Publication statistics

Pub. period:2004-2012
Pub. count:28
Number of co-authors:59


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Shailendra Rao:
Alexander Sorokin:
Jenay M. Beer:



Productive colleagues

Leila Takayama's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

James A. Landay:91
Clifford Nass:70
Hiroshi Ishiguro:55

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Leila Takayama

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Publications by Leila Takayama (bibliography)

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Takayama, Leila and Go, Janet (2012): Mixing metaphors in mobile remote presence. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW12 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2012. pp. 495-504.

Metaphors for making sense of new communication technologies are important for setting user expectations about appropriate use of the technologies. When users do not share a common metaphorical model for using these technologies, interpersonal communication breakdowns can occur. Through a set of three 8-week-long field deployments and one ongoing observation in-house, we conducted contextual inquiries around the uses of a relatively new communication technology, a mobile remote presence (MRP) system. We observed many nonhuman-like metaphors (e.g., orienting toward the system as a robot, an object) and human-like metaphors (e.g., a person, or a person with disabilities). These metaphors influence people's expectations about social norms in using the systems. We found that there is a serious risk of creating interpersonal conflict when the metaphors are mismatched between people (e.g., locals use nonhuman-like metaphors when remote pilots use human-like metaphors). We explore the implications for understanding remote pilots' rights and responsibilities and present design guidelines for MRP systems that support geographically distributed groups.

© All rights reserved Takayama and Go and/or ACM Press

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Leeper, Adam Eric, Hsiao, Kaijen, Ciocarlie, Matei, Takayama, Leila and Gossow, David (2012): Strategies for human-in-the-loop robotic grasping. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2012. pp. 1-8.

Human-in-the loop robotic systems have the potential to handle complex tasks in unstructured environments, by combining the cognitive skills of a human operator with autonomous tools and behaviors. Along these lines, we present a system for remote human-in-the-loop grasp execution. An operator uses a computer interface to visualize a physical robot and its surroundings, and a point-and-click mouse interface to command the robot. We implemented and analyzed four different strategies for performing grasping tasks, ranging from direct, real-time operator control of the end-effector pose, to autonomous motion and grasp planning that is simply adjusted or confirmed by the operator. Our controlled experiment (N=48) results indicate that people were able to successfully grasp more objects and caused fewer unwanted collisions when using the strategies with more autonomous assistance. We used an untethered robot over wireless communications, making our strategies applicable for remote, human-in-the-loop robotic applications.

© All rights reserved Leeper et al. and/or their publisher

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Tsui, Katherine M., Rump, Stephen Von, Ishiguro, Hiroshi, Takayama, Leila and Vicars, Peter N. (2012): Robots in the loop: telepresence robots in everyday life. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2012. pp. 317-318.

This year's human-robot interaction (HRI) conference focuses on "robots in the loop" and how robots are capable of enhancing the experiences of human users in everyday life and work. Telepresence robots allow operators the ability to participate in remote locations through their mobility and live bidirectional audio and video feeds. Using robotic telepresence, students with chronic illnesses are attending their regular classes, physicians are conducting virtual "home visits" for recovering patients, and remote teammates are having conversations beyond the office conference room. This panel gathers experts from academia, business, and industry to discuss their experiences in developing robotic telepresences and "ah ha" moments reported from field use. Topics include how telepresence is defined, the practical use cases and application domains, the social and practical challenges encountered by operators and people physically present with the robots, and the implications for design of telepresence robots given these considerations.

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Pantofaru, Caroline, Takayama, Leila, Foote, Tully and Soto, Bianca (2012): Exploring the role of robots in home organization. In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction 2012. pp. 327-334.

Technologists have long wanted to put robots in the home, making robots truly personal and present in every aspect of our lives. It has not been clear, however, exactly what these robots should do in the home. The difficulty of tasking robots with home chores comes not only from the significant technical challenges, but also from the strong emotions and expectations people have about their home lives. In this paper, we explore one possible set of tasks a robot could perform, home organization and storage tasks. Using the technique of need finding, we interviewed a group of people regarding the reality of organization in their home; the successes, failures, family dynamics and practicalities surrounding organization. These interviews are abstracted into a set of frameworks and design implications for home robotics, which we contribute to the community as inspiration and hypotheses for future robot prototypes to test.

