Publication statistics

Pub. period:2006-2011
Pub. count:8
Number of co-authors:9


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Alex Jansen:
Peter Kamb:
Joshua Rakita:



Productive colleagues

Kristen Shinohara's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Jacob O. Wobbrock:71
Leah Findlater:18
Morgan Dixon:9

Upcoming Courses

go to course
Dynamic User Experience: Ajax Design and Usability
go to course
Gestalt Psychology and Web Design: The Ultimate Guide
92% booked. Starts in 3 days

Featured chapter

Marc Hassenzahl explains the fascinating concept of User Experience and Experience Design. Commentaries by Don Norman, Eric Reiss, Mark Blythe, and Whitney Hess

User Experience and Experience Design !


Our Latest Books

The Glossary of Human Computer Interaction
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities. 2nd Edition
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
Gamification at Work: Designing Engaging Business Software
by Janaki Mythily Kumar and Mario Herger
start reading
The Social Design of Technical Systems: Building technologies for communities
by Brian Whitworth and Adnan Ahmad
start reading
The Encyclopedia of Human-Computer Interaction, 2nd Ed.
by Mads Soegaard and Rikke Friis Dam
start reading

Kristen Shinohara


Publications by Kristen Shinohara (bibliography)

 what's this?
Edit | Del

Shinohara, Kristen and Wobbrock, Jacob O. (2011): In the shadow of misperception: assistive technology use and social interactions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 705-714.

Few research studies focus on how the use of assistive technologies is affected by social interaction among people. We present an interview study of 20 individuals to determine how assistive technology use is affected by social and professional contexts and interactions. We found that specific assistive devices sometimes marked their users as having disabilities; that functional access took priority over feeling self-conscious when using assistive technologies; and that two misperceptions pervaded assistive technology use: (1) that assistive devices could functionally eliminate a disability, and (2) that people with disabilities would be helpless without their devices. Our findings provide further evidence that accessibility should be built into mainstream technologies. When this is not feasible, assistive devices should incorporate cutting edge technologies and strive to be designed for social acceptability, a new design approach we propose here.

© All rights reserved Shinohara and Wobbrock and/or their publisher

Edit | Del

Wobbrock, Jacob O., Shinohara, Kristen and Jansen, Alex (2011): The effects of task dimensionality, endpoint deviation, throughput calculation, and experiment design on pointing measures and models. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1639-1648.

Fitts' law (1954) characterizes pointing speed-accuracy performance as throughput, whose invariance to target distances (A) and sizes (W) is known. However, it is unknown whether throughput and Fitts' law models in general are invariant to task dimensionality (1-D vs. 2-D), whether univariate (SDx) or bivariate (SDx,y) endpoint deviation is used, whether throughput is calculated using the mean-of-means approach or the slope-inverse approach, or whether Guiard's (2009) Form -- Scale experiment design is used instead of fully crossed A-W factors. We empirically investigate the confluence of these issues, finding that Fitts' law is largely invariant across 1-D and 2-D, provided that univariate endpoint deviation (SDx) is used in both, but that for 2-D pointing data, bivariate endpoint deviation (SDx,y) results in better Fitts' law models. Also, the mean-of-means throughput calculation exhibits lower variance across subjects and dimensionalities than the slope-inverse calculation. In light of these and other findings, we offer recommendations for pointing evaluations, especially in 2-D. We also offer an evaluation tool called Fitts Study to facilitate comparisons.

© All rights reserved Wobbrock et al. and/or their publisher

Edit | Del

Wobbrock, Jacob O., Jansen, Alex and Shinohara, Kristen (2011): Modeling and predicting pointing errors in two dimensions. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2011 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2011. pp. 1653-1656.

Recently, Wobbrock et al. (2008) derived a predictive model of pointing accuracy to complement Fitts' law's predictive model of pointing speed. However, their model was based on one-dimensional (1-D) horizontal movement, while applications of such a model require two dimensions (2-D). In this paper, the pointing error model is investigated for 2-D pointing in a study of 21 participants performing a time-matching task on the ISO 9241-9 ring-of-circles layout. Results show that the pointing error model holds well in 2-D. If univariate endpoint deviation (SDx) is used, regressing on N=72 observed vs. predicted error rate points yields R{squared}=.953. If bivariate endpoint deviation (SDx,y) is used, regression yields R{squared}=.936. For both univariate and bivariate models, the magnitudes of observed and predicted error rates are comparable.

