Publication statistics

Pub. period:1992-2012
Pub. count:39
Number of co-authors:38


Number of publications with 3 favourite co-authors:

Scott Carter:
Tony Dunnigan:
Kei Tanaka:



Productive colleagues

Gene Golovchinsky's 3 most productive colleagues in number of publications:

Elizabeth F. Churc..:58
Catherine C. Marsh..:55
Andreas Girgensohn:46

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Gene Golovchinsky

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Publications by Gene Golovchinsky (bibliography)

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Diriye, Abdigani and Golovchinsky, Gene (2012): Querium: a session-based collaborative search system. In: Proceedings of the 2012 BCS-IRSG European Conference on Information Retrieval 2012. pp. 583-584.

People's information-seeking can span multiple sessions, and can be collaborative in nature. Existing commercial offerings do not effectively support searchers to share, save, collaborate or revisit their information. In this demo paper we present Querium: a novel session-based collaborative search system that lets users search, share, resume and collaborate with other users. Querium provides a number of novel search features in a collaborative setting, including relevance feedback, query fusion, faceted search, and search histories.

© All rights reserved Diriye and Golovchinsky and/or Springer

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Efron, Miles and Golovchinsky, Gene (2011): Estimation methods for ranking recent information. In: Proceedings of the 34th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2011. pp. 495-504.

Temporal aspects of documents can impact relevance for certain kinds of queries. In this paper, we build on earlier work of modeling temporal information. We propose an extension to the Query Likelihood Model that incorporates query-specific information to estimate rate parameters, and we introduce a temporal factor into language model smoothing and query expansion using pseudo-relevance feedback. We evaluate these extensions using a Twitter corpus and two newspaper article collections. Results suggest that, compared to prior approaches, our models are more effective at capturing the temporal variability of relevance associated with some topics.

© All rights reserved Efron and Golovchinsky and/or ACM Press

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Branham, Stacy, Golovchinsky, Gene, Carter, Scott and Biehl, Jacob T. (2010): Let's go from the whiteboard: supporting transitions in work through whiteboard capture and reuse. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 75-84.

The use of whiteboards is pervasive across a wide range of work domains. But some of the qualities that make them successful -- an intuitive interface, physical working space, and easy erasure -- inherently make them poor tools for archival and reuse. If whiteboard content could be made available in times and spaces beyond those supported by the whiteboard alone, how might it be appropriated? We explore this question via ReBoard, a system that automatically captures whiteboard images and makes them accessible through a novel set of user-centered access tools. Through the lens of a seven week workplace field study, we found that by enabling new workflows, ReBoard increased the value of whiteboard content for collaboration.

© All rights reserved Branham et al. and/or their publisher

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Turner, Thea, Qvarfordt, Pernilla, Biehl, Jacob T., Golovchinsky, Gene and Back, Maribeth (2010): Exploring the workplace communication ecology. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2010 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2010. pp. 841-850.

The modern workplace is inherently collaborative, and this collaboration relies on effective communication among co-workers. Many communication tools -- email, blogs, wikis, Twitter, etc. -- have become increasingly available and accepted in workplace communications. In this paper, we report on a study of communications technologies used over a one year period in a small US corporation. We found that participants used a large number of communication tools for different purposes, and that the introduction of new tools did not impact significantly the use of previously-adopted technologies. Further, we identified distinct classes of users based on patterns of tool use. This work has implications for the design of technology in the evolving ecology of communication tools.

© All rights reserved Turner et al. and/or their publisher

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Carter, Scott, Liao, Chunyuan, Denoue, Laurent, Golovchinsky, Gene and Liu, Qiong (2010): Linking Digital Media to Physical Documents: Comparing Content- and Marker-Based Tags. In IEEE Pervasive Computing, 9 (2) pp. 46-55.

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Golovchinsky, Gene, Qvarfordt, Pernilla, Melle, Bill van, Carter, Scott and Dunnigan, Tony (2009): DICE: designing conference rooms for usability. In: Proceedings of ACM CHI 2009 Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems 2009. pp. 1015-1024.

One of the core challenges now facing smart rooms is supporting realistic, everyday activities. While much research has been done to push forward the frontiers of novel interaction techniques, we argue that technology geared toward widespread adoption requires a design approach that emphasizes straightforward configuration and control, as well as flexibility. We examined the work practices of users of a large, multi-purpose conference room, and designed DICE, a system to help them use the room's capabilities. We describe the design process, and report findings about the system's usability and about people's use of a multi-purpose conference room.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky et al. and/or ACM Press

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Denoue, Laurent, Adcock, John, Carter, Scott and Golovchinsky, Gene (2009): WebNC: efficient sharing of web applications. In: Proceedings of the 20th ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia 2009. pp. 365-366.