© All rights reserved Pantofaru et al. and/or their publisher

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Takayama, Leila, Pantofaru, Caroline, Robson, David, Soto, Bianca and Barry, Michael (2012): Making technology homey: finding sources of satisfaction and meaning in home automation. In: Proceedings of the 2012 International Conference on Uniquitous Computing 2012. pp. 511-520.

Home and automation are not natural partners -- one homey and the other cold. Most current automation in the home is packaged in the form of appliances. To better understand the current reality and possible future of living with other types of domestic technology, we went out into the field to conduct need finding interviews among people who have already introduced automation into their homes and kept it there -- home automators. We present the lessons learned from these home automators as frameworks and implications for the values that domestic technology should support. In particular, we focus on the satisfaction and meaning that the home automators derived from their projects, especially in connecting to their homes (rather than simply controlling their homes). These results point the way toward other technologies designed for our everyday lives at home.

© All rights reserved Takayama et al. and/or ACM Press

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Beer, Jenay M. and Takayama, Leila (2011): Mobile remote presence systems for older adults: acceptance, benefits, and concerns. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2011. pp. 19-26.

While much of human-robot interaction research focuses upon people interacting with autonomous robots, there is also much to be gained from exploring human interpersonal interaction through robots. The current study focuses on mobile remote presence (MRP) systems as used by a population who could potentially benefit from more social connectivity and communication with remote people -- older adults. Communication technologies are important for ensuring safety, independence, and social support for older adults, thereby potentially improving their quality of life and maintaining their independence [24]. However, before such technologies would be accepted and used by older adults, it is critical to understand their perceptions of the benefits, concerns, and adoption criteria for MRP systems. As such, we conducted a needs assessment with twelve volunteer participants (ages 63-88), who were given first-hand experience with both meeting a visitor via the MRP system and driving the MRP system to visit that person. The older adult participants identified benefits such as being able to see and be seen via the MRP system, reducing travel costs and hassles, and reducing social isolation. Among the concerns identified were etiquette of using the MRP, personal privacy, and overuse of the system. Some new use-cases were identified that have not yet been explored in prior work, for example, going to museums, attending live performances, and visiting friends who are hospitalized. The older adults in the current study preferred to operate the MRP themselves, rather than to be visited by others operating the MRP system. More findings are discussed in terms of their implications for design.

© All rights reserved Beer and Takayama and/or their publisher

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Takayama, Leila, Dooley, Doug and Ju, Wendy (2011): Expressing thought: improving robot readability with animation principles. In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2011. pp. 69-76.

The animation techniques of anticipation and reaction can help create robot behaviors that are human readable such that people can figure out what the robot is doing, reasonably predict what the robot will do next, and ultimately interact with the robot in an effective way. By showing forethought before action and expressing a reaction to the task outcome (success or failure), we prototyped a set of human-robot interaction behaviors. In a 2 (forethought vs. none: between) x 2 (reaction to outcome vs. none: between) x 2 (success vs. failure task outcome: within) experiment, we tested the influences of forethought and reaction upon people's perceptions of the robot and the robot's readability. In this online video prototype experiment (N=273), we have found support for the hypothesis that perceptions of robots are influenced by robots showing forethought, the task outcome (success or failure), and showing goal-oriented reactions to those task outcomes. Implications for theory and design are discussed.

© All rights reserved Takayama et al. and/or their publisher

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Lee, Min Kyung and Takayama, Leila (2011): "Now, i have a body": uses and social norms for mobile remote presence in the workplace. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 33-42.

As geographically distributed teams become increasingly common, there are more pressing demands for communication work practices and technologies that support distributed collaboration. One set of technologies that are emerging on the commercial market is mobile remote presence (MRP) systems, physically embodied videoconferencing systems that remote workers use to drive through a workplace, communicating with locals there. Our interviews, observations, and survey results from people, who had 2-18 months of MRP use, showed how remotely-controlled mobility enabled remote workers to live and work with local coworkers almost as if they were physically there. The MRP supported informal communications and connections between distributed coworkers. We also found that the mobile embodiment of the remote worker evoked orientations toward the MRP both as a person and as a machine, leading to formation of new usage norms among remote and local coworkers.

