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 26 (4) p. 24.

In this article we investigate information scraps -- personal information where content has been scribbled on Post-it notes, scrawled on the corners of sheets of paper, stuck in our pockets, sent in email messages to ourselves, and stashed in miscellaneous digital text files. Information scraps encode information ranging from ideas and sketches to notes, reminders, shipment tracking numbers, driving directions, and even poetry. Although information scraps are ubiquitous, we have much still to learn about these loose forms of information practice. Why do we keep information scraps outside of our traditional PIM applications? What role do information scraps play in our overall information practice? How might PIM applications be better designed to accommodate and support information scraps' creation, manipulation and retrieval? We pursued these questions by studying the information scrap practices of 27 knowledge workers at five organizations. Our observations shed light on information scraps' content, form, media, and location. From this data, we elaborate on the typical information scrap lifecycle, and identify common roles that information scraps play: temporary storage, archiving, work-in-progress, reminding, and management of unusual data. These roles suggest a set of unmet design needs in current PIM tools: lightweight entry, unconstrained content, flexible use and adaptability, visibility, and mobility.

© All rights reserved Bernstein et al. and/or ACM Press

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Miller, Robert C., Chou, Victoria H., Bernstein, Michael S., Little, Greg, Kleek, Max Van, Karger, David R. and Schraefel, M. C. (2008): Inky: a sloppy command line for the web with rich visual feedback. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 131-140.

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Wilson, Max L., Andr, Paul and Schraefel, M. C. (2008): Backward highlighting: enhancing faceted search. In: Cousins, Steve B. and Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (eds.) Proceedings of the 21st Annual ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 19-22, 2008, Monterey, CA, USA. pp. 235-238.

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Tsandilas, Theophanis and Schraefel, M. C. (2007): Bubbling menus: a selective mechanism for accessing hierarchical drop-down menus. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2007 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2007. pp. 1195-1204.

This paper introduces bubbling menus, a new design for cascading drop-down menus. Bubbling menus combine the bubble cursor [10] with directional mouse-gesture techniques to facilitate the access of certain items in a menu, such as frequently selected items. Through an extensive iterative design process, we explore bubbling menus in the context of adaptive and customizable user interfaces. Unlike other adaptation and customization techniques such as split menus, bubbling menus do not disrupt the original structure of menus and enable the activation of menus far from a menu bar. Results from two evaluation studies presented in the paper show that bubbling menus provide an effective alternative to accelerate menu selections tasks.

© All rights reserved Tsandilas and Schraefel and/or ACM Press

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Schraefel, M. C. (2007): What is an analogue for the semantic web and why is having one important?. In: Proceedings of the Eighteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2007. pp. 123-132.

This paper postulates that for the Semantic Web to grow and gain input from fields that will surely benefit it, it needs to develop an analogue that will help people not only understand what it is, but what the potential opportunities are that are enabled by these new protocols. The model proposed in the paper takes the way that Web interaction has been framed as a baseline to inform a similar analogue for the Semantic Web. While the Web has been represented as a Page + Links, the paper presents the argument that the Semantic Web can be conceptualized as a Notebook + Memex. The argument considers how this model also presents new challenges for fundamental human interaction with computing, and that hypertext models have much to contribute to this new understanding for distributed information systems.

© All rights reserved Schraefel and/or ACM Press

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Andr, Paul, Wilson, Max L., Russell, Alistair, Smith, Daniel A., Owens, Alisdair and Schraefel, M. C. (2007): Continuum: designing timelines for hierarchies, relationships and scale. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 101-110.

Temporal events, while often discrete, also have interesting relationships within and across times: larger events are often collections of smaller more discrete events (battles within wars; artists' works within a form); events at one point also have correlations with events at other points (a play written in one period is related to its performance over a period of time). Most temporal visualisations, however, only represent discrete data points or single data types along a single timeline: this event started here and ended there; this work was published at this time; this tag was popular for this period. In order to represent richer, faceted attributes of temporal events, we present Continuum. Continuum enables hierarchical relationships in temporal data to be represented and explored; it enables relationships between events across periods to be expressed, and in particular it enables user-determined control over the level of detail of any facet of interest so that the person using the system can determine a focus point, no matter the level of zoom over the temporal space. We present the factors motivating our approach, our evaluation and implementation of this new visualisation which makes it easy for anyone to apply this interface to rich, large-scale datasets with temporal data.