WebNC is a system for efficiently sharing, retrieving and viewing web applications. Unlike existing screencasting and screensharing tools, WebNC is optimized to work with web pages where a lot of scrolling happens. WebNC uses a tile-based encoding to capture, transmit and deliver web applications, and relies only on dynamic HTML and JavaScript. The resulting webcasts require very little bandwidth and are viewable on any modern web browser including Firefox and Internet Explorer as well as browsers on the iPhone and Android platforms.

© All rights reserved Denoue et al. and/or their publisher

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Pickens, Jeremy, Golovchinsky, Gene and Morris, Meredith Ringel (2008): Collaborative information retrieval. In: JCDL08 Proceedings of the 8th ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2008. p. 440.

The goal of the workshop is to bring together researchers interested in various aspects of small-team collaborative search to share ideas, to stimulate research in the area, and to increase the visibility of this emerging area. We expect to identify promising directions for further exploration and to establish collaborative links among research groups.

© All rights reserved Pickens et al. and/or ACM Press

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Pickens, Jeremy, Golovchinsky, Gene, Shah, Chirag, Qvarfordt, Pernilla and Back, Maribeth (2008): Algorithmic mediation for collaborative exploratory search. In: Proceedings of the 31st Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 2008. pp. 315-322.

We describe a new approach to information retrieval: algorithmic mediation for intentional, synchronous collaborative exploratory search. Using our system, two or more users with a common information need search together, simultaneously. The collaborative system provides tools, user interfaces and, most importantly, algorithmically-mediated retrieval to focus, enhance and augment the team's search and communication activities. Collaborative search outperformed post hoc merging of similarly instrumented single user runs. Algorithmic mediation improved both collaborative search (allowing a team of searchers to find relevant information more efficiently and effectively), and exploratory search (allowing the searchers to find relevant information that cannot be found while working individually).

© All rights reserved Pickens et al. and/or ACM Press

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Pickens, Jeremy and Golovchinsky, Gene (2008): Ranked feature fusion models for ad hoc retrieval. In: Shanahan, James G., Amer-Yahia, Sihem, Manolescu, Ioana, Zhang, Yi, Evans, David A., Kolcz, Aleksander, Choi, Key-Sun and Chowdhury, Abdur (eds.) Proceedings of the 17th ACM Conference on Information and Knowledge Management - CIKM 2008 October 26-30, 2008, Napa Valley, California, USA. pp. 893-900.

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Marshall, Catherine C. and Golovchinsky, Gene (2004): Saving private hypertext: requirements and pragmatic dimensions for preservation. In: Proceedings of the Fifteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext 2004. pp. 130-138.

The preservation of literary hypertexts presents significant challenges if we are to ensure continued access to them as the underlying technology changes. Not only does such an effort involve standard digital preservation problems of representing and refreshing metadata, any constituent media types, and structure; hypertext preservation poses additional dimensions that arise from the work's on-screen appearance, its interactive behavior, and the ways a reader's interaction with the work is recorded. In this paper, we describe aspects of preservation introduced by literary hypertexts such as the need to reproduce their modes of interactivity and their means of capturing and using records of reading. We then suggest strategies for addressing the pragmatic dimensions of hypertext preservation and discuss their status within existing digital preservation schemes. Finally, we examine the possible roles various stakeholders within and outside of the hypertext community might assume, including several social and legal issues that stem from preservation.

© All rights reserved Marshall and Golovchinsky and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene and Denoue, Laurent (2002): Moving markup: repositioning freeform annotations. In: Beaudouin-Lafon, Michel (ed.) Proceedings of the 15th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology October 27-30, 2002, Paris, France. pp. 21-30.

In this paper, we describe Augur, a groupware calendar system to support personal calendaring practices, informal workplace communication, and the socio-technical evolution of the calendar system within a workgroup. Successful design and deployment of groupware calendar systems have been shown to depend on several converging, interacting perspectives. We describe calendar-based work practices as viewed from these perspectives, and present the Augur system in support of them. Augur allows users to retain the flexibility of personal calendars by anticipating and compensating for inaccurate calendar entries and idiosyncratic event names. We employ predictive user models of event attendance, intelligent processing of calendar text, and discovery of shared events to drive novel calendar visualizations that facilitate interpersonal communication. In addition, we visualize calendar access to support privacy management and long-term evolution of the calendar system.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky and Denoue and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene (2002): Going back in Hypertext. In: Hypertext'02 - Proceedings of the Thirteenth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 11-15, 2002, College Park, Maryland, USA. pp. 82-83.