© All rights reserved Lee and Takayama and/or their publisher

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Paepcke, Andreas, Soto, Bianca, Takayama, Leila, Koenig, Frank and Gassend, Blaise (2011): Yelling in the hall: using sidetone to address a problem with mobile remote presence systems. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 107-116.

In our field deployments of mobile remote presence (MRP) systems in offices, we observed that remote operators of MRPs often unintentionally spoke too loudly. This disrupted their local co-workers, who happened to be within earshot of the MRP system. To address this issue, we prototyped and empirically evaluated the effect of sidetone to help operators self regulate their speaking loudness. Sidetone is the intentional, attenuated feedback of speakers' voices to their ears while they are using a telecommunication device. In a 3-level (no sidetone vs. low sidetone vs. high sidetone) within-participants pair of experiments, people interacted with a confederate through an MRP system. The first experiment involved MRP operators using headsets with boom microphones (N=20). The second experiment involved MRP operators using loudspeakers and desktop microphones (N=14). While we detected the effects of the sidetone manipulation in our audio-visual context, the effect was attenuated in comparison to earlier audio-only studies. We hypothesize that the strong visual component of our MRP system interferes with the sidetone effect. We also found that engaging in more social tasks (e.g., a getting-to-know-you activity) and more intellectually demanding tasks (e.g., a creativity exercise) influenced how loudly people spoke. This suggests that testing such sidetone effects in the typical read-aloud setting is insufficient for generalizing to more interactive, communication tasks. We conclude that MRP application support must reach beyond the time honored audio-only technologies to solve the problem of excessive speaker loudness.

© All rights reserved Paepcke et al. and/or ACM Press

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Takayama, Leila and Nass, Clifford (2010): Throwing voices: the psychological impact of the spatial height of projected voices. In: Proceedings of ACM CSCW10 Conference on Computer-Supported Cooperative Work 2010. pp. 91-94.

Communication mediating technologies are throwing our voices away from our bodies in situations ranging from voice conference meetings to mass presentations. Physical height is known to influence dominance in interactions between people. This study explores how audio projection technologies also influence dominance behaviors between people. In an exploratory 2 (between-participants: own voice location set spatially high vs. low) x 2 (within-participants: voice agent set spatially high vs. low) mixed-design experiment (N=64), we investigated the psychological effects of voice location upon collaborative decision-making interactions between people and voice agents. We found evidence that suggests the dominating effects of project voices' coming from above can be mitigated by hearing one's own voice projected from above.

© All rights reserved Takayama and Nass and/or their publisher

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Smart, William D., Pileggi, Annamaria and Takayama, Leila (2010): HRI 2010 workshop 1: what do collaborations with the arts have to say about HRI?. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2010. p. 3.

Human-Robot Interaction researchers are beginning to reach out to fields not traditionally associated with interaction research, such as the performing arts, cartooning, and animation. These collaborations offer the potential for novel insights about how to get robots and people to interact more effectively, but they also involve a number of unique challenges. This full-day workshop will offer a venue for HRI researchers and their collaborators from these diverse fields to report on their work, share insights about the collaboration process, and to help begin to define an exciting new area in HRI.

© All rights reserved Smart et al. and/or their publisher

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Paepcke, Steffi and Takayama, Leila (2010): Judging a bot by its cover: an experiment on expectation setting for personal robots. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2010. pp. 45-52.

Managing user expectations of personal robots becomes particularly challenging when the end-user just wants to know what the robot can do, and neither understands nor cares about its technical specifications. In describing what a robot can do to such an end-user, we explored the questions of (a) whether or not such users would respond to expectation setting about personal robots and, if so, (b) how such expectation setting would influence human-robot interactions and people's perceptions of the robots. Using a 2 (expectation setting: high vs. low) x 2 (robot type: Pleo vs. AIBO) between-participants experiment (N=24), we examined these questions. We found that people's initial beliefs about the robot's capabilities are indeed influenced by expectation setting tactics. Contrary to the hypotheses predicted by the Self-Fulfilling Prophecy and Confirmation Bias, we found that erring on the side of setting expectations lower rather than higher led to less disappointment and more positive appraisals of the robot's competence.