© All rights reserved Wobbrock et al. and/or their publisher

Edit | Del

Findlater, Leah, Jansen, Alex, Shinohara, Kristen, Dixon, Morgan, Kamb, Peter, Rakita, Joshua and Wobbrock, Jacob O. (2010): Enhanced area cursors: reducing fine pointing demands for people with motor impairments. In: Proceedings of the 2010 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2010. pp. 153-162.

Computer users with motor impairments face major challenges with conventional mouse pointing. These challenges are mostly due to fine pointing corrections at the final stages of target acquisition. To reduce the need for correction-phase pointing and to lessen the effects of small target size on acquisition difficulty, we introduce four enhanced area cursors, two of which rely on magnification and two of which use goal crossing. In a study with motor-impaired and able-bodied users, we compared the new designs to the point and Bubble cursors, the latter of which had not been evaluated for users with motor impairments. Two enhanced area cursors, the Visual-Motor-Magnifier and Click-and-Cross, were the most successful new designs for users with motor

© All rights reserved Findlater et al. and/or their publisher

Edit | Del

Shinohara, Kristen (2010): Investigating meaning in uses of assistive devices: implications of social and professional contexts. In: Twelfth Annual ACM SIGACCESS Conference on Assistive Technologies 2010. pp. 319-320.

People with disabilities use assistive devices both to bridge accessibility gaps in everyday tasks, and to augment inaccessible technologies, such as desktop computers. This interview study investigates how people with disabilities are affected when using assistive devices in professional and social situations. Participants were asked about different contexts of use, and how people around them reacted to their devices. Key findings were that individuals experienced issues of self consciousness and empowerment when using assistive devices and that specific aspects of assistive device design, such as size and perceived sleekness, contributed to these feelings.

© All rights reserved Shinohara and/or his/her publisher

Edit | Del

Choe, Eun Kyoung, Shinohara, Kristen, Chilana, Parmit K., Dixon, Morgan and Wobbrock, Jacob O. (2009): Exploring the design of accessible goal crossing desktop widgets. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 3733-3738.

Prior work has shown that goal crossing may be a more accessible interaction technique than conventional pointing-and-clicking for motor-impaired users. Although goal crossing with pen-based input devices has been studied, pen-based designs have limited applicability on the desktop because the pen can "fly in," cross, and "fly out," whereas a persistent mouse cursor cannot. We therefore explore possible designs for accessible mouse-based goal crossing widgets that avoid triggering unwanted goals by using secondary goals, gestures, and corners and edges. We identify four design principles for accessible desktop goal crossing widgets: ease of use for motor-impaired users, safety from false selections, efficiency, and scalability.

© All rights reserved Choe et al. and/or ACM Press

Edit | Del

Shinohara, Kristen and Tenenberg, Josh (2007): Observing Sara: a case study of a blind person's interactions with technology. In: Ninth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2007. pp. 171-178.

While software is increasingly being improved to enhance access and use, software interfaces nonetheless often create barriers for people who are blind. In response, the blind computer user develops workarounds, strategies to overcome the constraints of a physical and social world engineered for the sighted. This paper describes an interview and observational study of a blind college student interacting with various technologies within her home. Structured around Blythe, Monk and Park's Technology Biographies, these experience centered sessions focus not only on technology function, but on the relationship of function to the meanings and values that this student attributes to technology use in different settings. Studying a single user across a range of devices and tasks provides a broader and more nuanced understanding of the contexts and causes of task failure and of the workarounds employed than is possible with a more narrowly focused usability study. Themes that were revealed across a range of tasks include the importance for technologies to not "mark" the user as being blind within a predominantly sighted social world, to support user independence through portability and user control, and to allow user "resets" and brute-force fallbacks in the face of persistent task failure.

© All rights reserved Shinohara and Tenenberg and/or ACM Press

Edit | Del

Shinohara, Kristen (2006): Designing assistive technology for blind users. In: Eighth Annual ACM Conference on Assistive Technologies 2006. pp. 293-294.

This project reports on an observational and interview study of a non-sighted person to develop design insights for enhancing interactions between a blind person and everyday technological artifacts found in their home such as wristwatches, cell phones or software applications. Analyzing situations where work-arounds compensate for task failures reveals important insights for future artifact design for the blind such as the value of socialization, tactile and audio feedback, and facilitation of user independence.

© All rights reserved Shinohara and/or ACM Press

Add publication
Show list on your website

Join our community and advance:




Join our community!

Page Information

Page maintainer: The Editorial Team