Hypertext interfaces typically involve navigation, the act (and interaction) of moving from one piece of information to another. Navigation can be exploratory, or it may involve backtracking to some previously-visited node. While backtracking interfaces are common, they may not reflect differences in readers' purposes and mental models. This paper draws on some empirical evidence regarding navigation between and within documents to suggest improvements on traditional hypertext navigation, and proposes a time-based view of backtracking.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky and/or ACM Press

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Marshall, Catherine C., Price, Morgan N., Golovchinsky, Gene and Schilit, Bill N. (2001): Designing E-Books for Legal Research. In: JCDL01: Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2001. pp. 41-48.

In this paper we report the findings from a field study of legal research in a first-tier law school and on the resulting redesign of XLibris, a next-generation e-book. We first characterize a work setting in which we expected an e-book to be a useful interface for reading and otherwise using a mix of physical and digital library materials, and explore what kinds of reading-related functionality would bring value to this setting. We do this by describing important aspects of legal research in a heterogeneous information environment, including mobility, reading, annotation, link following and writing practices, and their general implications for design. We then discuss how our work with a user community and an evolving e-book prototype allowed us to examine tandem issues of usability and utility, and to redesign an existing e-book user interface to suit the needs of law students. The study caused us to move away from the notion of a stand-alone reading device and toward the concept of a document laptop, a platform that would provide wireless access to information resources, as well as support a fuller spectrum of reading-related activities.

© All rights reserved Marshall et al. and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene, Marshall, Catherine C. and Mylonas, Elli (2001): Tutorial 2: Evaluating, Using, and Publishing eBooks. In: JCDL01: Proceedings of the 1st ACM/IEEE-CS Joint Conference on Digital Libraries 2001. p. 479.

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Marshall, Catherine C., Golovchinsky, Gene and Price, Morgan N. (2001): Digital libraries and mobility. In Communications of the ACM, 44 (5) pp. 55-56.

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Boreczky, John, Girgensohn, Andreas, Golovchinsky, Gene and Uchihashi, Shingo (2000): An Interactive Comic Book Presentation for Exploring Video. In: Turner, Thea, Szwillus, Gerd, Czerwinski, Mary, Peterno, Fabio and Pemberton, Steven (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 2000 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 1-6, 2000, The Hague, The Netherlands. pp. 185-192.

This paper presents a method for generating compact pictorial summarizations of video. We developed a novel approach for selecting still images from a video suitable for summarizing the video and for providing entry points into it. Images are laid out in a compact, visually pleasing display reminiscent of a comic book or Japanese manga. Users can explore the video by interacting with the presented summary. Links from each keyframe start video playback and/or present additional detail. Captions can be added to presentation frames to include commentary or descriptions such as the minutes of a recorded meeting. We conducted a study to compare variants of our summarization technique. The study participants judged the manga summary to be significantly better than the other two conditions with respect to their suitability for summaries and navigation, and their visual appeal.

© All rights reserved Boreczky et al. and/or ACM Press

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Girgensohn, Andreas, Boreczky, John, Chiu, Patrick, Doherty, John, Foote, Jonathan, Golovchinsky, Gene, Uchihashi, Shingo and Wilcox, Lynn D. (2000): A Semi-Automatic Approach to Home Video Editing. In: Ackerman, Mark S. and Edwards, Keith (eds.) Proceedings of the 13th annual ACM symposium on User interface software and technology November 06 - 08, 2000, San Diego, California, United States. pp. 81-89.

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Golovchinsky, Gene and Marshall, Catherine C. (2000): Hypertext Interaction Revisited. In: Hypertext 00 - Proceedings of the Eleventh ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia May 30 - June 03, 2000, San Antonio, Texas, USA. pp. 171-179.

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Golovchinsky, Gene and Marshall, Catherine C. (2000): Hypertext interactivity: From choice to participation. In New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 6 pp. 169-196.