© All rights reserved Paepcke and Takayama and/or their publisher

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Goodfellow, Ian J., Koenig, Nate, Muja, Marius, Pantofaru, Caroline, Sorokin, Alexander and Takayama, Leila (2010): Help me help you: interfaces for personal robots. In: Proceedings of the 5th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2010. pp. 187-188.

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Ochi, Paloma, Rao, Shailendra, Takayama, Leila and Nass, Clifford (2010): Predictors of user perceptions of web recommender systems: How the basis for generating experience and search product recommendations affects user responses. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 68 (8) pp. 472-482.

One critical question suggested by Web 2.0 is as follows: When is it better to leverage the knowledge of other users vs. rely on the product characteristic-based metrics for online product recommenders? Three recent and notable changes of recommender systems have been as follows: (1) a shift from characteristic-based recommendation algorithms to social-based recommendation algorithms; (2) an increase in the number of dimensions on which algorithms are based; and (3) availability of products that cannot be examined for quality before purchase. The combination of these elements is affecting users' perceptions and attitudes regarding recommender systems and the products recommended by them, but the psychological effects of these trends remain unexplored. The current study empirically examines the effects of these elements, using a 2 (recommendation approach: content-based vs. collaborative-based, within)2 (dimensions used to generate recommendations: 6 vs. 30, between)2 (product type: experience products (fragrances) vs. search products (rugs), between) Web-based study (N=80). Participants were told that they would use two recommender systems distinguished by recommendation approach (in fact, the recommendations were identical). There were no substantive main effects, but all three variables exhibited two-way interactions, indicating that design strategies must be grounded in a multi-dimensional understanding of these variables. The implications of this research for the psychology and design of recommender systems are presented.

© All rights reserved Ochi et al. and/or Academic Press

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Takayama, Leila, Sison, Jo Ann G., Lathrop, Brian, Wolfe, Nicholas, Chiang, Abe, Nielsen, Alexia and Nass, Clifford (2009): Bringing design considerations to the mobile phone and driving debate. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1643-1646.

Though legislation is increasingly discouraging drivers from holding on to their mobile phones while talking, hands-free devices do not improve driver safety. We offer two design alternatives to improve driver safety in the contexts of voice-based user interfaces and mobile phone conversations in cars' side tones (auditory feedback used in landline phones) and location of speakers. In a 2 (side tone: present vs. not) x 2 (location of speakers: headphones vs. dashboard) between-participants experiment (N=48), we investigated the impact of these features upon driver experience and performance on a simulated mobile phone conversation while driving. Participants became more verbally engaged in the conversation when side tones were present, but also experienced more cognitive load. Participants drove more safely when voices were projected from the dashboard rather than from headphones. Implications for driver user interface design are discussed.

© All rights reserved Takayama et al. and/or ACM Press

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Takayama, Leila, Groom, Victoria and Nass, Clifford (2009): I'm sorry, Dave: I'm afraid I won't do that: social aspects of human-agent conflict. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 2099-2108.

As computational agents become more sophisticated, it will frequently be necessary for the agents to disagree with users. In these cases, it might be useful for the agent to use politeness strategies that defuse the person's frustrations and preserve the human-computer relationship. One such strategy is distancing, which we implemented by spatially distancing an agent's voice from its body. In a 2 (agent disagreement: none vs. some) x 2 (agent voice location: on robotic body vs. in control box) between-participants experiment, we studied the effects of agent disagreement and agent voice location in a collaborative human-agent desert survival task (N=40). People changed their answers more often when agents disagreed with them and felt more similar to agents that always agreed with them, even when substantive content was identical. Strikingly, people felt more positively toward the disagreeing agent whose voice came from a separate control box rather than from its body; for agreement, the body-attached voice was preferred.

© All rights reserved Takayama et al. and/or ACM Press

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Sohn, Timothy, Ballagas, Rafael and Takayama, Leila (2009): At your service: using butlers as a model to overcome the mobile attention deficit. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4219-4224.

Advances in mobile phones and cellular network capabilities have enabled many opportunities for information access on the move. These capabilities provide instant access for the mobile user, but have exacerbated the problem of interaction in a mobile context. Mobile users are often engaged in another task that makes it difficult for them to filter and interact with their mobile device at the same time. Mobile multitasking creates an attention deficit for the user. This paper proposes using butlers as a model to overcome this problem by offloading the burden of interaction from the user to the device. We describe how a suite of butlers can opportunistically and proactively offer information to the user in the moment, allowing mobile users to stay focused on their task at hand.

