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Ivan Watkins


Publications by Ivan Watkins (bibliography)

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Xie, Bo, Yeh, Tom, Walsh, Greg, Watkins, Ivan and Huang, Man (2012): Co-designing an e-health tutorial for older adults. In: Proceedings of the 2012 iConference 2012. pp. 240-247. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2132176.2132207

Older adults' ability to access and use electronic health information is generally low, requiring innovative approaches for improvement. An integrated e-tutorial overlays instructions onto Websites. The literature suggests integrated e-tutorials are more effective than paper or video-based tutorials for younger people, but little is known about their effectiveness for older adults. This study explores the applicability of an integrated e-health tutorial for older adults. An integrated e-tutorial, the Online Tutorial Overlay Presenter (OnTOP), added an instructional overlay to the NIHSeniorHealth.gov Website. Overlay features were examined in seven participatory design sessions with seven older adults. Participatory design techniques were used to elicit participants' preferences for tutorial features. Three themes emerged: 1) using contextual cues; 2) tailoring to the learner's literacy level; and 3) enhancing interfaces with multimedia cues. These findings improved the design features of OnTOP. They also generated empirical evidence about the effects of multimedia learning among older adults.

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Yeh, Tom, Chang, Tsung-Hsiang, Xie, Bo, Walsh, Greg, Watkins, Ivan, Wongsuphasawat, Krist, Huang, Man, Davis, Larry S. and Bederson, Benjamin B. (2011): Creating contextual help for GUIs using screenshots. In: Proceedings of the 2011 ACM Symposium on User Interface Software and Technology 2011. pp. 145-154. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2047196.2047214

Contextual help is effective for learning how to use GUIs by showing instructions and highlights on the actual interface rather than in a separate viewer. However, end-users and third-party tech support typically cannot create contextual help to assist other users because it requires programming skill and source code access. We present a creation tool for contextual help that allows users to apply common computer skills-taking screenshots and writing simple scripts. We perform pixel analysis on screenshots to make this tool applicable to a wide range of applications and platforms without source code access. We evaluated the tool's usability with three groups of participants: developers, instructors, and tech support. We further validated the applicability of our tool with 60 real tasks supported by the tech support of a university campus.

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Xie, Bo, Watkins, Ivan and Huang, Man (2011): Making web-based multimedia health tutorials senior-friendly: design and training guidelines. In: Proceedings of the 2011 iConference 2011. pp. 230-237. http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/1940761.1940793

To better understand older adults' perceptions and use of Web-based multimedia features particularly in health-related content areas, we conducted a comparative usability testing of three Web-based multimedia health tutorials -- MedlinePlus Surgery Videos and MedlinePlus Interactive Tutorials both maintained by the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and Surgery Simulation (pseudo name) by a U.S.-based non-profit organization -- with 10 older adults in February-March of 2010. Data were collected from interviews, surveys, and observation carried out in three consecutive sessions. In this paper we report a subset of the key findings from our qualitative data, focusing on literacy-related challenges participants encountered when using the three sites. These challenges reflect gaps between the computer, medical, and numerical literacy levels that designers expected users to have and the literacy levels that these users actually have. Based on these findings and the multimedia learning literature, we recommend design and training guidelines that may facilitate older adults' learning and use of Web-based multimedia health tutorials.

© All rights reserved Xie et al. and/or ACM Press

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