Much of hypertext narrative relies on links to shape a reader's interaction with the text. But links may be too limited to express ambiguity, imprecision, and entropy, to allow appropriate control and access to information, or to admit new modes of participation short of full collaboration. We use an e-book form to explore the implications of freeform annotation-based interaction with hypertext narrative. Readers' marks on the text can be used to guide navigation, to create a persistent record of a reading, to enable fluid exploration and revisits, or to recombine textual elements as a means of creating a new narrative. In this paper, we describe how such an experimental capability was created with XLibris, a next generation e-book, using Forward Anywhere as the hypernarrative. We work through a scenario of interaction, and discuss the issues the work raises.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky and Marshall and/or Taylor and Francis

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Golovchinsky, Gene and Belkin, Nicholas J. (1999): Innovation and Evaluation of Information Exploration Interfaces: A CHI98 Workshop. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (1) pp. 22-25.

This report summarizes a workshop held at CHI 98 that focused on several aspects of information exploration, including user interfaces, theory, and evaluation. Information exploration is a common activity that spans a variety of media and is an integral component of many information seeking behaviors that people engage in. The complexity of this activity, and the need to support it appropriately, led us to propose this workshop. Over the course of two days, we examined several aspects of this problem, struggled with a few definitions, and came away with a better understanding of the design space. Here we summarize those efforts.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky and Belkin and/or ACM Press

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Churchill, Elizabeth F., Snowdon, David N., Sullivan, Joseph W. and Golovchinsky, Gene (1999): CSCW'98 Workshop Report: Collaborative and Co-Operative Information Seeking. In ACM SIGCHI Bulletin, 31 (3) pp. 15-18.

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Marshall, Catherine C., Price, Morgan N., Golovchinsky, Gene and Schilit, Bill N. (1999): Introducing a Digital Library Reading Appliance into a Reading Group. In: DL99: Proceedings of the 4th ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 1999. pp. 77-84.

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Golovchinsky, Gene, Price, Morgan N. and Schilit, Bill N. (1999): From Reading to Retrieval: Freeform Ink Annotations as Queries. In: Proceedings of the 22nd Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 1999. pp. 19-25.

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Marshall, Catherine C., Price, Morgan N., Golovchinsky, Gene and Schilit, Bill N. (1999): Collaborating over Portable Reading Appliances. In Personal and Ubiquitous Computing, 3 (1) . http://

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Schilit, Bill N., Price, Morgan N., Golovchinsky, Gene, Tanaka, Kei and Marshall, Catherine C. (1999): As We May Read: The Reading Appliance Revolution. In IEEE Computer, 32 (1) pp. 65-73.

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Schilit, Bill N., Golovchinsky, Gene and Price, Morgan N. (1998): Beyond Paper: Supporting Active Reading with Free Form Digital Ink Annotations. In: Karat, Clare-Marie, Lund, Arnold, Coutaz, Jolle and Karat, John (eds.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 98 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference April 18-23, 1998, Los Angeles, California. pp. 249-256.

Reading frequently involves not just looking at words on a page, but also underlining, highlighting and commenting, either on the text or in a separate notebook. This combination of reading with critical thinking and learning is called active reading [2]. To explore the premise that computation can enhance active reading we have built the XLibris "active reading machine." XLibris uses a commercial high-resolution pen tablet display along with a paper-like user interface to support the key affordances of paper for active reading: the reader can hold a scanned image of a page in his lap and mark on it with digital ink. To go beyond paper, XLibris monitors the free-form ink annotations made while reading, and uses these to organize and to search for information. Readers can review, sort and filter clippings of their annotated text in a "Reader's Notebook." XLibris also searches for material related to the annotated text, and displays links to similar documents unobtrusively in the margin. XLibris demonstrates that computers can help active readers organize and find information while retaining many of the advantages of reading on paper.

© All rights reserved Schilit et al. and/or ACM Press

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Churchill, Elizabeth F., Snowdon, David N. and Golovchinsky, Gene (1998): Collaborative and Cooperative Information Seeking in Digital Information Environments. In: Poltrock, Steven and Grudin, Jonathan (eds.) Proceedings of the 1998 ACM conference on Computer supported cooperative work November 14 - 18, 1998, Seattle, Washington, United States. pp. 416-417.

We will discuss current conceptions of collaborative and cooperative information seeking activities, and identify potential areas for future research on the design and use of digital information spaces. We wish to explore different kinds of collaboration, including asynchronous recommendation systems and synchronous collaborative search and browsing activities by non-collocated participants. Our concern is that in the absence of such a debate, systems will be designed embodying assumptions about information seeking as a solitary activity. This workshop will be of interest to researchers concerned with the design of user interfaces and systems for supporting information exploration and information seeking activities. This includes user-centered aspects of design of systems for public use (e.g. public digital libraries, the WWW) and systems for use by more focused work groups.