© All rights reserved Sohn et al. and/or ACM Press

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Sohn, Timothy, Takayama, Leila, Eckles, Dean and Ballagas, Rafael (2009): Auditory priming for upcoming events. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 4225-4230.

Psychologically preparing for upcoming events can be a difficult task, particularly when switching social contexts, e.g., from office work to a family event. To help with such transitions, the audio priming system uses pre-recorded audio messages to psychologically prepare a person for an upcoming event. In this system, audio priming is being used to prepare a person's state of mind to improve one's sociability in the upcoming social context.

© All rights reserved Sohn et al. and/or ACM Press

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Groom, Victoria, Takayama, Leila, Ochi, Paloma and Nass, Clifford (2009): I am my robot: the impact of robot-building and robot form on operators. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2009. pp. 31-36.

As robots become more pervasive, operators will develop richer relationships with them. In a 2 (robot form: humanoid vs. car) x 2 (assembler: self vs. other) between-participants experiment (N=56), participants assembled either a humanoid or car robot. Participants then used, in the context of a game, either the robot they built or a different robot. Participants showed greater extension of their self-concept into the car robot and preferred the personality of the car robot over the humanoid robot. People showed greater self extension into a robot and preferred the personality of the robot they assembled over a robot they believed to be assembled by another. Implications for the theory and design of robots and human-robot interaction are discussed.

© All rights reserved Groom et al. and/or ACM Press

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Takayama, Leila (2009): Making sense of agentic objects and teleoperation: in-the-moment and reflective perspectives. In: Proceedings of the 4th ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2009. pp. 239-240.

Agentic objects are those entities that are perceived and responded to in-the-moment as if they were agentic despite the likely reflective perception that they are not agentic at all. They include autonomous robots, but also simpler systems like automatic doors, trashcans, and staplers -- anything that seems to possess agency. It is well known that low-level spatiotemporal information elicits in-the-moment responses that are interpreted as perceiving mentalism [8, 17], but people reflectively believe that there is a distinction between human and non-human agents. How are we to make sense of these agentic objects?

© All rights reserved Takayama and/or ACM Press

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Takayama, Leila and Nass, Clifford (2008): Driver safety and information from afar: An experimental driving simulator study of wireless vs. in-car information services. In International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 20 (3) pp. 173-184.

Cars have changed from pure transportation devices to fully interactive, voice-based systems. While voice interaction in the car has previously required on-board processing, the growing speed and ubiquity of wireless technologies now enable interaction with a distant source. Will the perceived source of the information influence driver safety, responses to the information, and attitudes toward the computer system and car? A between-participants experimental design (N=40) of computer proximity -- in-car vs. wireless -- using an advanced car simulator, found that people's driving behavior, verbal responsiveness, and attitudes are affected by computer proximity. A path analysis shows two counterbalancing effects of computer proximity on driving behavior: drivers feel more engaged with the in-car system than the wireless system, which leads to safer driving behavior; however, drivers also drive faster while using the in-car system than the wireless system, which leads to more dangerous driving behavior. Consistent with greater feelings of engagement with the in-car system, people also feel less discontentment with the in-car system and self-disclose more to the in-car system. Positive perceptions of information content also lead drivers to be more persuaded by driving recommendations. Implications for the design of wireless systems are explored.

© All rights reserved Takayama and Nass and/or Academic Press

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Takayama, Leila, Ju, Wendy and Nass, Clifford (2008): Beyond dirty, dangerous and dull: what everyday people think robots should do. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human Robot Interaction 2008. pp. 25-32.

We present a study of people's attitudes toward robot workers, identifying the characteristics of occupations for which people believe robots are qualified and desired. We deployed a web-based public-opinion survey that asked respondents (n=250) about their attitudes regarding robots' suitability for a variety of jobs (n=812) from the U.S. Department of Labor's O*NET occupational information database. We found that public opinion favors robots for jobs that require memorization, keen perceptual abilities, and service-orientation. People are preferred for occupations that require artistry, evaluation, judgment and diplomacy. In addition, we found that people will feel more positively toward robots doing jobs with people rather than in place of people.