© All rights reserved Andr et al. and/or ACM Press

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Kleek, Max Van, Bernstein, Michael, Karger, David R. and Schraefel, M. C. (2007): Gui -- phooey!: the case for text input. In: Proceedings of the ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology October 7-10, 2007, Newport, Rhode Island, USA. pp. 193-202.

Information cannot be found if it is not recorded. Existing rich graphical application approaches interfere with user input in many ways, forcing complex interactions to enter simple information, requiring complex cognition to decide where the data should be stored, and limiting the kind of information that can be entered to what can fit into specific applications' data models. Freeform text entry suffers from none of these limitations but produces data that is hard to retrieve or visualize. We describe the design and implementation of Jourknow, a system that aims to bridge these two modalities, supporting lightweight text entry and weightless context capture that produces enough structure to support rich interactive presentation and retrieval of the arbitrary information entered.

© All rights reserved Kleek et al. and/or ACM Press

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Wilson, M. L., Russell, A., Smith, D. A. and Schraefel, M. C. (2006): mSpace Mobile: Exploring Support for Mobile Tasks. In: Proceedings of the HCI06 Conference on People and Computers XX 2006. pp. 193-202.

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Lawrence, K. Faith and Schraefel, M. C. (2006): Bringing communities to the semantic web and the semantic web to communities. In: Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2006. pp. 153-162.

In this paper we consider the types of community networks that are most often codified within the Semantic Web. We propose the recognition of a new structure which fulfils the definition of community used outside the Semantic Web. We argue that the properties inherent in a community allow additional processing to be done with the described relationships existing between entities within the community network. Taking an existing online community as a case study we describe the ontologies and applications that we developed to support this community in the Semantic Web environment and discuss what lessons can be learnt from this exercise and applied in more general settings.

© All rights reserved Lawrence and Schraefel and/or ACM Press

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Schraefel, M. C., Smith, Daniel A., Owens, Alisdair, Russell, Alistair, Harris, Craig and Wilson, Max (2005): The evolving mSpace platform: leveraging the semantic web on the trail of the memex. In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext 2005. pp. 174-183.

Vannevar Bush proposed the memex as a means to support building knowledge in the way he says the human brain works: by association. Achieving this vision has been a core motivation for hypertext research. In this paper, we suggest first that Bush's memex reflects an interaction paradigm rather than system design. Second, we propose that Semantic Web promises to provide the mechanisms to enable these interaction requirements. Third, we propose the mSpace framework and architecture as a platform to deploy lightweight Semantic Web applications which foreground associative interaction. We propose this lightweight approach as a means to evaluate both interaction needs and the cost/benefits of using Semantic Web technologies to support them.

© All rights reserved Schraefel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Smith, Grham, Schraefel, M. C. and Baudisch, Patrick (2005): Curve dial: eyes-free parameter entry for GUIs. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1146-1147.

In this demonstration, we introduce "curve dial" a technique designed to extend gesture-based interactions like FlowMenus with eyes-free parameter entry. FlowMenus, let users enter numerical parameters with "dialing" strokes surrounding the center of a radial menu. This centering requires users to keep their eyes on the Menu in order to align the pen with its center before initiating a gesture. Curve dial instead tracks the curvature of the path created by the pen: since curvature is location-independent, curvature dialing does not require users to keep track of the menu center and is therefore eyes-free. We demonstrate curvature dial with the example of a simple application that allows users to scroll through a document eyes-free.

© All rights reserved Smith et al. and/or ACM Press

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Karam, Maria and Schraefel, M. C. (2005): A study on the use of semaphoric gestures to support secondary task interactions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1961-1964.