© All rights reserved Churchill et al. and/or ACM Press

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Price, Morgan N., Golovchinsky, Gene and Schilit, Bill N. (1998): Linking by Inking: Trailblazing in a Paper-Like Hypertext. In: Hypertext 98 - Proceedings of the Ninth ACM Conference on Hypertext and Hypermedia June 20-24, 1998, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. pp. 30-39.

"Linking by inking" is a new interface for reader-directed link construction that bridges reading and browsing activities. We are developing linking by inking in XLibris, a hypertext system based on the paper document metaphor. Readers use a pen computer to annotate page images with free-form ink, much as they would on paper, and the computer constructs hypertext links based on the ink marks. This paper proposes two kinds of reader-directed links: automatic and manual. Automatic links are created in response to readers' annotations. The system extracts the text near free-form ink marks, uses these terms to construct queries, executes queries against a collection of documents, and unobtrusively displays links to related documents in the margin or as "further reading lists." We also present a design for manual (ad hoc) linking: circling an ink symbol generates a multi-way link to other instances of the same symbol.

© All rights reserved Price et al. and/or ACM Press

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Schilit, Bill N., Price, Morgan N. and Golovchinsky, Gene (1998): Digital Library Information Appliances. In: DL98: Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Conference on Digital Libraries 1998. pp. 217-226.

Although digital libraries are intended to support education and knowledge work, current digital library interfaces are narrowly focused on retrieval. Furthermore, they are designed for desktop computers with keyboards, mice, and high-speed network connections. Desktop computers fail to support many key aspects of knowledge work, including active reading, free form ink annotation, fluid movement among document activities, and physical mobility. This paper proposes portable computers specialized for knowledge work, or digital library information appliances, as a new platform for accessing digital libraries. We present a number of ways that knowledge work can be augmented and transformed by the use of such appliances. These insights are based on our implementation of two research prototype systems: XLibris, an "active reading machine," and TeleWeb, a mobile World Wide Web browser.

© All rights reserved Schilit et al. and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene (1997): Queries? Links? Is there a Difference?. In: Pemberton, Steven (ed.) Proceedings of the ACM CHI 97 Human Factors in Computing Systems Conference March 22-27, 1997, Atlanta, Georgia. pp. 407-414.

Hypertext interfaces are considered appropriate for information exploration tasks. The prohibitively expensive link creation effort, however, prevents traditional hypertext interfaces from being used with large coherent collections of text. Such collections typically require query-based interfaces. This paper examines a hybrid approach: the system described here creates anchors dynamically based on users' queries, and uses anchor selection as a query expansion mechanism. An experiment was conducted to compare browsing behavior in query- and link-based interfaces. Results suggest that query-mediated links are as effective as explicit queries, and that strategies adopted by users affect performance. This work has implications for the design of information exploration interfaces; the dynamic link algorithms described here are being incorporated into a Web server.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene (1997): What the Query Told the Link: The Integration of Hypertext and Information Retrieval. In: Bernstein, Mark, Carr, Leslie and Osterbye, Kasper (eds.) Hypertext 97 - Proceedings of the Eighth ACM Conference on Hypertext April 06-11, 1997, Southampton, UK. pp. 67-74.

Traditionally hypertexts have been limited in size by the manual effort required to create hypertext links. In addition, large hyper-linked collections may overwhelm users with the range of possible links from any node, only a fraction of which may be appropriate for a given user at any time. This work explores automatic methods of link construction based on feedback from users collected during browsing. A fulltext search engine mediates the linking process. Query terms that distinguish well among documents in the database become candidate anchors; links are mediated by passage-based relevance feedback queries. The newspaper metaphor is used to organize the retrieval results. VOIR, a software prototype that implements these algorithms has been used to browse a 74,500 node (250MB) database of newspaper articles. An experiment has been conducted to test the relative effectiveness of dynamic links and user-specified queries. Experimental results suggest that link-mediated queries are more effective than user-specified queries in retrieving relevant information. The paper concludes with a discussion of possible extensions to the linking algorithms.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene, Chignell, Mark and Charoenkitkarn, Nipon (1997): Formal experiments in casual attire: case studies in information exploration. In New Review of Hypermedia and Multimedia, 3 pp. 123-157.