© All rights reserved Takayama et al. and/or ACM Press

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Danninger, Maria, Takayama, Leila, Wang, Qianying, Schultz, Courtney, Beringer, Joerg, James, Frankie, Hofmann, Paul and Nass, Clifford (2007): Can you Talk or only Touch-Talk? A VoIP-based phone feature for quick, quiet, and private communication. In: International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces (ICMI 2007, Nagoya, Japan. p. 8.

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Danninger, Maria, Takayama, Leila, Wang, Qianying, Schultz, Courtney, Beringer, Jorg, Hofmann, Paul, James, Frankie and Nass, Clifford (2007): Can you talk or only touch-talk: A VoIP-based phone feature for quick, quiet, and private communication. In: Massaro, Dominic W., Takeda, Kazuya, Roy, Deb and Potamianos, Alexandros (eds.) Proceedings of the 9th International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces - ICMI 2007 November 12-15, 2007, Nagoya, Aichi, Japan. pp. 154-161.

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Danninger, Maria, Takayama, Leila, Wang, Qianying, Schultz, Courtney, Beringer, Jorg, Hofmann, Paul, James, Frankie and Nass, Clifford (2007): Can you talk or only touch-talk: A VoIP-based phone feature for quick, quiet, and private communication. In: Proceedings of the 2007 International Conference on Multimodal Interfaces 2007. pp. 154-161.

Advances in mobile communication technologies have allowed people in more places to reach each other more conveniently than ever before. However, many mobile phone communications occur in inappropriate contexts, disturbing others in close proximity, invading personal and corporate privacy, and more broadly breaking social norms. This paper presents a telephony system that allows users to answer calls quietly and privately without speaking. The paper discusses the iterative process of design, implementation and system evaluation. The resulting system is a VoIP-based telephony system that can be immediately deployed from any phone capable of sending DTMF signals. Observations and results from inserting and evaluating this technology in real-world business contexts through two design cycles of the Touch-Talk feature are reported.

© All rights reserved Danninger et al. and/or their publisher

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Klemmer, Scott R., Hartmann, Bjorn and Takayama, Leila (2006): How bodies matter: five themes for interaction design. In: Proceedings of DIS06: Designing Interactive Systems: Processes, Practices, Methods, & Techniques 2006. pp. 140-149.

Our physical bodies play a central role in shaping human experience in the world, understandingof the world, and interactions in the world. This paper draws on theories of embodiment -- from psychology, sociology, and philosophy -- synthesizing five themes we believe are particularly salient for interaction design: thinking through doing, performance, visibility, risk, and thick practice. We introduce aspects of human embodied engagement in the world with the goal of inspiring new interaction design approaches and evaluations that better integrate the physical and computational worlds.

© All rights reserved Klemmer et al. and/or ACM Press

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Nass, Clifford, Jonsson, Ing-Marie, Harris, Helen, Reaves, Ben, Endo, Jack, Brave, Scott and Takayama, Leila (2005): Improving automotive safety by pairing driver emotion and car voice emotion. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2005 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2005. pp. 1973-1976.

This study examines whether characteristics of a car voice can affect driver performance and affect. In a 2 (driver emotion: happy or upset) x 2 (car voice emotion: energetic vs. subdued) experimental study, participants (N=40) had emotion induced through watching one of two sets of 5-minute video clips. Participants then spent 20 minutes in a driving simulator where a voice in the car spoke 36 questions (e.g., "How do you think that the car is performing?") and comments ("My favorite part of this drive is the lighthouse.") in either an energetic or subdued voice. Participants were invited to interact with the car voice. When user emotion matched car voice emotion (happy/energetic and upset/subdued), drivers had fewer accidents, attended more to the road (actual and perceived), and spoke more to the car. Implications for car design and voice user interface design are discussed.

© All rights reserved Nass et al. and/or ACM Press

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Jiang, Xiaodong, Chen, Nicholas Y., Hong, Jason I., Wang, Kevin, Takayama, Leila and Landay, James A. (2004): Siren: Context-aware Computing for Firefighting. In: Ferscha, Alois and Mattern, Friedemann (eds.) PERVASIVE 2004 - Pervasive Computing, Second International Conference April 21-23, 2004, Vienna, Austria. pp. 87-105.

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