We present results of a study that considers (a) gestures outside the context of a specific implementation and (b) their use in supporting secondary, rather than primary tasks in a multitasking environment. The results show semaphoric gestures offer significant benefits over function keys in such interactions, and how our findings can be used to extend models of design and evaluation for ubiquitous computing environments that support multitasking.

© All rights reserved Karam and Schraefel and/or ACM Press

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Tsandilas, Theophanis and Schraefel, M. C. (2005): An empirical assessment of adaptation techniques. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2009-2012.

The effectiveness of adaptive user interfaces highly depends on the how accurately adaptation satisfies the needs of users. This paper presents an empirical study that examined two adaptation techniques applied on lists of textual selections. The study measured user performance controlling the accuracy of the suggestions made by the adaptive user interface. The results indicate that different adaptation techniques bare different costs and gains, which are affected by the accuracy of adaptation.

© All rights reserved Tsandilas and Schraefel and/or ACM Press

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Newman, William M., Jeffries, Robin and Schraefel, M. C. (2005): Do CHI papers work for you?: addressing concerns of authors, audiences and reviewers. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 2045-2046.

CHI papers serve unique and vital purposes within the HCI community. Their ability to serve these purposes is of particular concern to authors, audiences (both attendees at conference sessions and readers of proceedings) and reviewers. However, these stakeholders rarely have an opportunity to state their concerns and influence how they are addressed. This SIG will offer such an opportunity. It has been organized by members of the CHI Papers Support Team, who will lead discussions of major issues. The outcome will be a set of recommended further actions by the Support Team and future papers co-chairs.

© All rights reserved Newman et al. and/or ACM Press

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Schraefel, M. C., Hughes, Gareth V., Mills, Hugo R., Smith, Graham, Payne, Terry R. and Frey, Jeremy (2004): Breaking the book: translating the chemistry lab book into a pervasive computing lab environment. In: Dykstra-Erickson, Elizabeth and Tscheligi, Manfred (eds.) Proceedings of ACM CHI 2004 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems April 24-29, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 25-32.

The UK e-Science programme is relying on the evolution of the paper lab book into a pervasive data gathering lab system. To date take up of existing commercial or research lab book replacement systems has not been great. In this paper, we reconsider both the role of the lab book in the experimental cycle, as well as its affective and experiential properties as an artefact, in order to design an e-Science lab book that will be acceptable to the scientists who will use it. To this end we combined and extended existing design analysis models in order to assess the artefact functionally and experientially. We present the approach we developed, the prototype we designed based on our analysis, and the results of the formative study we performed of the artefact in real use. We show that our design elicitation method strongly contributed to the success of our prototype's take up.

© All rights reserved Schraefel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Smith, G. M. and Schraefel, M. C. (2004): The radial scroll tool: scrolling support for stylus- or touch-based document navigation. In: Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2004. pp. 53-56.

We present radial scroll, an interface widget to support scrolling particularly on either small or large scale touch displays. Instead of dragging a elevator in a scroll bar, or using repetitive key presses to page up or down, users gesture anywhere on the document surface such that clockwise gestures advance the document; counter clockwise gestures reverse the document. We describe our prototype implementation and discuss the results of an initial user study.

© All rights reserved Smith and Schraefel and/or ACM Press

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Schraefel, M. C., Hughes, Gareth, Mills, Hugo, Smith, Graham and Frey, Jeremy (2004): Making tea: iterative design through analogy. In: Proceedings of DIS04: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2004. pp. 49-58.

The success of translating an analog or manual practice into a digital interactive system may depend on how well that translation captures not only the functional what and how aspects of the practice, but the why of the process as well. Addressing these attributes is particularly challenging when there is a gap in expertise between the design team and the domain to be modeled. In this paper, we describe Making Tea, a design method foregrounding the use of analogy to bridge the gap between design team knowledge and domain expertise. Making Tea complements more traditional user-centered design approaches such as ethnography and task analysis. In this paper, we situate our work with respect to other related design methods such as Cultural Probes and Artifact Walkthroughs. We describe the process by which we develop, validate and use analogy in order to maximize expert contact time in observation, interviews, design reviews and evaluation. We contextualize the method in a discussion of its use in a project we ran to replace a paper-based synthetic chemistry lab book with an interactive system for use in a pervasive lab environment.

