Publication statistics

Pub. period:1992-1996
Pub. count:6
Number of co-authors:22


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Kirsten M. Harris:
Jim Gettys:
Michael Doyle:



Productive colleagues

Keith Waters's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Sara Kiesler:59
Gudrun Klinker:37
Demetri Terzopoulo..:18

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Keith Waters

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Personal Homepage:

Current place of employment:
Orange Research Labs, 175 Second Street Cambridge, USA

Dr. Keith Waters received his Ph.D (1988) from Middlesex University, London and prior to joining Orange Keith was the Senior Technology Officer of LifeF/X developing commercial real-time facial animation.

Keith was a senior member of the research staff at the Cambridge Research Lab (CRL) from '89-'00 - formally Digital Equipment and later Compaq - where he worked on the commercialization of DECface and later FaceWorks. While at CRL he published many pioneering papers on facial animation particularly on muscle and skin dynamics for face animation as well as real-time visual text-to-speech.

Dr. Waters' Ph.D. research resulted in the development of muscle-based models for facial animation. To date Dr. Waters has published numerous technical papers on facial animation, including physically based models for animation and medical applications. Keith is co-author of Computer Facial Animation the definitive guide to facial animation the second edition published in 2008.

Currently, his specialty is usage and services focusing on multimodal access and mobile browsing. Keith has been involved with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) for several years; most recently within the Device Independence Working Group, the Mobile Web Initiative and as the lead for Delivery Context Client Interfaces(DCCI) activity.


Publications by Keith Waters (bibliography)

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Parise, Salvatore, Kiesler, Sara, Sproull, Lee and Waters, Keith (1996): My Partner is a Real Dog: Cooperation with Social Agents. In: Olson, Gary M., Olson, Judith S. and Ackerman, Mark S. (eds.) Proceedings of the 1996 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 16 - 20, 1996, Boston, Massachusetts, United States. pp. 399-408.

We investigated how cooperation with a computer agent was affected by the agent's pictorial realism, human-likeness, and likability. Participants played a social dilemma game with a talking computer agent that resembled a person, a dog, or a cartoon dog, or with a confederate interacting through a video link. Participants cooperated highly with the person computer agent and with the confederate. They loved the dog and dog cartoon agents, but (excepting dog owners), they cooperated significantly less with the dog agents. Behavioral and questionnaire results suggest likability is less important than respect in prompting cooperation with a computer agent.

© All rights reserved Parise et al. and/or ACM Press

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Sproull, Lee, Subramani, Mani, Kiesler, Sara, Walker, Janet H. and Waters, Keith (1996): When the Interface is a Face. In Human-Computer Interaction, 11 (2) pp. 97-124.

People behave differently in the presence of other people than they do when they are alone. People also may behave differently when designers introduce more human-like qualities into computer interfaces. In an experimental study we demonstrate that people's responses to a talking-face interface differ from their responses to a text-display interface. They attribute some personality traits to it; they are more aroused by it; they present themselves in a more positive light. We use theories of person perception, social facilitation, and self-presentation to predict and interpret these results. We suggest that as computer interfaces become more "human-like," people who use those interfaces may change their own personas in response to them.

© All rights reserved Sproull et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Waters, Keith and Frisbie, J. (1995): A coordinated muscle model for speech animation. In: Graphics Interface 95 May 17-19, 1995, Quebec, Quebec, Canada. pp. 163-170.

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Waters, Keith and Levergood, Thoms M. (1994): An Automatic Lip-Synchronization Algorithm for Synthetic Faces. In: ACM Multimedia 1994 1994. pp. 149-156.

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Lee, Yuencheng, Terzopoulos, Demetri and Waters, Keith (1993): Constructing physics--based facial models of individuals. In: Graphics Interface 93 May 19-21, 1993, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. pp. 1-8.

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Carlbom, Ingrid, Hsu, William M., Klinker, Gudrun, Szeliski, Richard, Waters, Keith, Doyle, Michael, Gettys, Jim, Harris, Kirsten M., Levergood, Thoms M., Palmer, Ricky S., Palmer, Lawrence G., Picart, Marc, Terzopoulos, Demetri, Tonnesen, David, Vannier, Michael W. and Wallace, Greg (1992): Modeling and Analysis of Empirical Data in Collaborative Environments. In Communications of the ACM, 35 (6) pp. 74-84.

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