This paper addresses the issue of how research methodology can be developed for the specific needs of research into information exploration behaviour, based on a four year program of research on individual strategies in information exploration. We propose a meta-experimental framework where research is carried out through a dynamic interaction between what and why questions, and between confirmatory and exploratory analyses. This approach preserves many of the advantages of formal experimentation, while permitting a more holistic examination of phenomena that is characteristic of ethnography. The application of the meta-theoretical framework is illustrated in three case studies that examined new information exploration functionalities and interfaces and their relationship to expertise and exploration strategy.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky et al. and/or Taylor and Francis

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Golovchinsky, Gene and Chignell, Mark (1996): Merging Hypertext and Information Retrieval in the Interface. In: Proceedings of the 19th Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 1996. pp. 341-342.

Information Retrieval (IR) is concerned with facilitating users' access to large amounts of (predominantly textual) information. In the 1980s, hypertext was introduced as an interactive, dynamic user interface style that did away with complicated query syntaxes typical of IR systems of the day. In this work, we propose a logical continuum of interface functionality that unites traditional information retrieval and hypertext interfaces. We describe VOIR, an information exploration interface that combines the immediacy and user-centeredness of hypertext interfaces with the flexibility and generality of modern information retrieval algorithms. This interface, implemented in a software prototype, presents the search results in parallel (newspaper-style), enabling the user to compare search results and to evaluate the effectiveness of the query. It uses term frequency heuristics to identify terms that will serve as anchors, and uses the context around the selected anchor to determine the collection of destination documents. The algorithms developed in this prototype are being applied to a Web-based dynamic hypertext.

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky and Chignell and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene, Reichenberger, Klaus and Kamps, Thomas (1995): Subverting Structure: Data-Driven Diagram Generation. In: IEEE Visualization 1995 1995. pp. 217-223.

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Reichenberger, Klaus, Kamps, Thomas and Golovchinsky, Gene (1995): Towards a generative theory of diagram design. In: Gershon, Nahum D. and Eick, Stephen G. (eds.) InfoVis 1995 - IEEE Symposium On Information Visualization 30-31 October, 1995, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. pp. 11-18.

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Charoenkitkarn, Nipon, Tam, Jim, Chignell, Mark and Golovchinsky, Gene (1993): Browsing Through Querying: Designing for Electronic Books. In: Stotts, P. David and Furuta, Richard (eds.) Proceedings of ACM Hypertext 93 Conference November 14-18, 1993, Seattle, Washington. pp. 206-216.

The emerging technologies of pen-based navigation and hand-held computing pose a number of challenges for hypertext and the development of electronic books. In this paper we explore methods of query-based browsing that meet some of these challenges. We describe an existing prototype (Queries-R-Links) that we have developed and we then discuss an enhanced version of query-based browsing that uses methods of text analysis and related approaches to provide a more focused set of hits (links) during browsing.

© All rights reserved Charoenkitkarn et al. and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene and Chignell, Mark (1993): Queries-R-Links: Browsing and Retrieval via Interactive Querying. In: Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual International ACM SIGIR Conference on Research and Development in Information Retrieval 1993. p. 359.

In this demonstration we introduce an interactive querying style of interaction that combines features of hypertext with Boolean querying, using direct markup of text to launch queries. We show the Queries-R-Links system that we have developed at the University of Toronto. The current implementation of Queries-R-Links is a SmallTalk (ObjectWorks from ParcPlace) program that runs on a SparcStation in tandem with a full text retrieval system. Queries-R-Links uses the graphical markup method to launch Boolean queries interactively using direct markup of text. Queries-R-Links is fully expressive for non-negated Boolean queries. Queries are expressed in disjunctive normal form by grouping selected words into AND clusters. This form is used as a relatively simple but expressive method of querying that avoids the use of negations, parentheses and nested expressions. Expressions in non-negated disjunctive normal form (DNF) do not use the NOT operator, and each expression is a collection of disjoint AND clusters (e.g., [A AND B] OR [C AND D]). Words are selected by clicking on them, and dragging between words creates a line representing the AND operator. OR relations are indicated by the absence of connecting lines. Queries-R-Links also allows the user to enter additional keywords in the margin. These words may then be linked in the same manner. Thus queries may include words that do not appear in the text currently being viewed. Experimental evidence in support of the use of this type of graphical querying as an alternative to textual Boolean queries is described in Golovchinsky and Chignell (1993).

© All rights reserved Golovchinsky and Chignell and/or ACM Press

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Golovchinsky, Gene and Chignell, Mark (1992): Making Queries Look Like Links: An Interaction Style for Information Exploration. In: Proceedings of the Human Factors Society 36th Annual Meeting 1992. .

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