© All rights reserved Schraefel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Tsandilas, T. and Schraefel, M. C. (2004): Usable adaptive hypermedia systems. In New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 10 (1) pp. 5-29.

Adaptive interfaces have received much criticism because adaptation and automatic assistance generally contradict the principles of direct-manipulation interfaces. In addition, their success depends highly on the ability of user models to capture the goals and needs of the users. As the construction of user models is often based on poor evidence, even the most advanced learning algorithms may fail to infer accurately the user goals. Previous research has put little emphasis on investigating usability problems of adaptive systems and developing interaction techniques that could resolve these problems. This paper examines these problems and presents an interaction model for adaptive hypermedia (AH) that merges adaptive support and direct manipulation. This approach is built upon a new content adaptation technique that derives from fisheye views. This adaptation technique supports incremental and continuous adjustments of the adaptive views of hypermedia documents and balances between focus and context. By combining this technique with visual representations and controllers of user models, we form a twofold interaction model that enables users to move quickly between adaptation and direct control. Two preliminary user studies exhibit the strengths of our proposed interaction model and adaptation technique. Future extensions to our work are outlined based on the weaknesses and limitations that the studies revealed.

© All rights reserved Tsandilas and Schraefel and/or Taylor and Francis

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McGuffin, Michael J. and Schraefel, M. C. (2004): A comparison of hyperstructures: zzstructures, mSpaces, and polyarchies. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext 2004. pp. 153-162.

Hypermedia applications tend to use simple representations for navigation: most commonly, nodes are organized within an unconstrained graph, and users are presented with embedded links or lists of links. Recently, new data structures have emerged which may serve as alternative models for both the organization, and presentation, of hypertextual nodes and links. In this paper, we consider zzstructures, mSpaces, and polyarchies from the perspective of graph theory, and compare these models formally. The novel aspects of this work include: providing a sound, graph-theoretic analysis of zzstructures; the identification of a new class of polyarchies associated with mSpaces; and the comparison and classification of these and other structures within a taxonomy. The taxonomy that results from our comparison allows us to consider, first; what the distinct characteristics of each model are at a fundamental level, and second; what model or attributes of a model may be most appropriate for the design goals of a given hypermedia application.

© All rights reserved McGuffin and Schraefel and/or ACM Press

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Schraefel, M. C., Shadbolt, Nigel R., Gibbins, Nicholas, Harris, Stephen and Glaser, Hugh (2004): CS AKTive space: representing computer science in the semantic web. In: Proceedings of the 2004 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2004. pp. 384-392.

We present a Semantic Web application that we call CS AKTive Space. The application exploits a wide range of semantically heterogeneous and distributed content relating to Computer Science research in the UK. This content is gathered on a continuous basis using a variety of methods including harvesting and scraping as well as adopting a range models for content acquisition. The content currently comprises around ten million RDF triples and we have developed storage, retrieval and maintenance methods to support its management. The content is mediated through an ontology constructed for the application domain and incorporates components from other published ontologies. CS AKTive Space supports the exploration of patterns and implications inherent in the content and exploits a variety of visualisations and multi dimensional representations. Knowledge services supported in the application include investigating communities of practice: who is working, researching or publishing with whom. This work illustrates a number of substantial challenges for the Semantic Web. These include problems of referential integrity, tractable inference and interaction support. We review our approaches to these issues and discuss relevant related work.

© All rights reserved Schraefel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Tsandilas, Theophanis and Schraefel, M. C. (2003): User-controlled link adaptation. In: Proceedings of the Fourteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext 2003. pp. 152-160.

This paper introduces an adaptable hypermedia approach applied to adaptive link annotation techniques. This approach suggests that the combination of direct manipulation with automated link annotation affords greater user control over page adaptation. In turn, this direct control better supports user focus in information discovery tasks. Unlike adaptive-only systems, our approach lets users both define multiple topics of interest and then manipulate how these topics' associated links are presented in a page. We discuss how the approach can be applied both to pages viewed as well as to the user's history list, thereby relieving users from the task of either adding to or organizing bookmarks. We describe the prototype developed to support these manipulations, as well as the adaptive architecture developed to support these controls.

© All rights reserved Tsandilas and Schraefel and/or ACM Press

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Whitehead, Jim, Bra, Paul De, Groenbaek, Kaj, Larsen, Deena, Leggett, John and Schraefel, M. C. (2002): Seven Issues, Revisited. In: Hypertext'02 - Proceedings of the Thirteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 11-15, 2002, College Park, Maryland, USA. p. 171.

It has been 15 years since the original presentation by Frank Halasz at Hypertext'87 on seven issues for the next generation of hypertext systems. These issues are: * Search and Query * Composites * Virtual Structures * Computation in/over hypertext network * Versioning * Collaborative Work * Extensibility and Tailorability Since that time, these issues have formed the nucleus of multiple research agendas within the Hypertext community. Befitting this direction-setting role, the issues have been revisited several times, by Halasz in his 1991 Hypertext keynote talk, and by Randy Trigg in his 1996 Hypertext keynote five years later. Additionally, over the intervening 15 years, many research systems have addressed the original seven issues, and new research avenues have opened up. The goal of this panel is to begin the process of developing a new set of seven issues for the next generation of hypertext system. Toward this end, we have convened seven experts on hypertext, and charged them with determining one issue, something deserving significant focus by the research community, and one non-issue, a red herring no longer worthy of consideration. At the end of the panel, the panelists and the audience will vote on which issues they consider to be the most important, and which non-issue is the least important.

© All rights reserved Whitehead et al. and/or ACM Press

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Schraefel, M. C., Zhu, Yuxiang, Modjeska, David, Wigdor, Daniel and Zhao, Shengdong (2002): Hunter gatherer: interaction support for the creation and management of within-web-page collections. In: Proceedings of the 2002 International Conference on the World Wide Web 2002. pp. 172-181.

Hunter Gatherer is an interface that lets Web users carry out three main tasks: (1) collect components from within Web pages; (2) represent those components in a collection; (3) edit those component collections. Our research shows that while the practice of making collections of content from within Web pages is common, it is not frequent, due in large part to poor interaction support in existing tools. We engaged with users in task analysis as well as iterative design reviews in order to understand the interaction issues that are part of within-Web-page collection making and to design an interaction that would support that process. We report here on that design development, as well as on the evaluations of the tool that evolved from that process, and the future work stemming from these results, in which our critical question is: what happens to users perceptions and expectations of web-based information (their web-based information management practices) when they can treat this information as harvestable, recontextualizable data, rather than as fixed pages?

© All rights reserved Schraefel et al. and/or ACM Press

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Schraefel, M. C. and Zhu, Yuxiang (2001): Interaction design for Web-based, within-page collection making and management. In: Hypertext'01 - Proceedings of the Twelfth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia August 14-18, 2001, Aarhus, Denmark. p. 125.

A common issue in Web browsing is how to manage information found while browsing or searching. The usual approach is either to bookmark an entire page when perhaps only one element is relevant, or to copy information from the page and paste it into a second application, such as a text editor. Neither approach is sufficient. Bookmarks over capture data; copying and pasting components implies that users must shift task focus from search tasks to information management tasks. This forced divided attention [8] between knowledge discovery and information management generally compromises both tasks. In this paper, we look at our iterative process to determine requirements for a tool to support the gathering process. In particular, we consider how these requirements have raised other issues about this interactive process, and how, by further evaluation, we hope to develop a richer Web-based design heuristics for within-page collections.

© All rights reserved Schraefel and Zhu and/or ACM Press

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